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  1. Jul 2019
  2. Jun 2019
  3. May 2019
    1. A differential gene expression microarray with respect to argP was performed by Genotypic Technology Pvt.Ltd., Bengaluru. The experiment was performed on an oligonucleotide microarray having 10828 probes for coding region(on average three probes were designed for each 4294 coding regions) and 4380 probes for non-coding region (on average two probes were designed for 2240 non-coding regions). The RNA was labelled using Cy3 and single channel detection was used. Data was analysed using GeneSpring GX Version 7.3
    2. Microarray details
    1. suspension was kept on ice for 10 min and 50 μl volume was aliquoted to chilled sterile microcentrifuge tubes. Cellswere immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 ̊C
    2. A single colony of E.coli DH5-α strain was inoculated in 10ml LB medium and incubated at37 ̊C for overnight. 4 ml of thisovernight culture was inoculated in 2 lt SOB medium and incubated at 18 ̊C till theOD600reaches to 0.5. Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 2,500 g for 10 min at 4 ̊C and washed gently in 80 ml ice-cold Inoue transformation buffer. Cells were collectedby centrifugation at 2,500 g for 10 min at 4 ̊C and gently resuspended in 20 mlice-cold Inoue transformation buffer. To this cell suspension, 1.5 ml sterile DMSO was added and swirled gently. Cell
    3. E. coli DH5α ultra-competent cells preparation
    1. THP-1 cells were seeded ina 24-well tissue culture plate to a celldensity of 1 million cells per well,treated with PMA and were infected with yeast cells to a MOIof 10:1. Two hours post infection, cells were washed thrice with PBS and medium was replacedwith fresh prewarmed RPMI medium.Plates wereincubatedat 37ºCfor 24 h. Supernatants were collected,centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 5 minto get rid of particulate matter,if any, andwerestored at -20°C until use. Estimation of different cytokines wasperformed using BD OptEA ELISA kits as per the supplier’s instructions
    2. Cytokines measurement
    1. Equal amount of proteins were loadedon an appropriate percentageof denaturing SDS-PAGE gel. After completion ofthe run, the gel was over laid on a PVDF membranecut to the size of gel and sandwiched between filter paper sheets and kept inthe blotting cassette in the presence of transferbuffer. Finally the cassette was put in themini transblotapparatus and blotting was done for 2-3hours at a constantvoltage of 80Vat 4⁰C. For blocking the nonspecific sitesmembrane was incubated with blocking solution(5% non-fat milk solution in TBST)with gentle shaking for 1 hourat room temperature. Excess milk from the membrane was washedoff with TBST and themembrane was incubatedwith primary antibody diluted in 1XTBST for 3 hours atroom temperature or overnight at 4°C withshaking. After incubation the membrane was washedwith TBST and incubatedwithappropriate secondary antibody (conjugated with horse-radish peroxidase)diluted in5% fat free milk solution (in TBST) for 1hat room temperature.The blotwas later washed thricefor 10min eachwith TBST and processed for the detection of proteinsignal using ECL-prime chemiluminescencedetection reagent followed by detectionof signal either on X-ray filmor in a chemiluminescence detectionsystem(Proteinsimple, California, USA)
    2. Immunoblotting
    1. Cells were plated in a manner that they were 30-50% confluent on the day of transfection.Cells were washed with serum-free medium,and the serum-free medium was added to the cells as per plate size. SiRNA was diluted in the serum-free medium, and oligofectamine was diluted in serum-free media, separately (Table 10). Both the complexes were incubated at room temperature for 5 min. Diluted siRNA wasmixed gently with diluted oligofectamine and incubated at room temperature for 15 min. The final transfection mixture was added dropwise to the cells and mixed properly by gentle rocking. Cells were incubated for 4 hrs.,and the growth medium containing 10% FBS was added to the plates without removing the previous medium. Cells were incubated overnight at 37°C in a CO2 incubator. After overnight incubation, the siRNA transfection was repeated using the same protocol. Cells were harvested after 24-48 hours of second round siRNA transfection. The knockdown was detected bychecking the protein levels throughwestern blotting. (Note: SiRNA transfection is carried out in antibiotic free medium)Table 10: SiRNA transfection methodology
    2. SiRNA
    1. shaking at 200 rpm. 1% of overnight grown culture was inoculated in 100 ml fresh PS medium and grown to obtain log-phase culture. Log phase Xanthomonas culture was kept on ice for 10-15 min, aliquoted in 50 ml pre-chilled centrifuge tubes and centrifuged at 4000-5000 g at 4°C for 10 min. Supernatant was discarded and pellet from each tube was gently resuspended in 10-20 ml sterile chilled water. Next, cells were harvested by centrifugation at 4000 g at 4°C for 10 min and supernatant was discarded. Harvested cells were washed twice and finally resuspended in adequate amount of prechilled sterile water. 100 μl of cell suspension was aliquoted in sterile 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tubes and kept on ice. For transformation, Xanthomonaselectrocompetent cells and appropriate amount of plasmid DNA was mixed, and kept on ice in laminar hood. This mixture was added to 1 mm electroporation cuvettes (Biorad) and tapped gently to allow the cells to settle properly in order to avoid air bubbles. Competent cells were electroporated (1800 V, 25 μF, 200 Ω, 1mm cuvette) followed by immediate addition of fresh PS broth in the cuvette, mixed properly and taken in the microcentrifuge tubes. Microcentrifuge tubes containing transformed cells were incubated at 28°C for 2 hours with continuous shaking for recovery. After recovery, cells were plated on specific medium with appropriate antibiotics and incubated in 28°C plate incubator
    2. For electrocompetent cell preparation, single colony of desired Xanthomonasstrain was inoculated in 5 ml PS medium and grown overnight at 28°C
    3. Xanthomonastransformation