52 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. The activities ofβ-xylosidase, xylan acetylesterase and arbinofuranosidase were measured using 1 mM p-nitrophenylxylopyranoside, p-nitrophenylacetate and p-nitrophenylarabinofuranoside, respectively prepared in sodium citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0). One mL of reaction mixture containing 0.2 mL of crude enzyme solution, 0.3 mL of sodium citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and 0.5 mL of substrate was incubated at 80 °C for 30 min. The reaction was terminated by adding 2 mL sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (1.0 M, pH 10.0). The activities were determined using p-nitrophenol standard curve (1-10 μg mL-1) drawn using absorbance values measured in spectrophotometer at 400 nm. One unit of the enzyme is defined as the amount of enzyme that liberates 1μmole of p-nitrophenol mL-1min-1 under assay conditions.
    2. Metagenomic library obtained from various extracted DNA was screened by replica plating method on 0.3 % w/v RBB xylan containing LB-amp plates. The cells were allowed to grow for overnight at 37 °C and thereafter incubated at 4 °C till the appearance of zone of hydrolysis. A total of 36,400 clones from various environmental samples were screened.
    1. 5 III of the ligation mix was added to competent cells and mixed gently and the mix was kept on ice for 30 min before giving a heat shock at 42°C for 1 min. The· mixture was incubated on ice for 2 min and 900 III of LB broth was added to each tube. The cells were recovered by centrifugation at 250 rpm at 37°C for 1 h and were plated on LB agar plates containing the appropriate antibiotic(s) and incubated overnight at 37°C
    1. Trypan blue is a diazo vital stain which selectively colours the dead cells blue that can be visualized under light microscope. Equal volumes of cell suspension and -0.4% trypan blue dye were mixed and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. 10 J!L of stained cells were loaded on to a hemocytometer and a count of the number of viable and dead cells were made. This procedure was carried out routinely to ensure that cell viability is >95% before plating cells for experiments
    1. Phaser is a program for phasing macromolecular crystal structures by both molecular replacement and experimental phasing methods (A. J. McCoy, 2007). The novel algorithms in Phaser are based on maximum likelihood probability theory and multivariate statistics rather than the traditional least-squares and Patterson methods. For molecular replacement, the new algorithms have proved to be significantly better than traditional methods in discriminating correct solutions from noise. One of the design concepts of Phaser was that it be capable of a high degree of automation. Phaser has novel maximum likelihood phasing algorithms for the rotation functions and translation functions in MR, but also implements other non-likelihood algorithms that are critical to success in certain cases.
    2. simultaneously uses all symmetry operators, resulting in a single peak with an improved signal-to-noise ratio which directly gives the position of the model in the unit cell. In addition, the TF is coupled with a PF to remove false maxima which correspond to interpenetrating molecules. Both the TF and PF allow the incorporation of a second model already placed in the cell. The TF solution may be subjected to rigid-body refinement incorporated in MOLREP. Non crystallographic symmetry may be imposed on the model in order to restrain the refinement. Pseudo-translation is automatically detected from analysis of the Patterson map. A significant off-origin peak gives the pseudo-translation vector, which is used to modify structure factors in the TF calculation (Navaza et al., 1998). In MOLREP multiple copies of the macromolecule in the unit cell can be searched (Vagin, 2000).
    3. MOLREP is an automated program for molecular replacement that utilizes a number of original approaches to rotational and translational search and data preparation. MOLREP can perform a variety of tasks that require rotational and/or positional search: standard MR, multi-copy search, fitting a model into electron density, heavy-atom search and model superposition. The arsenal of rotation (RF) and translation (TF) functions includes self-RF, cross-RF, locked cross-RF, phased RF, full-symmetry TF, phased TF, spherically averaged phased TF and packing function (PF).The program is general for all space groups. The output of the program is a PDB file with the atomic model ready for refinement and a text file with details of the calculations. The rotational search is performed using the RF of (Crowther, 1972), which utilizes the fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique. The default radius of the integration sphere is derived from the size of the search model and is usually two times larger than the radius of gyration. The RF solutions are refined prior to positional search using a rigid-body technique. The refinement is performed in space group PI and the outcome is evaluated by the correlation coefficient. It
    4. include SORTING, that sorts, packs and assesses the quality of the experimentally measured diffraction data, and is run in the first step. The program TABLING calculates the continuous Fourier coefficients from the model placed in the artificial cell. The cross-rotation function is carried out by the program ROTING, which uses Crowther's algorithm (Crowther, 1972). TRAING is used to calculate the translation function. Finally FITING is used to refine the orientational and positional parameters of the molecule corresponding to the potential solutions, as a rigid body.
    5. To carry out MR, the AMoRe package can be used. AMoRe constitutes a suite of programs written by Jorge Navaza (Navaza, 1993; Navaza, 1994). These
    6. was subsequently used as a probe model to carry out molecular replacement for one of the Fab-peptide complex; remainmg three Fab-peptide complexes were solved by using Ppy-LH as search model. The structure of antigen bound 36-65 Fab (2A61) was used for molecular replacement of two Fab-peptide complexes of the same antibody. AMoRe (Navaza, 1994) and Phaser packages from CCP4 suite (Elizabeth Potterton, 2003) were used for structure determination of antigen free BBE6.12H3 Fab and its complexes with peptide, respectively. The solution for 36-65 complexes was determined by using MOLREP from CCP4 suite. Both for MOLREP and AMoRe, calculations for rotation/translation functions were carried out using structure factors from 8 to 4 A resolutions. The transformation matrices obtained from AMoRe for antigen free Fab was utilized to orient the models in the corresponding unit cell. However, both Phaser and MOLREP have a module which automatically does orientation. The packing function of Phaser also checks for possible clashes or voids between the symmetry related molecules. All the solutions were unambiguous. For outputs of AMoRe and MOLREP the crystal packing was examined using Coot (Emsley P, 2004) to ascertain the absence of steric clashes or large voids between symmetry related molecules. Calculations of the Matthews coefficient (Kantardjieff and Rupp, 2003) indicated presence of two molecules for antigen free Fab and a single Fab molecule for all Fab-peptide complexes within the asymmetric unit.
    7. wavelength component in three dimensions inversely proportional to their values of h, k and /. The image of the object can be reconstructed by recombining the individual sine waves as occur in the objective lens of the microscope. Since it is not possible to focus the X-rays, only the intensities could be recorded with the loss of phases, well known as phase problem of crystallography. Macromolecular crystal structures are usually solved using one of the three techniques; multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR), multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) or molecular replacement (MR). Of the three, MR is generally used in cases where a structural homolog is available. Since the structure of a number of antibodies is already known, MR is the method of choice for structure determination of antibody Fab. The molecular replacement method, involves orienting and positioning a model molecule in the experimental unit cell through rotations and translations. The rotation function developed by Rossman and Blow ( 1962), involves rotation of the Patterson function of one group or molecule with respect to the other in all possible ways and the ultimate superimposition of the two Patterson functions. The translation function deals with positioning the oriented molecule in the unit cell of the unknown structure. It utilizes the cross vectors between various symmetrically related molecules for positioning the probe in the target unit cell. The translation function is carried out by moving the oriented model in small increments along all three directions and calculating the correlation between observed and calculated intensities. From the solutions obtained, the one with the highest correlation and lowest R-factor was chosen for molecular replacement. The structure of the Fab of putative anti-NP germ line mAb Nl G9 was used for molecular replacement. The refined model of the native unliganded germline Fab
    8. The goal of diffraction analysis is reconstruction of the detailed structure of the asymmetric unit from a diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern breaks down the structure into discrete sine waves. Any shape can be presented in three dimensions as the sum of sine waves of varying amplitudes and phases. The individual reflections of a diffraction pattern represent such waves, which have
    1. Transformation of the bacterial host with an appropriate plasmid was performed using the method of Mandel and Higa ( 1970). A vial of competent bacterial cells was thawed on ice. The plasmid DNA was added at a concentration 1 ng/25 Jll of competent cells and the mixture was allowed to stand on ice for 30 min. The cells were given a heat shock by incubating the mixture at 42 °C for 90 sec, followed by a 2 min. incubation on ice. The mixture was diluted 10-fold with LB and incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Afterwards the cells were plated on the LB-agar containing the antibiotic whose resistance marker was present in the plasmid.
    1. In addition, cryosections of an ovary from a normal cycling female (10 years) were also processed. Sections passing through a follicle were selected, washed in PBS and blocked for 30 min in 5% normal goat serum. The sections were incubated at 37°C with 1 :250 dilution of rabbit pre-immune and immune sera for 1 h, washed with PBS and incubated for 1 h with 1 :2000 dilution of goat anti-rabbit lg-FITC conjugate. Slides were washed with PBS and mounted in Glyceroi:PBS (9: 1) and examined under fluorescent microscope.
    2. A 3 year old monkey was treated daily for 3 days with an intramuscular injection of 25 IU of PergonaJ® (Laboratoires Serono S.A., Aubonne, Switzerland). The monkey was ovarectomized on day 6, and the ovary was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and sections of 5 J..Lm thickness were cut in a cryostat at -20°C and fixed for 20 min in chilled methanol.
    3. The staining solution was aspirated and the plates left at 27°C 0/N. Plaques whicl appeared as clear zones, were identified, marked and verified under the microscope Plaques were picked up using a sterile 200 J.Ll tip and viruses were allowed to diffuse ou 0/N in 200 J.LI of CM to make the plaque pick stock virus.
    4. Sf9 cells ( 1.8x 1 o6) seeded in a 35 mm culture dish were infected in duplicate with 100 J!l of the serial dilutions (1 oO to w-2) of the transfection supernatant for I h. The viral inoculum was aspirated and 1.5 ml of the cooled agarose overlay (1.5% LMP agarose, 0.5X CM) was added to each dish and allowed to set. 1 ml of CM was added to each dish and the plates were incubated at 270C for 5 days. Medium was removed and cells were stained with 2 ml of staining solution (0.03 % neutral red in 10 mM PBS) for 1 h.
    5. Conditions for expression of r-bZP3 in SG 13009[pREP4] cells transformed with the pQE-bZP3 plasmid were standardized. Cells were grown till A6oo=0.7 and induced with different concentrations of IPTG (0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mM) for a constant time period (3h) or induced with a 0.5 mM IPTG for different time periods (0, 1, 2, 3 or 5 h). Cells were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot as described above.
    6. mixed by inverting tubes. Following an incubation on ice for 5 min, 150 J.tl of ice cold potassium acetate solution (prepared by mixing 60 ml of 5 M potassium acetate, II.5 ml of glacial acetic acid and 28.5 ml of water) was added. The mixture was incubated on ice for 5 min and centrifuged at I2,000 g for 5 min at 4°C. The supernatant was decanted into a fresh tube and extracted once with an equal volume of phenol equilibrated with 10 mM Tris, pH 8 and 1 mM EDT A (TE) followed by extraction with chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24: 1 ). DNA was precipitated by adding 2 volumes of chilled ethanol, contents mixed and tube incubated on ice for 30 min. The pellet collected after centrifugation at 12,000 g for 15 min was washed once with 70% alcohol, dried and resuspended in 50 J!l TE. To remove RNA contamination contents of the tube were treated with 20 J.tg/ml RNAase for I5 min at RT. DNA was checked and analyzed after restriction digestion by agarose gel electrophoresis.
    7. Colonies obtained after transformation were inoculated in 5 ml LB and grown 0/N in the presence of 100 Jlg/ml ampicillin (LB Amp). Next morning 1.5 ml of the culture was centrifuged for I min at I 0,000 rpm in a microfuge. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was resuspended in 100 Jll of chilled GTE (50 mM Glucose, 25 mM Tris HCI and 10 mM EDT A). After an incubation at room temperature (RT) for 5 min, 200 Jll of freshly prepared alkaline SDS (0.2 N NaOH, 1% SDS) was added and the contents
    1. containing 2. 2 M formaldehyde and 50 % V /V formamide. The samples were chilled on ice for 5 mins. and loading buffer added. A Taq I digest of phi X 174 DNA, filled-in wi~h Klenow polymerase using 32P-dCTP, was used as size marker for electrophoresis. The gels were run at <5 Vjcm.
    2. Total RNA was resolved in formaldehyde -agarose gels as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) • In general, the electrophoresis was performed using 1.2 ~ 0 agarose gels containing 2.2 M formaldehyde and 1 X running buffer 0.04 M rnorpholinopropanesulfonic acid -MOPS, pH 7.0; 0.01 M sodium acetate; 0.001 M EDTA ). RNA samples upto 20 ug in 5 ul ) were incubated at 55°c for 15 minutes in 5 X gel buffer
    3. lectrophoresed on 0.7 % -1.2 % agarose gels in TAE or TBE buffer. Choice of the percentage of agarose and the electrophoresis buffer system was made following the guidelines of Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ). In general, upto 1 kb fragments were resolved on 1.2 % agarose gels using TBE buffer. For most other purposes, TAE buffer was used. Agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . The run was stopped when the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 1 em -1.5 em from the edge of ' the gel, except when the sample had fragments smaller than 500 bp, in which case the elctrophoresis was terminated at an earlier stage. The gel was immersed in water containing 0.5 ug I ml ethidium bromide, for 30 minutes, to stain the DNA. When detecting very low amounts of DNA, the staining was done for 60 minutes followed by destaining in 1 mM Mgso4 for one hour at room temperature. The DNA bands were visualised on a short wavelength UV transilluminator ( Fotodyne, Inc., USA and photographed with a Polaroid MP-4 camera using Polaroid type 667 film.
    4. DNA digested with restriction enzymes was
    5. For rapid electrophoretic analysis of plasmid DNA prepared by miniprep protocol, or to monitor the progress of digestion during various cloning procedures, the DNA was resolved on short agarose gels, taking less than one hour for the run. The electrophoresis was carried out in TAE buffer using 8 em long gels with a comb of teeth size 0.4 x 0.2 em. The width of the gel was variable, depending on the number of samples to be analysed. Gels were run at 50 100 volts, till the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 0.5 em of the edge of the gel.
    1. The membranes were suspended (1.4 x 108 cell equivalent) in 250 III of incorporation buffer (50 mM HEPES, pH = 7.4, 25 mM KCI, 5 mM MgCb, 5 mM MnCI2, 0.1 mM TlCK, 1 Ilg/ml leupeptin, 1 mM ATP, 0.5 mM dithiothreitol and 0.4 Ilg/ml tunicamycin). Each assay tube was prepared by adding 12.5 III of 1 % Chaps, 2.8 III of 200 IlM GOP-Man, 10 III of GOP-[3H]-Man (1IlCi) and 25 nmol of synthetic substrate (49). The contents were lyophilized and 250 III of membrane suspension (1 .4 x 108 cell equivalent in incorporation buffer) were added to each tube. The tubes were incubated at 28°C for 20 minutes, cooled to 0 °C and the membranes were pelleted at 4 °C for 10 minutes in a microcentrifuge. The eH] mannosylated products, that were recovered in the supernatant, were mixed with 0.5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate and applied to a C18 Sep-pak cartridge that had been washed with 5 ml 80% propan-1-01 and 5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate. The cartridge was washed with 1.5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate and then the eluate was reapplied to the same cartridge. The cartridge was subsequently washed with 5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate, after which the bound material was eluted with 5 ml of 60% propan-1-01. The final eluate was concentrated and redissolved in 100 III of 60% propan-1-01. One tenth of this volume was taken for scintillation counting. The above assay was then carried out with a range of concentrations of OMJ to assess it's effect on the activity of eMPT enzyme parse.
    2. mixture). These samples were lyophilized and 125 III of the reaction mixture was added to each tube. The tubes were then incubated at 25°C for 1 h and the biosynthetic LPG was extracted as described above. 10 III of the solvent E extract was taken for scintillation counting.
    3. 1. Mild acid hydrolysis: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and then suspended in 0.02 N HGI (200 Ill). The mixture was then placed in a 100 °G water bath for 5 minutes. After hydrolysis, the sample was again dried under nitrogen and codried thrice with toluene (0.5 ml). The residue was suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. 2. Nitrous acid deamination: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and then suspended in 0.2 ml of 0.125 M sodium acetate (pH = 4.0) and 0.25 M sodium nitrite. The mixture was incubated at 25 °G for 40 h. The sample was dried under nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. 3. PI-PLC treatment: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and suspended in 0.4 ml of PI-PlG buffer (0.1 M Tris chloride, pH = 7.4 with 0.1 % deoxycholate) and 0.2 ml of PI-PlG concentrate (B.subtifis culture supernatant) was added. The mixture was then incubated at 37 °G for 16 h. The sample was dried under nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. The effect of deoxymannojirimycin (Sigma, Gat. no. 0-9160) on the cell free biosynthesis was carried out. OMJ (5 mg) was dissolved in 1 ml of MQ water and 2.5, 5, 25 and 50 III were transferred to eppendorf tubes separately (which corresponded to 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 IlM concentrations of OMJ in 125 III ofthe reaction
    4. NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, 1.2 ml of 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, 0.6 ml of water and 3.6 ml of solvent E. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity.
    5. Parasites (6 X 109) were harvested, pelleted at 3000 g for 10 min, washed with PBS, repelleted and suspended in 10 mL of HEPES buffer (100 mM HEPES-NaOH, pH = 7.4, 50 mM KCI, 10 mM MnCI2, 10 mM MgCI2, 0.1 mM TLCK, 1 Jlg/mL leupeptin) containing 10% glycerol. The cells were disrupted in a Parr nitrogen cavitation bomb (1500 psi, 25 min, 4°C, 3 cycles). The debris was removed by centrifugation at 3000 g for 5 min and the supernatant was centrifuged at 100,000 g for 1 h at 4°C. The resulting membrane pellet was resuspended in 10 mL of HEPES buffer without glycerol and centrifuged again at 100,000 g for 1 h at 4°C. The membranes were finally suspended in 1 mL (13 mg/mL) of HEPES buffer without glycerol. The incubation mixture per reaction contained membrane protein (2 mg) in 125 JlL of 50 mM HEPES-NaOH buffer, pH = 7.2 containing supplements (25 mM KCI, 5 mM MgCI2, 5 mM MnCI2, 0.1 mM TLCK, 1 JlglmL leupeptin, 0.8 mM ATP, 0.4 mM On) with 2 JlM UOP-[3H]-galactose (2 JlCi) and 10 JlM GOP-mannose. The mixture was incubated at 25°C for 1 h, terminated by the addition of CHCI~CH30H (3:2) to give a final ratio of CHCI~CH30H/H20 (3:2:1) and sonicated. The layers were then allowed to separate out after which the lower layer was removed with the aid of a micropipette. The tube containing the upper and intermediate layer was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 4°C, 5 minutes). The supernatant was discarded and the resultant pellet (membranes) was suspended in 1 mL of CHCI~CH30H/H20 (1:1 :0.3). The solution was again centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 4°C, 5 minutes) and the pellet was extracted with 1 mL of solvent E (H20/ethanol/diethylether/pyridine/NH40H 15:15:5:1 :0.017) thrice. The solvent E extracts were pooled and dried under a stream of nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 mL of 0.1 M NaCI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid and chromatographed over a 1 mL column of phenyl sepharose. Phenyl Sepharose Column of Biosynthetic LPG. The solvent E extract suspended in 0.6 mL of 0.1 M NaCI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid was applied to a column (0.5 x 2 cm) of phenyl sepharose (Pharmacia BioteCh), preequilibrated with 0.1 M NaCI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid. The column was then washed sequentially with 3 mL of 0.1 M
    1. incubations were carried out for I h at RT and each incubation was followed by three washings with PBS containing 0.1% Tween-20 (PBST). Post-blocking, the membranes were incubated with 1:1000 dilution ofMA-813 ascites (for detection ofr-bmZP1), MA-451 ascites (for detection of r-dZP3) or rabbit polyclonal anti-r-rG antibodies (for detection of r-rG), followed by an incubation with 1:5000 dilution of goat anti-mouse or goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) (Pierce) respectively. The blots were developed with 0.6% (w/v) 4-chloro-1-naphthol in 50 mM PBS containing 25% methanol and 0.06% H202• The reaction was stopped by extensive washing with double distilled water
    2. The cells (2 - 4 x 1 06) transfected with plasmid DNA were resuspended in minimum volume of 2X sample buffer (0.0625 M Tris, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 10% glycerol, 5% P-mercaptoethanol, and 0.001% bromophenol blue). The samples were boiled for 10 min and resolved on a 0.1% SDS-1 0% PAGE (Laemmli, 1970). The expression of recombinant proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. The proteins were electrophoretically transferred to 0.45 J.lm nitrocellulose membrane 0/N at a constant current of 30 rnA (milliampere) in Tris-Giycine buffer (25 mM of Tris-HCl and 200 mM glycine) containing 20% methanol (Towbin et al., 1979). Post-transfer, the membranes were washed once with PBS and non-specific sites were blocked with 3% BSA in PBS for 90 min at RT. All the subsequent
    3. The PCR products obtained by amplification were resolved on a 0.8% low melting point (LMP) agarose gel using IX TAE buffer (40 mM Tris, 20 mM acetic acid and 1 mM EDT A) and purified from the gel. The purified PCR products were first blunt-ended at 72°C for 30 min using 0.5 units (U) of cloned Pfu polymerase, 1 OmM dNTPs, 1 OX polishing buffer (Stratagene). These PCR products were ligated separately to pPCR-Script Amp SK ( +) cloning vector, using vector to insert ratio of 1 :20 in a 10 Jll reaction volume for 3 h at room temperature (RT). The reaction mixture contained 10 ng of pPCR-Script Amp SK(+) cloning vector, 4 U ofT4 DNA ligase, 0.5 Jll of 10 mM rATP, 1 Jll of lOX reaction buffer, 5 U of S1f I restriction enzyme. The buffers and enzymes used were supplied along with the PCR-Script™ Amp cloning kit (Stratagene). For dZP3-rG fusion, the PCR amplified product was ligated with pGEM-T Easy vector (Promega) without blunting. The reaction mixture contained 50 ng pGEM-T Easy vector, 130 ng of fusion PCR product, 3 U ofT4 DNA ligase and 5 fll of2X Rapid Ligation buffer (30 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.8, 10 mM MgC}z, 10 mM DTT, 2 mM ATP and 10% polyethylene glycol). The reaction was carried out at 16°C for 16 h.
    1. Theenzyme-linkedimmunospot(ELISPOT)assaywasusedfortheenumeration of totalimmunoglobulinsecretingcells(ISC)andantigen(BCG)-specificantibody-secretingcells(ASC)inthespleenandtheblood.TheELISPOTassayfollowedby Aaltonenetal.(1994)wasused.
    2. LDHisthekeyenzymeinvolvedinglycolysis,andisresponsiblefortheanaerobicconversionofpyruvicacidtolacticacid,theterminalstageintheEmbden-Meyerhofpathway.Theenzymeactivitywasdeterminedinthecontrolandeffluentexposedfishbrain,gill,muscle,liver,heart,kidneyandair-breathingorgansfollowingSrikantanandKrishnamurthi(1955).TheopticaldensitiesweremeasuredinaUVSpectrophotometerusing340 nmfilterandtheresultsare expressedaspmolesofformazanmg'1proteinhr’1
    3. micro-haematocrittubewasfilledto100mmwithanticoagulatedblood.Oneendofthetubewassealedwithsealingwaxandthetubewasthenkeptinaverticalpositioninaglassbeakerstuffedwithcotton.Afteronehour,lengthoftheplasmacolumnwasmeasuredwitha rulergraduatedin0.5mm.
    4. ESRwasdeterminedbythemicromethodbecausethequantityofbloodavailablefromindividualfishwasinsufficienttoadoptanymacromethod.Anon-heparinised
    5. ThecircadianrhythmofbimodalO2uptakeofcontrolandeffluenttreatedfisheswerestudiedseparatelyat28°±1°C.TheamountsofO2extractedfromwaterandairwereseparatelydeterminedforadayatregularintervalsof3hreach.TotalO2uptakeateachtimewasobtainedbysummingupthevaluesforaquaticandaerialrespirationobtainedatthecorrespondingtime.Throughoutthepresentstudy,theinitialO2contentofthewaterwaskeptconstant(6±0.5mgF1)
    6. experiments.Chemicalcharacterizationoftheeffluent(Table1)wascarriedoutbyusingstandardmethods(APHA,1985)
    7. ThecementfactoryeffluentobtainedfromtheACCcementfactory,Madukkarai(Figure6)in101blackpolyethylenecontainerswerekeptinarefrigeratoruntilusedfor
    1. with 4 ml of equilibration buffer QBT (750mM NaCl, 50mM MOPS, pH 7.0, 15% isopropanol, 0.15% Triton X-100) and the column was allowed to empty by gravity flow. The supernatant was applied to the QIAGEN-tip and allowed to enter the resin by gravity flow. The QIAGEN-tip was washed thrice with 10ml of wash buffer QC (l.OM NaCl, 50mM MOPS, pH 7.0, 15% isopropanol). The DNA was then eluted with 5 ml of elution buffer QF (1.25M NaCl, 50mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.5, 15% isopropanol). The DNA was precipitated by adding 0.7 volumes of isopropanol to the eluted DNA. It was thoroughly mixed and centrifuged immediately at 13,000 rpm for 30 min at 40C. The supernatant was carefully decanted. The DNA pellet was washed with 2 ml of 70% ethanol, and centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 15 min at 40C. The supernatant was carefully decanted without disturbing the pellet. The pellet was air dried for 5-10 min and the DNA was dissolved in 200 p.l of RNase-DNase free water. To determine the yield, DNA concentration was determined both by Ultra Violet (UV) Spectrophotometry (DU-65 spectrophotometer, Beckman, U.S.A.) and quantitative analysis on an agarose gel using a UV Transilluminator (UVP, California, U.S.A.). All the putative clones were then screened for the correct recombinant clones by restriction enzyme digestion using appropriate enzymes. The digested samples were checked on an agarose gel along with an appropriate size marker to assess the size of the insert from the putative clones. The clones containing very small fragments were further confirmed by sequencing both strands of the DNA
    2. For large scale plasmid DNA isolation, the bacterial cells were cultured in 100ml of LB medium with 100pg/ml of ampicillin. The cultures were grown for 8-10 hours at 37<>C with vigorous shaking (-200 rpm). Plasmid DNA was isolated using the QIAGEN Plasmid Midi kit (100). Briefly, the bacterial cells were harvested by centrifuging at 6000 rpm for 10 min at 4<>C. The bacterial pellet was resuspended in 4 ml of the resuspension buffer P1 (50mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0, 10mM EDTA, 100l!g/ml RNase A). 4 ml of lysis buffer P2 (200mM NaOH, 1% SDS) was added, mixed gently by inverting 4-6 times and incubated at room temperature for not more than 5 min. Further 4 ml of chilled neutralization buffer P3 (3.0 M potassium acetate, pHS.S) was added, mixed gently as before and incubated on ice for 10 min. It was then centrifuged at maximum rpm for 30 min at 4<>C. The supernatant containing the plasmid DNA was immediately removed andre-centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 min at 4<>C. The supernatant was now collected in fresh tubes and kept on ice. A QIAGEN-tip 100 was equilibrated
    1. The growth pattern of wild-type and transfected cells were carried out counting the number of cell in a haemocytometer at 24hr intervals. For this equal number of cells (107 or 5 X106) of wild-type and transfected parasites in log phase were plated. An aliquot was withdrawn every 24 hours and used for counting in a counting chamber to analyse growth pattern.
    2. get a linear amplification of serial dilutions of e-DNA. Equal quantities of RNA (2~-tg) were used for e-DNA preparation for control and treated samples. Then identical PCR reactions were set for all experimental groups, according to the primer pair. Equal volume of PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis as described below. The bands were quantified by densitometry using Labworks™ Image Acquisition and Analysis Software (UVP Bioimaging Systems, UVP Inc., Upland, CA)
    3. Relative expression levels of specific gene(s) in treated cells were determined by semi-quantitative PCRs. Initially standardization was carried out for each primer pair (Table 3.5) to determine cycle number to
    4. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), 3-6 weeks old, were used as in vivo Leishmania infection models. The clinicopathological features of the hamster model of VL closely mimic active human disease. Promastigotes in the stationary phase were harvested at 1258 x g for 10 min at RT and washed several times with sterile PBS to remove all traces of medium and FBS. They were resuspended to a cell count of 2X109 cells/mL in PBS. 10011L of this (108 parasites) were injected intra-cardially into hamsters and infection allowed to proceed for 2 months. After 2 months, the hamsters were euthanized with C02 and the spleens were harvested. The spleens were first weighed, and then cut transversely. The exposed surface was gently pressed onto a clean slide to make imprints which were allowed to air dry. Following this, the smears were fixed either in chilled methanol for 5 min or 4% formaldehyde for 10 min. The slides were washed with PBS and either stored in -70°C for later use or stained with Giemsa stain to visualize infection
    1. The method followed was as described in Miller (1992). Samples for dot-blotting were prepared by mixing 5μg of RNA (in10μl H20) with 30μl of RNA denaturing solution consisting of 1X MOPS, 7% formaldehyde and 50% deionised formamide. The samples were heat denatured at 65oC for 5 min and mixed with equal volume of 20X SSC. The samples wereloaded into the slots of the dot-blot apparatus (Bio-Rad) containing the membrane (pre-soaked in 20X SSC)and gentle suction was appliedusing Millipore vacuum pump. The slots were rinsed twice with 10X SSC. This was followed by the UV-crosslinking, pre-hybridization, hybridization, washing and exposure of the membrane identical to that done in Northern blotting
    2. For hybridisation,probe was heated at 95oC for 5 minutes and snap-chilled for 5 minutes and then added to the hybridisation bottles containing the blot. Hybridisation was carried out overnight at 50oC.The probes used and their radioactivity counts (in parentheses) were 5s RNA probe (2.5×106cpm), U73 probe (5×106cpm) and lacZ probes (106 cpm)
    3. Automated DNA sequencing on plasmid templates or on PCR products was carried out with dye terminator cycle sequencing kits on an automated sequencer following the manufacturer's instructions byan outsourced sequencing facility
    4. Typically 400-500ng of DNA was used in each ligation reaction. The ratio of vectorto insert was maintained between 1:3 and 1:5 for cohesive end ligation. The reaction was generally performed in 15μl volume containing ligation buffer (provided by the manufacturer) and 0.075 Weiss unit of T4 DNA ligase at 16ºC overnight (14-16 hours)
    5. or absence of a metabolite or a particular temperature. An EOP of ≤0.01 suggests lethality of the strain on the test medium. For strains carrying IPTG-dependent plasmids, EOP was determined by growing the strains overnight in medium containing IPTG and appropriate antibiotic,and spottingserial dilutions (100or 10–1to 10–6) on +IPTG (permissive) and –IPTG (test) plates to observe growth. Theviability is scored by takingratio of the colony forming units per ml (cfu/ml = No. of colonies × dilution factor × 1000/volume of culture spotted (in μl) obtained on the –IPTG plate to that on the +IPTG plate and determinesthe EOP. Likewise, strains carrying Ts plasmids were cultured overnight at 30°C with the appropriate antibioticand the serial dilutions of this culture were spottedat two temperatures 30°C (permissive) and 42°C (non-permissive or test). The ratio of cfu/mlobtained on the test temperature to that on the permissive temperature determined the efficiency of plating at the test temperature
    6. Efficiency of plating (EOP) is a measure of the ratio of number of colonies (obtained from a given volume of a suitable culture dilution) on a test medium to those on a control or permissive medium, and is a measure of cell viability on the former. It is a very sensitive test and is often used for determining the viability of a strain in the presence