11 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. Log-phase yeastcells were collected, washed and suspendedin 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) containing 50 mg/ml zymolyase-20T. Cell suspension was incubated at room temperature and absorbance was monitored at 600 nm every10mininterval. Initial absorbance of the cultures at 0 minwas normalized to 100%and the graph was plottedas%decrease in the absorbance with respect to time
    2. Zymolyasedigestion assay
    3. Resultant precipitate was dissolved in 3 N HCl and reprecipitated in methanol:acetic acid (8:1) solution. Following 16 h incubation at room temperature, the precipitate was washed withmethanol:acetic acid (8:1) solution till green colour of the supernatant disappeared.Finally,pellet was washed thrice with methanol and air dried. Driedpellet was resuspended in 0.5 NHCl and total mannan content was quantified with phenol-sulphuric acid carbohydrate estimation method as described earlier.Commercially available purified glucose was used as the standard
    4. Total mannan from 3% NaOH-extractable supernatant of cell wall was precipitated by Benedict’s solution.Reducing sugars(mostly mannan) from alkali-extractable supernatant reactwith copper(II) sulphate present in Benedict’s solution and forms red copper(I) oxide precipitate.Briefly, equal volume of Benedict’s solution was added to 3% NaOH-extractable cell wall supernatant fraction and heated at 99 ̊C for 10 min
    5. Total mannan estimation
    6. Cell wall β-glucan measurement was carried out as describedpreviously with some modifications(Kapteynet.al.,2001). Briefly, cell wall fractions were washed multiple times with 1 N NaCl. Washed cell walls were boiled twice in 50 mM Tris-HCl(pH 7.8) containing 2% SDS, 100 mM Na-EDTA and 40 mM β-mercaptoethanol for 5 min to remove non-covalently linked proteins and other contaminants. SDS-treated cell wall fraction was collected and rinsed thrice with water. For β-glucan isolation, cell wallswere extracted three times, each for 1 h, in 0.5 ml 3% NaOH at 75 ̊C and centrifuged at 1,200 g.All 3% NaOH supernatant fractions were saved for isolation of mannan as described below. 3% NaOH-extractable cell wall pelletwasneutralized twice in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) and once in 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) and digested with 5 mg/ml zymolyase-20T in 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) for 14-16 h at 37 ̊C. This treatment liberates approximately 90-95% glucose into the supernatant. Total glucan content in the cell wall was measured by estimating glucose from both the solubilised supernatant and zymolyase-20T insoluble pellet fractions with phenol-sulphuric acid carbohydrate estimation method using purified glucose as the standard
    7. Total β-glucan estimation
    8. min. Cells were normalized to equal OD600, resuspendedin 1 ml 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) and transferred to 2 ml microcentrifuge tubes. Cells were lysed with glass beadsin a homogenizer (FastPrep®-24,MP Biomedicals)asdescribed earlier.Brokencells were washed from glass beadswith 500 μl Tris-HCl (50 mM, pH 7.5) and pelleteddown at 15,000 g for 10 minto obtainall cell wall and membrane content. Pellet was then boiled for 10 minin 1mlTris-HCl(50mM; pH 7.5)solutioncontaining 2%SDS. SDS-extractable material(mannoproteins)was savedand remaining pellet wasboiled again in 500 μl Tris-HCl(50 mM; pH 7.5)buffer containing 2%SDS. Cell wallwas collectedby centrifugation at 15,000 g for 10 min, washed twice with1 ml waterandresuspendedin 100 μl 67 mM potassium phosphatebuffer. This washed cell wall materialwas used for β-glucan estimation as described below
    9. Yeast cell wall was isolatedas describedpreviously(De Groot et al., 2004). Briefly, cells grown underdifferent environmental conditions were harvested at 5,000 g for 5
    10. Crude cell wall isolation
    11. Cell wall isolation, zymolyasedigestion assay and β-glucan estimation