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  1. May 2019
    1. high osmolarity conditions (Gowrishankar, 1989; Csonka, 1989) for β-galactosidase assay
    2. Assays for determination of β-galactosidase enzyme activity in cultures were performed as described by Miller (1992) after permeabilizing the cells with SDS/chloroform, and the activity values were calculated in Miller units, as defined therein. For determination of proU activity from a proU::lac fusion that contains the proUpromoter cloned upstream of the lacZYA genes (as in plasmid pHYD272), cultures used were grown in LBON or K-medium (low osmolarity medium) since proU is also induced under
    3. β-Galactosidase assay
    1. Cells grown to log-phase in YPD medium were spotted on CAAmedium and overlaid with a nitrocellulose filter. Cells were allowed to grow at 30 ̊C for 18-20 h. After incubation, the filter was washed with water to remove cells and membrane-bound CPY was detected by immunoblotting withpolyclonal anti-CPY antibody (Thermo Scientific) at a dilution of 1:15,000
    1. The reaction mixture was then placed on a thermo-cycler with the required cycling conditions for amplification of the desired gene, as described in Table 2.7. The amplified products were purified by PCR purification kit (Qiagen) and either quantified by spectrometry or separatedby agarose gel electrophoresis.Table2.7:Cycling conditions for PCR
    2. The PCR amplification of desired genes werecarried out using Taq polymerase reaction kit obtained from Fermentas.Typically, a reaction mixture containing primers with plasmid containing geneof interest or c-DNA was prepared as described in Table 2.6. Table2.6: Various components of PCR reaction mix
    1. and A190middle (557-1100 a.a)fragments were amplified from the plasmid pRS314RPA190gifted byDr. Herbert Tschochner with primers containing BamHI and XhoI (Table 2.4).The mutant versions of A34 and A190 fragments were generated by overlap extension PCR based method. p416GPD GST-RPA43 used in ChIPwas generated by extracting the GST-RPA43fragmentsfrom pYesGex6p2 GST-RPA43by restriction digestion with HindIII and XhoIfollowed by ligation into p416GPD. Clones were verified by bacterial colony PCR, sequencing and western blot. For colony PCR a small amount of bacterial colony was taken with the help of tooth pick and touch the bottom of the 0.2 mL PCR tube to which PCR reaction mix was added and performed PCR
    2. The nomenclature system for RNA Pol I subunits, gene and protein name is given in Table 2.4 and The S.cerevisiaeRNA Pol I subunits Uaf30, A34.5, A43 full length and fragmentsof A135 (1-112 a.a) and A190 (1101-1664 a.a) were PCR amplified from genomic DNA of the wild-type strain using high fidelity DNA Taq polymerase, with primers carrying restriction sites for BamHI and NotI or BamHI and XhoI (Table 2.4). Amplified fragments were cloned downstream of the GAL4promoter in the pYesGex6p2 plasmid (Werneret al., 2010).These plasmids were generated by a colleague,Mr. Unnikannan CP,in the laboratory. Fragments and mutant versions of full length RNA Pol I subunits A34.5 and A43 weregenerated using above plasmids as templates (Table 2.3).A190 N-terminal (1-556 a.a)Calculation of adjusted input-Volume of cell lysate: 500 uL-Volume set aside as input: 10 uL, eluted into a final volume of 40 uL-Volume of lysate taken for IP: 490 uL; eluted into 100 uL after IP, of which 90 uL was eluted into a final volume of 40 uL. Therefore, volume of lysate for IP corresponds to (90/100)*490 = 440 uL (approx. 500 uL)1μLof input sample, and 3 μLof immunoprecipitated sample was taken from40μLof eluted volumes, for q-PCR reaction.The input sampletaken for q-PCR = 1/40x10 uL= 0.25 uLThe immunoprecipitated DNAtaken for q-PCR = 3/40x 500=37.5uLTherefore, the Ct values obtained for input samples (Ct input) were from 0.25 μL out of 37.5 uLoftotal lysateAdjusted Ct=[Ct(Input)-log2(input dilution factor)]The dilution factor forinput sample was 37.5/0.25 = 150Adjusted Ct = [Ct(Input)-log2(150)] = Ct(Input)-7.23Table. 2.6 The gene name and correspondingprotein name for RNA Pol Isubunits.RPA represents RNA polymerase I and protein name starts with A which represents that the subunit is present in RNA pol I
    1. HCT116 cells stably expressing NT or shRNA against IP6K1were grown to subconfluence. Logarithmic phase monolayer cultures were harvested by trypsinization, cell number was determined using a hemocytometer,and resuspended in complete DMEM. Before injection, cells were washedand resuspended in PBS at 2×107cells/mL. Approximately 2×106 cellswere injected subcutaneously into either flank of 6 week old female homozygous Foxn1nuathymic nude mice(n= 8 mice) and tumor size was monitored every 3 days for a period of 4 weeks. Mice were euthanized 4 weeks after injection and tumors were surgically excised and weighed