264 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2017
    1. More commonly, the false self allows the true self a life of its own, which emerges when there is little danger of its being used by others.

      I feel like it's cheating to not use my own voice, but this is something directly out of Orwell's "1984," in which the main character, Winston, puts up a front when around monitors or party supporters. However, once alone, most notably in his sexual relationship with Julia, he is a completely different person, one in complete rebellion against the false self forced upon him.

    2. The more our activities as individual emotion managers are managed by organizations, the more we tend to celebrate the life of unmanaged feeling.

      This sounds like something out of a George Orwell or Ayn Rand novel.... Living outside the thumb of Big Brother's management or existing as an "I" instead of an "us" (an individual instead of an airline employee).

  2. Nov 2017
    1. r interest in sincerity is an interest in a~thentici

      I had never really made a distinction between these two before.

    2. I think the same princi- ple has been at work: the value placed on authentic or "natu- ral" feeling has increased dramatically with the full emer- gence of its opposite - the managed hear

      So as people begin to take more control over their emotions, the more value people put into a loss of control of emotions. An interesting scale

    3. To pursue authenticity as an ideal, as something that must be achieved, is to be self- consciously paradoxical.

      Because authenticity has become an ideal to pursue, it has become incredibly difficult to be truly authentic, which is an issue that has been present in many of the issues we have discussed this semester. One glaring example was the discussion of authenticity in politics, which has a very strong connection to this text. Both politicians and flight attendants have strong motivations to seem "authentic."

    4. phony

      In this paragraph, acting is set up as a cure for burnout, but throughout the paragraph it is seen both as a necessary evil, and a completely legitimate and morally sound part of the job.

    5. she will be seen as doing the job poorly

      This is important because if people decide not to put on the act then people being served by these workers will honestly view them as bad employees without considering the external factors that may have occurred through burnout or otherwise.

    6. All in all, a private emo- tional system has been subordinated to commercial logic, and it has been changed by it

      Our interactions with corporations are often via low-level workers (Stewardesses, Fast-food workers, etc), but these actions have been controlled by the businesses. This creates a different expectation, and has shifted a focus from, "oh, she was really nice," to, "The service here has really gone down hill," decreasing the personal element of customer service in many fields.

    7. reduces stress by re- ducing access to the feelings through which stress intro- duces itself

      It seems like there are healthier ways to do this

    8. standardized

      This standardization of human encounter really creates an issue of authenticity. This sentence reminds me of Chic-fil-a's required "my pleasure" every time someone says thank you. Because a vast majority of people know that it is required of employees, and it is often said without sincerity, the standardization decreases the meaning of the interaction.

    9. steadying effect

      This is intriguing.... it seems to say that this emotional labor lulls us into a mundane feeling of everyday-ness that we rely on in an unconscious sense today, and that without it we have been trained not to function as well

    10. "Oh, they have to be friendly, that's theirjob."

      This can also lead to it seeming to be "okay" to be rude because the person has to be nice.

    11. "sincere"

      So this sincerity is an act, a facade that the workers are required to put up in order to appeal to their customers, and once again a situation where in attempting to be sincere and authentic the actual authenticity is lost.

    12. She is likely to offer warm, personal service, but she is also warm on behalf of the company

      She embodies the role, to use acting terms.

    13. Thus a cus- tomer assumes a right to vent unmanaged hostility against a flight attendant who has no corresponding right -because she is paid, in part, to relinquish it.

      This attitude translates into other workers in other areas, such as customer service agents, retail workers, and waitresses. Society has essentially normalized being rude to these people because they are the face associated with the problem.

    14. alue on detachment from that solid something underneath.'' The present-day value on "authen- tic" or "natural" feeling may also be a cultural response to a social occurrence, but the occurrence is different.

      This I can get on board with. Our society definitely does seek authenticity, but there's a strong juxtaposition wherein we also seek utopia, and we see that through much of social media.

    15. But we have responded in another way, which is perhaps more significant: as a culture, we have begun to place an un- precedented value on spontaneous, "natural" feeling.* We are intrigued by the unmanaged heart and what it can tell us. The more our activities as individual emotion managers are managed by organizations, the more we tend to celebrate the life of unmanaged feeling.

      This is wild. To claim that people working in the service industry and intentionally being friendly has changed our entire societal belief system on natural emotions, and that it has a major effect on our society is crazy. Wow.

    16. Cheerfulness in the line of duty becomes something different from ordinary good cheer.

      Why? I know a lot of people who are just naturally, excessively cheerful. Only when you're having a bad day would you really be forced to act at all.

    17. Either she will overextend herself into the job and burn out, or she will re- move herself from the job and feel bad about it

      This is excessive! This is not the end all, be all, the dooming fate that awaits flight attendants. The very simple solution to this problem is to hire people who are naturally very friendly and welcoming, and who therefore really aren't acting so much as having an outlet to express their friendliness in a setting where it's usually very well-received.

    18. Instead of removing the idea of a "self" from the job either by will or by art, such a person often reacts passively: she stops caring and becomes remote and detached from the people she serves. Some flight at- tendants who describe themselves as poor at depersonaliz- ing reported periods of emotional deadness

      This is really unhealthy, and I think our author is right here, but I also think that those kind of people are really not suited to be working in service industries. If you do not have the emotional capacity to make a distinction between the business environment of a workplace and normal everyday life, that becomes an issue, and you are definitely not the best person for that type of job.

    19. The emotion management that sustains the smile on Delta Airlines

      Having flown Delta on about 6 flights in the last 6 months, I can definitely verify that this is true. The flight attendants and even the pilots are almost always smiling, and they're very likeable and friendly. I'm sure they do receive some training in that area.

    20. What was once a privately negotiated rule of feeling or display is now set by the company's Standard Practices Division.

      I think the author's tone here is getting to the point where he is really saying that this use of emotional capital in business is a bad thing. He's not saying it outright, but given his tone and what he implies, I can feel it. I don''t really necessarily think it is a bad thing. In service industries, I think it's really an expectation in society that you should be treated well, especially when you're spending significant quantities of money. This isn't a new idea. In service industries "emotional capital" or quality of service is highly valued.

    21. nd feel bad about it

      But why should she feel bad about removing her inner self from her work? What inherent bad is there in maintaining a separate inner life and outer action, assuming that the outer shell is not in and of itself objectionable? This is, to some extent, the modern culture of authenticity at work: when we put too high a value on the idea of revealing all, baring ourselves to the world in confession and public shame, we demonize the most unobjectionable, simple, and effective way of maintaining societal harmony and internal calm: pretending, disassociating outside from inside, and maintaining separate spheres and layers of privacy.

    22. and so it has organized it more efficiently and pushed it further.

      As capitalism is wont to do, it develops what it finds useful to extremes with a power and efficiency unmatched by other driving forces, but one that similarly develops unintended consequences at enormous scale, without pausing to consider their effects or mitigation.

    23. What was once a private act of emotion management is sold now as labor in public-contact jobs.

      This at least correlates with, and is perhaps even a result of, the incessant drive away from individual privacy and the inviolability of the mind starting in the twentieth century and accelerating into our own.

    24. The selection I’ve provided is from the concluding chapter of Hochschild’s classic book The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling

      (I decided not to provide the chapter that discusses the details of flight attendant selection, training and labor, since some of those details now seem dated—but the world she describes, a world in which the service industry is steadily increasing in importance, is still very much our world.)

      This reading serves to summarize the perspective of our class: the range of time Hochschild addresses is, roughly, the range between William Wordsworth's birth and today.

      Once again, you have free rein for annotations (just as in my Frankfurt guidelines). I will discuss mini-research paper possibilities for this text in class with you on Tuesday!

    1. Convinced that reality has noinherent nature, which he might hope to identify as the truth about things, hedevotes himself to being true to his own nature.

      I don't know if this makes sense, but to me this is a very post-War mindset. In other words, after great tragedies, people try to be true to themselves to escape the horror and lies of what happened. For example, following Hitler's forceful placement of Wagner on a pedestal as the Third Reich's symbol, many German musicians worked to reinvent their sound in direct contrast to the propaganda-famed Wagner. They were true to their own nature instead of what was forced to be known as the "natural" sound of Germany.

    2. After all, every use oflanguage without exception has some, but not all, of the characteristic features oflies

      I haven't thought enough about it, but I think there is a really interesting opportunity here to look at Gulliver's Travels and the lack of lying (or bullshit) in the language of the houyhnhnms. If you aren't familiar with the story, Gulliver, in order to explain his situation and the outside world, had to roughly translate lying into "the thing which is not" as the houyhnhnms had no concept of such wrongs in their society. Perhaps there are some correlations between the two pieces?

    3. sincerityitself is bullshit

      Picking up on Joshua's closing question in our 11/21 meeting, let me ask, would it be accurate to substitute authenticity for "sincerity" in Frankfurt's phrase--or would you want to argue that there is a fundamental difference?

    4. VLQFHULW

      Nobody annotated this word! ...and consider our course topic! (Maybe I should have shortened the essay via excerpting...)

    5. Of course it is impossible to be sure that there isrelatively more of it nowadays than at other times

      Consider the various dates when this essay was published (1986/2005); consider your date of reading (2017). At what point would a paragraph like this one not have seemed so plausible? Can we imagine a world without BS?

    6. Now I shall consider (quite selectively) certain items in the 2[IRUG(QJOLVK'LFWLRQDU\that are pertinent to clarifying the nature of bullshit

      You may have thought to yourself: "Wow, you get to do this in a REAL essay!?" Think of Frankfurt's procedure in terms of the idea of "keyterm" or a key word: he needs the record of historical uses to build upon and develop his own sense of a concept. See, e.g., the Pittsburgh/Cambridge "Keywords Project".

      I will quote their definition:

      A ‘keyword’, in the sense in which we investigate keywords on this website, is a socially prominent word (e.g. art, industry, media or society) that is capable of bearing interlocking, yet sometimes contradictory and commonly contested contemporary meanings.

    7. roughly speaking,for now

      A nice little piece of "meta-commentary": Frankfurt lets us know that this (presumed) perception of Wittgenstein's will be important to his own developing definition of BS

    8. Pascal offers adescription of a certain state of affairs without genuinely submitting to theconstraints

      She makes a claim that is not authentic and does not even try to be.

    9. Thoughtful attention to detail requires discipline and objectivity.

      Precisely the kind of work you see in admissions or academic essays. What is written may be bs, but the author is often careful to make it the kind of bs that is exactly what the reader wants to see.

    10. unwillingly

      I find this argument interesting- how does one conclude that because a lie is told for gain it is not a real lie? I understand the importance of the distinction between a lie that is viewed as indispensable and a lie that is told for the sake of pleasure in dishonesty, but wholeheartedly disagree with the conclusion that the former is not a "real lie."

    11. mind

      This paragraph structure is an effective way to approach the terms used in this essay. It allows the author to simultaneously make the meanings clear and analyze their meaning in the context of his argument. It allows for a greater ease of understanding, as well as a flow that easily connects the paragraphs.

    12. unconnected to a concern with the truth.

      I think this is the most important distinguishing factor between bullshit and lying: a connection or concern with truth

    13. it must certainly be clear to Pascal that when dogsare run over they do not feel goo

      This sentence made me laugh whoops

    14. VKLWdoes

      I have mixed feelings on whether or not this is completely relevant or helpful to his argument

    15. utterance

      Although I feel like this is kind of understood regardless, this is actually a fancy linguistics term for any statement or sentence of clause when in the context of the study of pragmatics, something that the investigation of lying v. humbug v. bullshit would certainly apply to (and actually, my linguistics class did look at this essay a few weeks ago)

    16. procrustean

      The combination of common vernacular (bullshit, sketchily) and what I would consider to be Academic English (amorphous, Procrustean) is confusing to me; I would almost rather Frankfurt wrote with almost exclusively casual language to better conform to the subject matter in its everyday, common nature.

    17. t is as though he decides thatsince it makes no sense to try to be true to the facts, he must therefore try insteadto be true to himself.

      (I'll stop spamming annotations, I promise)

      In my opinion, the attitude here is really just lazy narcissism, given excuses and explanation by sympathetic and culpable philosophizers and artists.

    18. anti-realis

      Attitudes essentially nonexistent before the World War I, and essentially commonplace afterwards.

    19. responsibilityof a citizen in a democracy to have opinions about everything

      And this is a recent development, not fundamental to democracy. America was founded under the ideal of representative democracy, with the express aim of allowing the citizenry to choose politicians on the basis of character and reputation, and perhaps a few major issues, and who would then take on the job of learning about and managing all of these things that the citizen cannot be expected to.

      This idea, fortunately or unfortunately, depending on your views, has been consistently, and with ever greater speed, eroding, leading to the situation the author identifies.

    20. in the same game

      And bullshit, I would posit, is often the result of the games people are forced to play.

      Consider, for example, modern publication, both academic and not: a writer's goal is publishing, regardless of the value of their work, and a "perverse incentive" is thus created for them to bullshit: produce material towards an end of acceptance with no regard for its quality or truth.

    21. motive guiding and controlling it is unconcerned with howthe things about which he speaks truly are.

      Can this be reconciled with "bullshit" situations where someone truly comes to believe their own bullshit because it serves their purpose or biases?

    22. y guess is that the recommendation offered byArthur Simpson’s father reflects the fact that he was more strongly drawn to thismode of creativity, regardless of its relative merit or effectiveness, than he was tothe more austere and rigorous demands of lying

      Moreover, it reflects the fact that lying, if we take this definition, requires one to know the truth and therefore deliberately withhold it. Bullshitting, on the other hand -- under this definition -- does not require one to know the truth, and so can be called into action simply as a substitute when truth is required but not available. This aligns, for example, with many colloquial uses of the term: when a student proposes to "bullshit an essay," they are intending to do so not as a deliberate substitute for a truth they possess (in this case a good essay), but precisely for the reason that they do not possess a truth, and are unable, for whatever reason, to procure one.

    23. a concern with the truth

      We're returning here to the idea of intention presented above in the earlier commentary on the definition of "humbug."

    24. ON BULLSHIT

      See my "page note" for your annotation instructions...

    25. Frankfurt's essay, written in 1986, "went viral" and was ultimately issued in expanded form twenty years later as a small book by Princeton University Press.

      You'll notice that the argument depends primarily on two techniques:

      1) Clarity of "close reading"--textual analysis is critical to Frankfurt's methods of argument

      2) Use of the OED: Frankfurt is attempting to clarify a concept, and to disentangle that concept from a thicket of related language

      These techniques will not be unfamiliar to you! "Analytic philosophy," Frankfurt's scholarly field, can be highly technical: but it also is potentially available to the common reader. I will cite the professor of philosophy William Blattner, defining the "standards of argumentative clarity and precision" that he takes to be fundamental to good philosophy:

      It would be a large and difficult topic to try to specify what counts as argumentative clarity and precision. We can say something about it, though: defining technical terminology when it's introduced; writing in language that is more likely to be accessible to an educated outsider; clearly identifying assumptions; considering challenges to one's argumentative moves.

      Since it's the last unit, I'm giving you free rein for annotations (my only stricture is that you make at least two of your own, and reply at least once to a colleague. Imagine that you might want to write an essay that in some way responds to Frankfurt's own; imagine that you want to impress your Expo 1113 professor with the careful reading strategies you've developed over the course of the semester; imagine....

    1. gliding a single vowel sound to give it two audibly distinctsegments

      Need clarification-- is characterization of the "audibly distinct segments" marked by pitch, syllables, tone, some combination of the above?

      My original thought was that it was just pitch. I listened to Led Zeppelin's "Whole Lotta Love" earlier today and in the chorus the singer stretches the "uh" sound in love across two different pitches. Zeppelin definitively does not possess a twang to his voice-- clarification?

  3. Oct 2017
    1. commerdad

      I think commercial is an interesting word. Are these artists writing to sell copies/make money or are they trying to make a political/social statement? I lean towards the latter choice and so I wonder why Grant uses this word unless she means to address how the impact of the music is changed by it being released into a profit-based environment.

    2. tell them to close their eyes and tell me you can't see It. Whenevet' you get 11 record you can see. thafs ll fly record. ll>addy.O. Stetsasonlcl1 Power

      This is something of a disconnect for me... Usually, when an author puts a block quote at the beginning of a paper, they intend to address it in some way, or at least provide evidence as to why it is relevant. Grant just leaves it up there providing no real insight into her point.

    3. lack artists to the role of cheaply hought talent to be packaged and ·developed· according to the dictates of white buslnessmen whose interests are seldom artls-tlc but unabashedly commercial'.;

      Just as it was in slavery, Jim Crow, and beyond, the economic power disproportionately given to whites over blacks results in a sort of "ownership" of black artists

    4. Trtda Rose

      Grant seamlessly integrates Rose's opinions in order to give her own more credibility, which is a very effective way to support her claims.

    5. Then I wUl

      Again, Grant is very straight-forward in the way she outlines her essay, which I feel she does effectively- she isn't trying to be deliberately high-brow in her outline, and that allows her subject matter to pull focus.

    6. I wUl concentrate on two spedJic cultural BDd political developments occurring Jn Los Angdes durlng the late 1980s: the birth of the ganpta rap Industry ln south central Los Angeles end the launch of the LA War on Drugs campaign

      Grant utilizes a very straight-forward technique to lay put her essay, and I feel that it is a very efficient way to introduce her topic.

    7. represented

      This last section leaves me feeling unsatisfied... I wish there was a more concrete connection to the gansta rap brought up earlier

    8. Finally. ulthough Kelley·s assessment of gangsta rap's metaphorical content is right on the money. my objective Is to point out that the content ltDd subjective position or these metaphors exist alongside pollttcal and social definitloos of street gangs.

      After another layer of background information, the author arrives at her "objective". Like before, this method helps the reader to understand and increases credibility.

    9. Re

      It appears as if the author is organizing this essay in a chronological-ish format, while simultaneously allowing each section as the paper progressed to build on the last one. This makes it easier for readers who have little knowledge of the subject before hand to be able to comprehend and get more out of this essay.

    10. Rap

      Immediately I am struck with all the sources that the author supplies to supplement her own words; she seems to want to present this essay not as a stand alone end all be all type source, but rather one that will lead you elsewhere and give you an entire base of research in which to pull from

    11. begin

      Grant very specifically and intentionally outlines exactly what they set out to do in this introduction, indeed reflecting a rather less stylized approach than other authors of similar papers take, but still presents a very organized and constructed paper

    12. Los Angeles issued its first challenge to New York's commercial domination of the rap music industry in l IJHfl when ke T relew;ed his single '6 ·n thu Moming

      After a lot of background information, the author now shifts into her argument about gangsta rap. She realized that many of her readers would need the extensive background information to even understand her argument, and her use of many sources provides more of a legitimacy to her arguments because of her extensive knowledge and research.

    13. Identities expressed In African-American musical fonns such as hip hop are constructed wtthln the geographic and social boundaries that historically have bounded race and racial difference In the US and ure solidified by tt commercial music industry market-ing racial and ethnic diversity

      A central, and perhaps the central, point of the argument.

    14. The United Stateslan

      An unusual formulation, "United Statesian..."

      Contrary to what many of these cited writers seem to think, inventing a grand pile of unnecessary new terms is not the road to clarity and quality in expression or thought.

    15. gndn m authentidty that cllstlnguisbes nip as a DlDlic genre

      This seems to contradict the sentiment implied later in the article that the explicit images of criminality and gang violence in the lyrics are actually metaphors or somehow are not literal descriptions of life in the mentioned areas of LA.

    16. Ell:abtth Gr1111t Is a Ph.D. studtnt In tht AnltTlaln lllKf c.m.t1'ln StudJts Dll!purnitnt at tht U11iwrsl1y of 81nnlngl111111. UK.

      Depending on your view, this either makes Grant a completely ridiculous commentator on this subject, or a useful external perspective.

      And yes, this can be framed as an authenticity claim: is it authentic for a Ph.D. student in the UK to comment on the subtle dynamics of the U.S. urban environment?

      (I intentionally did not say "objective commentator," since this article is anything but an objective account.)

    17. Placing the relationship between popular culture and racial ldeotity within the process of urban spatial formation. this article explores the construc-tion of an Afrtcan-Amcdctan Identity within Los Anseles. as well aa the broader implications ol' th1s spattalllled identity structure oo race relations within LA between 1988 end 1992

      Grant, in a sense, "spacializes" her own argument about "spacialization": she explicitly restricts the scope of her claim to a specific location and past time period, leaving both no room for extrapolation and no room for misapplication. This is a double edged sword; though it makes one's argument stronger, overusing the tactic can narrow your argument to a point where all sense of import (motive) is lost.

    18. Grant's article is very carefully written and organized; it is more concerned with clarity than with stylistic individuality, and it depends extensively on sources. In these respects, it models one style of writing about the humanities.

      When reading Grant's essay, I want you to make primarily what I've called rhetorically focused notations:

      focusing on what the author is doing and why they are doing it: annotating to enhance our understanding and build a foundation for engaging with the authors’ argument.

      When you get to Grant's own claims, of course, feel free to engage with their substance!

    1. I focus on its articulation with one of countrymusic’s most dominant (and stereotypical) tropes: nostalgia

      Nostalgia: a.k.a. missing the good old days... This makes me think of Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily," which was back-lit by a decaying Southern Gentile society in which the people were holding on to the "glory" of the "courtly plantations" with all their might.

    2. notreflectedin country music, but is, rather, partiallyproducedby it.

      This chicken and the egg presumption seems far-fetched to me. If people weren't living the culture that country music reflects, if they didn't find the music relatable, it would never have grown to be popular. I think it's a very dangerous game to play to begin to claim that people's culture was artificially produced by musicians, that their culture isn't authentic. I can't say that I agree.

    3. ‘was so countrythat no one suspected he was black’

      This seems like evidence that is not in any way credible. They're claiming that all of the Charley Pride fans out there were ignorant to the fact that he was black, else they would not have listened to his music? I think that's quite a claim to make with a complete and total lack of evidence.

    4. To listen to a country and western song is to hear the story ofAmerica set to music. It is a story of patriotism and hard work, astory of faith, opportunity, and achievement

      This is the heart of country music. I think Bush captures it well.

    5. ‘is a white idiom, not ablack one

      This is a point I hadn't thought about much but one that is very valid; non-white people are not likely to feel a nostalgia for this same time where they wouldn't have been able to experience the world in the same manner as a white man could have

    6. white

      Evidently, "white" is going to act as a key term of sorts, and I'm kinda hoping its defined expressly at some point because I feel as if it could be interpreted differently depending on the reader.

    7. Language thus carriesnostalgic weight in country music in both form

      I'm not sure I buy into this. I think while certain techniques or instrumentation COULD potentially be recognized as something old and traditional thus making it nostalgic, I think the twang is still used enough today to not give it an instant nostalgic feeling in form. May just be me but the content argument is much more real to me than the form one.

    8. I can easily be accused of skewing theselection to fit the argument

      I appreciate them acknowledging this

    9. about coming from someplace ‘real’, talking to ‘real’people about ‘real life’

      I wonder which out of these the author sees as more important to being authentic in country music

    10. Timbre,

      This is pronounced like "Tambor" for non musicy people's reference haha

    11. the genre’s authenticity is asserted andsecured by vocal practices like diphthongizatio

      Interesting how in addition to content in lyrics or otherwise, the pronunciation alone is a factor in country music's authenticity

    12. diphthon-gization

      As a linguistics student I love this word

    13. Tex-Me

      I didn't know what this was at first but it seems to be like a type of countryish music that originated in Texas with Latin American influence but that kind of has a pop-ish or rock vibe to it as well.

    14. it bears emphasis that raced sound isnot necessarily racist sound, an assumed equivalence that underlies thesuggestion that a song about blackwhite love cannot sound white.

      I appreciate that this line makes a distinction between raced and racist sound, utilizing the reactions of others to make that distinction.

    15. ‘hegemony of vision

      According to Merriam-Webster 'hegemony' refers to the dominant influence in a field (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hegemony). This hegemony of vision seems to refer to the way appearance dominates our perception of race. This point is nearly buried in the vocabulary of the author.

    16. For, while country music is certainly not theonlysound of whiteness,

      I am somewhat confused by the addition of this sentence. it seems unnecessary and detached from the rest of the paragraph, and I don't really understand how it furthers the author's argument.

    17. snotreflectedin country music, but is, rather, partiallyproducedby it

      This claim is what marked my official interest and "buying in" to this article. This statement made me curious into how the author would go about answering it, and also presented the idea in my head that sometimes culture doesn't create its components but at times a subculture of sorts can stem from a component, of course in this case country music.

    18. full-time country music radio

      There is a now widely discredited sociological theory that claimed that increased play of country music lead to increased suicides. This was taught to us as an example of a spurious correlation.

    19. there is little in contempor-ary American popular culture more ‘obvious’ than the ‘colour’ ofmusic.

      Is this true? Did they make it true by pointing it out?

    20. The songs of a racialized andmythic ‘used to’ sound a present in which whiteness makes senseretroactively, calling white people to their whiteness.

      I am guessing this means that the nostalgic "whiteness" of country music makes it seem like current racial feelings are justified, encouraging people to act "white" because that is how it was and should be.

    21. nstead, I must regrettably bracket the issue of class for reasons ofspace (and refer readers to Fox (2004a) for a compelling analysis), andwork to extend Gramsci’s conception of a ‘pose’ or ‘style’ that issimultaneously ‘artificial’ and ‘deeply felt and experienced’

      Mann wants instead to to look at country not as expressing or reflecting social class (though notice he doesn't disagree with this perspective), but as a "pose" or "style", a "performance." (Notice that this language harmonizes with the language of "producing" that he uses earlier in the section...)

    22. What I am interested to borrow from this account is not a judgmenton the popular classes’ susceptibility to mimic the ‘nobility’

      Here Mann writes a whole paragraph setting up an analysis based on social class, only to then tell us in the next paragraph that he lacks space to say more about it! Why does he do this?

    23. The significance of popular culture and its media to Gramsci’sanalysis of ideology can hardly be understated.

      ....And Gramsci (another Marxist) turns out to be the most important theoretician for Mann's argument!

      So many names! Did we need Althusser as well? "Yes and no", would be my answer. Mann needs both to demonstrate his knowledge of the field and to establish the distinctness of his own perspective. He's not necessarily as reader-friendly as he could be here. But remember, Mann has just told us he wants to keep an Althuserian idea and apply it from a Gramscian perspective. And his readers--you!--can draw some things from his article without necessarily taking on Mann's entire perspective....

    24. Mowitt and Radano found the possibility of musical interpellationon the irreducible aurality of subject-formation.

      In this paragraph, Mann goes on to distinguish his approach from that of M & R (in whose footsteps he is following)

    25. ‘heard’ by

      "Hear", Mann means, in the sense that you might think "wow, that music really speaks to me"--and, also, in the sense of French philosopher Louis Althusser's influential understanding of ideology, which the next section of the article introduces. I'll cite from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy--I'm drawing from section 4.2

      the background ideas that we possess about the way in which the world must function and of how we function within it is, in this account, understood to be always present. Specific socio-economic structures, however, require particular ideologies. These ideologies are instantiated by institutions or “Ideological State Apparatuses” like family, schools, church, etc., which provide the developing subject with categories in which she can recognize herself. Inasmuch as a person does so and embraces the practices associated with those institutions, she has been successfully “hailed” or “interpellated” and recognized herself as that subject who does those kinds of things.

    26. the ‘notionthat music is involved in producing the very bearer of an identitythat is, a subject

      Here Mann cites a particular source for his idea, while at the same time paraphrasing that idea again.

      Step back, if you're reading here, and think about: what are the ways in which we "normally" (everyday ways) think about music as cause, rather than as "reflection" / effect / whatev

    27. Iamarguing that contemporary commercial country music in the US, inarticulation with a capitalist social formation riddled with contra-dictions, and from which it is inseparable, contributes to the formationof a specific kind of white subject, and thus produces a specific ki

      A BIG CLAIM--yes? An ambitious claim. Paraphrase:

      Country music, in the form a capitalist society gives it, produces a certain kind of "white subject"--a way of feeling and knowing oneself as white.

      And I've left out one piece: the "contradictions"--since that requires a further detour into Althusser's development of Marxist theory. (General clue: if you see "contradictions" and "over-determination", you are reading work that draws upon this particular Marxist tradition.)

    28. These approaches are by no means homogenous in their goals andsympathies, yet they are consistent in their assumption that music‘expresses’ or ‘reflects’ the conceptions, desires, or politics of theparticular social formation or group

      Key sentence indicating shift to Mann's own perspective: he will offer a verb that contrasts with EXPRESSES or REFLECTS -- his verb will be PRODUCES. And the last sentence of this paragraph states his own claim!

    29. A focus on the ideological work of music is not novel

      This paragraph shows Mann's command of the material. He defines a particular kind of scholarship on the "ideological work" of music. (Notice that examples of "meaning" go far beyond lyrical messages....)

    30. Nostalgia and ‘musical interpellation’

      So, this is the really tough section! (Remember, you guys are HONORS students....) [insert honors emojis here]

      I provide a definition of "interpellation" on the next page. I'll comment once more on each paragraph to create a roadmap for y'all...

    31. Mann's article is divided into six sections.

      • intro
      • Country music as race music
      • Country music in the US: sound and story
      • Nostalgia and 'musical interpellation'
      • The sound of whiteness: a shared 'used to'
      • Why does country music sound white?

      This is an essay in which the argumentative structure is quite clear (see the summary at the end of section 1.) However, the thinking behind the argument is more difficult! The way Ward analyzes cause-and-effect logic may seem counter-intuitive.

      Annotation instructions: this time around, you can stick to "informational/contextual" and "interpretive" footnotes. Let me know where the essay is difficult; do what you can to be specific* about the source of that difficulty!

      I will annotate section 4, as it's the toughest part of the article. (The keyterm in Mann's title is a signal of this difficulty...) If it thwarts you the first time through, skip it over and keep going: you can still grasp much of Mann's analysis without an understanding of that section.

    1. a crystallization of sons-m the 1 kvclopment of personal authenticity in popular music.

      Very important to note-- influence upon American popular music for decades to come, potential turning of the culture from expecting singer to have no personal connection to the music, to expecting the singer to have a personal connection

    2. At this point, I have spent an obscene amount of time trying to find a song that follows an autobiographical style but, while my musical preferences are pretty eclectic, I have yet to find anything. Thus, I am somewhat at a loss to stay fully within the realm of autobiographical song... However, what I did find, while not explicitly autobiographical, is filled with social commentary, realism, and most definitely originality. The song "King Rat" by Modest Mouse is largely a commentary on the senseless need for having possessions. The song's lyrics make a mockery of society, comparing humans to carrion birds swarming around worthless things. Brock and the rest of the band bluntly represent an image of society, relying on realism (or perhaps just an authentically pessimistic tone) to bring their music down to Earth. If nothing else, the song, as with most of their music, is strikingly original, but I don't think this is because society was pressuring them; rather, I feel as though the group is working to be authentic despite societal pressures and preexisting musical standards. From an autobiographical sense, some things have to be read between the lines so to speak... Much of Brock's early life consisted of being a "city rat" and existing as somewhat of an outsider to society. Meaning he had little to no income and didn't worry about "important things" like a nice car or paying rent because "county jails they're free." Among all these different interpretations, the song, especially when alongside the video, is heavily against illegal whaling, another commentary on society.

      Warning: The video is pretty graphic, involving whales and other marine animals catching, flaying, and eating humans.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qi7KDOAj4Xo

    3. Country Music! Dolly Parton\ This song is written by Dolly Parton for her former partner Porter Wagoner as she leaves him professionally after working with him for 7 years in order to pursue her own career alone. This song has originality and realness to a very high level and is certainly a confession, in this case of a amicable "breakup" between two people who respect and love each other alot. There is not as much boastfullness in this, but it kind of serves as a press release because it was announcing the separation of Porter and Dolly from their professional relationship.This song doesn't strike me as overly bluesy although it does talk about the problems of a person but I feel like it is perceived more as a love song. So while it is similar to TB Blues by Jimmie Rodgers in terms of its realness and maintaining personal authenticity, while TB Blues speaks of his issues and real experiences much more directly and specifically, while Parton's song is more vague and 'relatable' rather than completely autobiographical. TB Blues is defeinitely autobiographical in a way that I will always love you is not, though the question of whether or not that makes either one less authentic is an interesting and debatable question. I would say that both stand as authentic even though one is less specific and explicit to the other, as Parton references real events and emotions directed at a specific external source in her life.

    4. The article describes Blues as being characterized not so much by its musical style, but by revealing the gritty first-person narrative experience of a dispossessed people, their struggles, their poverty and their disillusion with society. This, combined with the description of Jimmie Rodgers singing about a "disease slowly killing him by degrees" (page 2), caused me to immediately think of the Grunge movement in the nineties, specifically as viewed through the lens of the band Nirvana. The similarities are striking--Blues explored the experience of social outcasts as defined by socioeconomic categorization, Nirvana explored the experience social outcasts as defined by those struggling with mental health, drug addiction, or alienation from their peers socially. Jimmie Rodgers' "TB Blues" explored how a common disease, Tuberculosis, affected him physically, socially, and mentally-- Nirvana's song "Come As You Are" demonstrates how the disease of depression changes how one perceives themselves, how others perceive them, and how one perceives the values of their own life. The contradictory lines in the verses seem to demonstrate a sort of confusion over what the person should be, what social norms push them to be, whether they should listen to their own desires or the social rules of the time, and the chorus in which the narrator repeatedly states-- or even pleads-- that they "don't have a gun" seems to suggest a concern for the narrator having suicidal thoughts or inclinations. Thusly, one can conclude that the social disillusion shared by Blues and Grunge reveals that Grunge is a sort of cultural and ideological heir to the Blues movement, due to the similar expression of a narrative of the oppressed, outcast, and marginalized.

      Lyrics: https://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/nirvana/comeasyouare.html

      Song: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vabnZ9-ex7o

    5. Though the group is far from the blues genre, twenty one pilots has songs that fit many of the characteristics for the autobiographical blues song. Tyler Joseph writes his own music and lyrics, and he is incredibly raw and real with admitting what he has experienced with his struggles with mental health and insecurities. Some of his music is also a direct social comment on the problems of suicide and related issues. The song "Migraine" is a prime example of how raw the songs of twenty one pilots. It shows the characteristics I described, except with less of an emphasis on the social comment. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bs92ejAGLdw

    6. “Human Sadness” by Julian Casablancas+The Voidz might be a bit unsuited for play at house party, and it is notably longer than the average song length at 11 minutes, but somehow I never grow tired of it. The broad title fits the song well, as it seems to be a narrative of both Julian Casablancas’ own sadness in his life as a result of estrangement from his father, as well as the sorrows that haunt all humans as a result of greed and too much dependence on emotion rather than reason. Casablancas writes lyrics that are quite personal and specific, such as “hits you on the head when nobody’s there / then he says ‘come here, could you fix my tie?’” regarding the way his father, the well-dressed founder of a modeling agency, treated him coldly when they weren’t in the public view. Between glimpses of Casablancas’ relationship with his father he writes about the human condition; “vanity overriding wisdom” being a way that social interaction can be corrupted. “Human Sadness”, by addressing both general woes of the human population and intimate details from Casablancas’ own life, is both relatable and personal. This seems to be the kind of alluring authenticity Barker and Taylor see in the blues songs they examine in their article.

      Song: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8k3qB61lhk

    7. As it focuses on songs that tell a personal narrative, the article discusses authenticity as it pertains to the stories singers put into their songs. It points out that many songs simply generalize experiences, without ever truly discussing personal details or utilizing their own experience. The authors hold up Jimmie Rodgers as an example of this type of personal narrative, specifically citing his songs "TB Blues" and "Jimmie the Kid". Both of which share very specific details about his life. In the same way, the song "Fifteen" by Taylor Swift shares a very specific experience from Swift's life. She discusses her relationship with her friend Abigail, and the way Abigail's experiences affected their friendship. In addition to sharing specific personal details, the many can easily relate to the song, in the same way that the writers say is very important. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pb-K2tXWK4w

    8. sincerity

      Sincerity, or narcissism?

    9. When trying to discuss one medium using another, no matter how careful the analyst or thoughtful the translation, some information and accuracy will inevitably be lost. Unfortunately, writers often don’t even try to be careful. Certainly, as this piece does, an argument, and a convincing one at that, can be made about the effect of authentic lyrics and subject on popularity and success. But this piece neglects the music itself. There are other kinds of authenticity in music – authenticity of style, of rhythm, of form and instrumentation and harmony. I’m putting this recording up because it’s a good illustration of this fact, as well as being a particular favorite of mine. This music has a power of authenticity: people talk about it being “real jazz” (authentic to a style); they feel moved and touched by it; it represents (and what is authenticity but faithful representation) a specific point in time, culture, and musical history for them. Yet there are no lyrics, indeed no voice at all; no subject, and no words save the title, “Freddie Freeloader.” Our author and all the rest of us would do well to remember that only writing is just words – reducing music, or dance, or theater, or even spoken word poetry to just the words is, well, inauthentic.

      “Freddie Freeloader” by Miles Davis: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RPfFhfSuUZ4&list=PL8F6B0753B2CCA128

    10. personal authenticit

      Continuing to refine my impression of a broken record, I will continue to ask the same question: authenticity, to what? The author states it clearly here -- authenticity to self -- but then proceeds to use the naked "authenticity" for the rest of the discussion. This is valid, expected even -- but it is worthwhile for us to remember that just because a song isn't personally authentic doesn't mean it's inauthentic: it could just be authentic to something outside of the self.

      This is what lets us understand how the rest of the blues mentioned, despite not being autobiographical, could still have an "authentic" appeal.

    11. \Vhen the Levee Break

      On a personal note, this is one of my favorite songs by Led Zeppelin and one of my favorite songs ever. With that being said, I cannot relate to this personally, as the subject matter of moving across the nation due to my hometown flooding has never happened to me, and more than likely never will happen to me. Does this make my enjoyment of the song inauthentic? Since I am not a dispossessed people as the song's Blues origins appeal to, is the song "not for me"-- that is to say, is my enjoyment of the sound a sort of cultural appropriation of the dispossessed proletariat the Blues genre appeals to? To extend the question even further-- given that Led Zeppelin is a group of 70's rock stars with unfathomable fame and wealth, as compared to Minnie's experience of poverty during the Great Depression, is Led Zeppelin's cover itself culturally appropriating the lyrics of Minnie's song?

      Lyrics link: https://genius.com/Led-zeppelin-when-the-levee-breaks-lyrics

      Song link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwiTs60VoTM

    12. is one of the best storytelling I ilues songs ever, but McTell couldn't write

      Serious academic commentary: incredibly interesting how a genre focused explicitly on firsthand experience/narrative can have a signature piece about something the author was incapable of experiencing. Is the article being self-contradictory here, or does this indicate that Blues by is inherently authentic regardless of all else?

      Unprofessional commentary: I laughed out loud at this in a silent study room lol

    13. audience

      Authenticity comes through connection between audience and performer. If one cannot relate to the experiences put out by the other, inauthenticity arises. Sort of a mutual relationship, rather than one determining for the other what is important

    14. This lent the song an authenttc1ty that Spivey's had not possessed

      Perhaps a change-- previously had others write his songs, but now this is a personal experience? Would it be correct to infer that he wrote this song, or at least had personal influence in its composition? Regardless, intriguing to note that this sort of taboo-breaking song came to be known as one of the most authentic of its genre/time precisely because it was about the singer's own disease

    15. "personal authenticity"-the feeling · that they were made out of his own tears and ·laughter, his own memories and dreams, his own life and everything in

      Even though, as the author previously noted, he enlisted considerable help with writing his songs; it may have been his own passion put into his voice, and perhaps he really did identify with the words/ideas of his songwriters, they were not per se his own words

    16. vicariously gave his listeners the freedom they envied while affirming the comforts and values of their quotidian lives.

      Very important. Duality between freedom to do as one likes vs settling down, monogamy, family etc-- inauthentic due to conflict, or authentic due to accurately representing this duality that exists within mindsets of rural Americans?

  4. Sep 2017
    1. Real Citizens

      Jan-Werner Müller's essay was published in the Boston Review last fall. The essay is drawn from a book published by the U of Pennsylvania Press; that site blurbs it and provides a brief bio of Müller.

    2. ivisiveness

      An interesting choice of final word.....what do you think Muller was up to here? Any takers?

    3. So what to do? First, we must be very careful

      Notice how assumptions about audience come to the surface here...

    4. the origins of what has historically been called “populism”in the United States still suggest to many observers that populism mustfavor the least advantaged or bring the marginalized into politics.

      Question (based on my memories of the Democratic primary): what is the DIFFERENCE between this kind of advocacy and populism?

    5. realcitizens

      The title phrase, appearing as part of a definition: to understand populism we need to understand fantasy AND reality, Muller argues...

    6. Populism, then, is not

      more definition by negation: this section of the essay gets tricky as Muller piles up such phrasings--but he wants to emphasize that populism's "essence" cannot be reduced to single policy tendencies or manifestations

    7. Conspiracy theories

      A concept to keep in mind...

    8. Political scientists draw a distinction between imperative mandates and freemandates in political representation

      This is helpful: here Muller is saying "hey: some advanced Academic English coming up!" (Combining this with the terms Muller DIDN'T define in the same way can help you think about his desired audience..)

    9. All populists do identity politics, then—which is not to say that all identitypolitics is populist.

      Here we could connect Muller with Taylor's essay.

      Note how the rhetorical figure of "chiasmus" works to phrase Muller's distinction clearly and memorably!

    10. But demagoguery is not the same thing aspopulism. The former is a matter of false promises or manipulating citizens’emotions; the latter is about claiming a moral monopoly on representing theso-called “real people.”

      I've highlighted Müller's distinction between demagoguery and populism.

      Question: which of these two terms is more closely linked to the idea of authenticity, as we've been thinking about it?

    11. For all the talk, it is not clear that we know what we are talkingabout when we talk about populism.

      A very clearly phrased and strong (=ambitious) claim: there's been a lot of discussion of X...& it still needs to be clarified.

    12. anti-pluralism

      Certainly an academic term; not so much because of the hyphenated construction, but because "pluralism" is a very vague term that is often used to mean something completely different in academic discourse than its normal definition implies.

    13. Historians would not generallyargue that a proper understanding of socialism needs to make room forNational Socialism just because the Nazis called themselves socialists

      I am unconvinced by the sentiment expressed in this and the previous sentence. Words are given meaning by their use; they have no intrinsic meaning. Certainly, when all people use the word "banana" to refer to the yellow, oblong fruit, it is objectively wrong for a single person to then use it refer to an elm tree. But political terms like "socialist" have no real prior meaning. They are given their connotations and implications by their use, by those who are named by others or themselves* as such.

      When the Bolsheviks marched on Moscow, did it matter whether Marx would have considered them communists? They were communists to themselves, they were communists to the people fleeing the battle, they were communists to the royalists they fought, and they were communists to the Tzar they killed.

      I have to think more about how this fits into the larger puzzle, but I am convinced it cannot be irrelevant.

    14. America

      This might actually be one of the most relevant key terms (not necessarily his key term) around populism as America was all but founded on the disagreement between the "elite" class and the common man. I can't exactly say that this is an example of "Academic English."

    15. identity

      Key Term - This is very much an example of Academic English. It is prevalent in works like Steinbeck's "Grapes of Wrath" and the common man's identity in the context of the elite's power.

    16. demagogic

      A keyterm

    17. Who exactly gets excluded and how—whether Mexicans by way of a wall or Muslims by way of a religious test—can vary from day to day, but the fundamental logic is always the same.

      A citation for identity in the context of populism. It supports his claim about Trump's supposed populism as an extension of his elite power.

    18. entirely illegitimate

      Key term - integral component of the populist perspective

    19. anti-elitist

      Key term, I feel as if this is relatively universally understood thus not that Academically englishy

    20. populist

      A keyterm

    21. The former is a matter of false promises or manipulating citizens’emotions

      Citation for demagoguery

    22. antiestablishment

      Academic language - no clear definition provided

    23. anti-pluralist

      Key term, I think it's pretty Academic English-ish though the author does attempt to define it to some degree. (though it still did not become completely clear to me by the time I had finished the article)

    24. the latter is about claiming a moral monopoly on representing theso-called “real people

      The first citation for what populism is rather than what it isn't

    25. In a pluralist democracy comprised of diverse interests andidentities, this claim opens the path to excluding entire groups

      I think the author is saying here that a populist leader squashes the notion of individuality and combines all people into one same category, destroying that uniqueness (at least they imply it, in their speech, whether or not it has a real effect on people's actual personalities is probably a different story). I think this notion of squashing individuality could be combined with concepts from the prior essay about political philosophy about authenticity to write a good essay haha.

    26. corrupt

      Claims for both sides. Is the general culture becoming more populist?

    27. populism

      An official political definition of populism is "political program or movement that champions the common person, usually by favourable contrast with an elite"

    28. demagoguery

      Official definition of demagoguery is demagoguery is "an appeal to people that plays on their emotions and prejudices rather than on their rational side"

    29. Hillary Clinton made when she criticized Trump voters as“deplorables.

      Citation of political strategies surrounding populism and a recent example.

    30. disputes are always matters ofcharacter

      Reminds me a bit of fundamental attribution error. If politicians are unable to see opponents as individuals of character apart from the mistakes they've made in the past, they are making what psychology and also many voters call an error.

    31. Trump and Marine Le Pen

      Citation of examples of populists

    32. speech at the Republic NationalConvention

      Source that gives an example of Populism (with no context)

    33. populism

      Key Term

    34. Populists

      Key Term

    35. play on theprejudices of people using emotionally charged rhetoric.

      One of Trump's primary vote-getting methods.

    36. Populism is also not a matter of advancing particular policies.

      Muller, aware that he is entering a discussion in which almost nobody agrees on the definition of the central term, takes the time in this section to, paragraph by paragraph, approach each of the other major definitions and demonstrate their incorrectness.

    37. We will annotate Müller in the period before class; we will then use the "Academic English" handout to do a workshop with the article in class.

      Any of the three categories of annotations are "in play" for this reading; please make public at least two different annotations.

    1. In those earlier societies, what we would now call identitywas largely fixed by one’s social position.

      I find it interesting that it is a new concept that our identity is focused on who we are as people instead of who we know. Ultimately, it has become more important to be unique (read: authentic to oneself) than to hold a specific title.

    2. epitomize this crush-ing portrait of contempt of New World aboriginals

      I really like the way Taylor utilizes strong, emotionally-charged language to drive his point home. By evoking strong emotion, Taylor is able to direct it.

    3. It comes to be something we haveto attain if we are to be true and full human beings.

      Getting a bit too philosophical for my engineering brain...

    4. define our identity always in dialogue with, sometimes instruggle against, the things our significant others want to seein us.

      If this is true, and we create our identity out of a series of decisions to either satisfy or contradict the wishes of our "significant others," then of course our identity would be largely based on others' recognition. If others place some stereotype upon us, we only have the choice to comply with it or to reject it, without the option to act as if the stereotype doesn't exist and act freely in some middle ground. Thus recognition plays a large and somewhat irritating part in controlling who we are.

    5. George Herbert Mea

      One very noticeable thing about Taylor's writing is that he constantly references other authors and philosophers. He does this to back up his argument and to make him appear more reputable.

    6. recognition

      Taylor's piece hinges on this one word, "recognition." But what does he mean by it? He never defines it, and having read the article over a few times now, I begin to think that he never defines it because its hiding something.

      What is recognition? In the most literal sense, it is being noticed. But being noticed can be good or bad; if someone tells me they hate me, haven't they recognized me as much as if they told me they loved me?

      There is a second meaning, that which we use when talking about prizes, for instance: "John Smith and Jane Doe were recognized for their work in the field of basket weaving with an award." This meaning has positive connotations, connotations of third party approval.

      Interpreted in the light of the first definition, Taylor's arguments are nonsensical; in that case, the projection of a "demeaning or contemptible" is still a recognition of some kind and the argument falls to shreds.

      No, by "recognition," Taylor really means approval. If "nonrecognition" and "misrecognition" are, as he defines them, considering a group somehow "bad" and expressing that, then by negation, "recognition" is considering them "good," approving of them.

      Why does Taylor not simply say "approval," then? There are many possible reasons. Perhaps he felt "approval", "a demand for approval" sounded bad. Perhaps he is relying on the double meaning to make his argument, implicitly switching meanings when convenient while seeming to be referring to the same idea. Whether that is a legitimate argumentative tactic or a cheap cop-out, I can't say. But I think it's very important not to gloss over the central idea here as if its meaning is settled and clear.

    7. . Equal recognition is not just the appropriate mode fora healthy democratic society. Its refusal can inflict damageon those who are denied it, according to a widespread mod-ern view, as I indicated at the outset. The projection of aninferior or demeaning image on another can actually distortand oppress, to the extent that the image is internalized

      With these very direct statements of fact the author conveys his own ideas to the reader as concrete; this is one of the most effective way of doing this outside of asserting using first person.

    8. I miss what being human is forme

      This concept of authenticity and identity being so closely linked is also interesting. I believe the author is just citing the ideas of Herder here but I'm wondering if he believes in them as well.

    9. recognition

      I've only read this far so I have no idea what this is actually discussing.... but I felt rather emphatically supportive of this word choice. (Perhaps too emphatically....) For me, much of politics, the news, modern literature, and music as well are all generated with the mindset of "what will make me noticed by others?" Or "what will give me recognition?" In fact, I am somewhat disillusioned by today's pop music as few of the hits seem to do anything other than repeat the same sounds/styles that worked for previous best sellers. This is all but ubiquitous in the news media setting, too. All across newspapers and channels are flashy words or phrases like "latest glimpse," "beggar makes millions over night." or some other click bait. Many politicians also do things to gain more attention rather than to actually affect their country as it gives them more "power" over people. In the end, the media, music, and ultimately our "American" culture is just one big regurgitation of itself, forming a mountain of bullshit on which we stand declaring that we are somehow the best.

      My writing took over....

    10. Being true to myself means being true to my own original-ity, which is something only I can articulate and discover. Inarticulating it, I am also defining myself.

      This paper has officially reached the point where I would typically write it off as overly philosophical crap that contributes nothing to society. But for the purpose of studenting, I'm going to finish reading.

    11. Due recognitionis not just a courtesy we owe people. It is a vital humanneed.

      The idea that there are people out there who only want to exist and be recognized, but yet are denied that is something that is very prominent within our world today.

      Makes me think of the Arcade Fire song "We Exist"

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRXc_-c_9Xc

    12. It is true that we can never liberateourselves completely from those whose love and careshaped us early in life, but we should strive to define our-selves on our own to the fullest extent possible, coming asbest we can to understand and thus get some control overthe influence of our parents, and avoiding falling into anymore such dependent relationships.

      Yes we should avoid being defined by the thoughts of others, but is it terrible to gain some identity from others? I could not be identified as a daughter, friend, or girlfriend without other people. These things are a part of me no matter how hard I would try to be independent. To what extent is being independent good?

    13. uthentic-ity.”

      Hey, look, our course's focus!

    14. Herder

      According to Wikipedia he "was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the periods of Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism."

    15. Montesquieu

      French lawyer and political philosopher of the 1700s

    16. Montesquieu

      A french political philosopher from the Age of Enlightenment who discussed social classes of France, dividing the population into monarchy, aristocracy and the commons.

      Wikipedia

    17. monologically

      From the OED:

      Of, relating to, or of the nature of (a) monologue

    18. What changed to make this kind oftalk have sense for us?

      Questions such as this allow for Taylor to reach out to the mind of the reader and connect to them. Readers can read these questions and ponder the answer as they read, causing them to become more involved in Taylor's thought processes. This tactic is useful in public speaking, but also in written works such as this.

    19. Their own self-depreciation, on thisview, becomes one of the most potent instruments of theirown oppression. Their first task ought to be to purge them-selves of this imposed and destructive identity.

      Excellent. Precisely as I said before, this self-depreciation becomes a force in their own oppression, because it creates a mindset of helplessness.

    20. Within these perspectives, misrecognition shows not justa lack of due respect

      The structure of Taylor's argument flows notably well; I like that he presents the necessary examples for understanding an argument in a separate paragraph before continuing on to make his point.

    21. so that even when some of the objec-tive obstacles to their advancement fall away, they may beincapable of taking advantage of the new opportunities

      This form of self-victimization is where a distinct difference appears. A lack of personal initiative and self-confidence should not be blamed on society. Claiming that society as a whole induces women to adopt a lesser image of themselves as a whole may or may not be true, but using this as an excuse for a lack of self-responsibility and initiative is just sad. This form of self-victimization implies an inherent helplessness that's entirely untrue, and it's a mindset that helps nobody to be productive.

    22. dentity is partly shaped by recognition

      This premise is very intriguing to me; the idea of personal, private identity is shaped by public, evident recognition is perhaps not obvious. This statement also causes me to ask the question: if recognition defines part of one's identity, what defines the other parts? (Perhaps he answers this I have not yet finished reading the text, haha)

    23. Moreover, this is not just a fact aboutgenesis, which can beignored later on. We don’t just learn the languages in dia-logue and then go on to use them for our own purposes. Weare of course expected to develop our own opinions, out-look, stances toward things, and to a considerable degreethrough solitary reflection

      Taylor here strengthens his argument by providing clarification. He points out something he is not arguing to avoid confusion.

    24. UMBERof strands in contemporary politics turn onthe need, sometimes the demand, forrecognition

      I agree, this paragraph is very true. Whether that demand stems from true lack of recognition or more from personal insecurity is a different matter, but these movements do present themselves in a need for attention and recognition.

    25. George Herbert Mead

      Mead is a sociologist. He is strongly associated with the symbolic interactionist paradigm, a view of sociology that is based off of the belief that our interactions with people and the symbols and language we use are what defines culture. This view goes against other paradigms in which society is formed by either conflict or the way social institutions are connected.

    26. Taylor gives us an analysis of recognition that is at the same time a discussion of authenticity. You will see a number of resonances with what we've read thus far.

      When annotating Taylor, please make both rhetorically focused notations and interpretive/analytical notations: I want you to consider both the overall substance of Taylor's argument and the way in which he addresses his reader.

      The text will be open for annotation until the end of the week (week 5).

      At the end of this week, I will give everyone a preliminary grade for "annotations so far", with a brief breakdown of how well you're doing what I'm looking for and how you can do (even) better!

    27. TAYLOR

      There are many Charles Taylors! I will let Wikipedia handle the disambiguation: we are reading the Canadian philosopher.)

      For a recent piece on Taylor, see this essay from the New Yorker magazine entitled "How to Restore Your Faith in Democracy.". The profile was published on the occasion of Taylor's winning a major new prize in philosophy, awarded to a thinker “whose ideas are intellectually profound but also able to inform practical and public life.”

    1. cross section of the Negro South in the one state.And then I realized that I was new myself, so it looked sensible for meto choose familiar ground.First place I aimed to stop to collect material

      phrases like "cross section" and "collect material" make Hurston's endeavor seem scientific, and thus probably more authentic from the public perspective at the time that desired to study "American Negro life".

    2. I took occasion that night to impress the job with the fact that I wasalso a fugitive from justice, “bootlegging.” They were hot behind mein Jacksonville and they wanted me in Miami. So I was hiding out. Thatsounded reasonable. Bootleggers always have cars. I was taken in.

      I find it interesting that she got her authentic information by being deceitful.

    3. De Jew come past and heard de song from de soul-piece then he kept on passin’ and all of a sudden he grabbed upde soul-piece and hid it under his clothes, and run off down deroad. It burnt him and tore him and throwed him down and liftedhim up and toted him across de mountain and he tried to breakloose but he couldn’t do it. He kept on hollerin’ for help but derest of ’em run hid ’way from him. Way after while they come outof holes and corners and picked up little chips and pieces that fellback on de ground. So God mixed it up wid feelings and give itout to ’em. ’Way after while when He ketch dat Jew, He’s goin’ to’vide things up more ekal’

      This seems slightly antisemitic. I can't tell if the reason the "Jew" was the one to grab the soul due to the belief that Jewish people were always highly spiritual and that it came from the books of the Old Testament or if they were the first ones to grab the soul because of the many offensive stereotypes placed upon them over time.

    4. . I’ll put this play toy in his hand

      This is an intriguing metaphor, as it suggests that white men's nature is similar to that of a child in the regard that they are always asking questions and trying to play with something that doesn't belong to them.

    5. And the Negro, in spite of his open-faced laughter, his seeming acquiescence, is particularly evasive

      I find this sentence so interesting, especially when considering its authenticity. In one sense, this is a very blunt way for Hurston to say what is clearly a truth to her, and in that sense is very authentic. But, when examining the action discussed, it becomes clear that the actions of this hypothetical person are certainly inauthentic.

    6. This morning when we got to the meeting place, the foreman wasn’tthere. So the men squatted along the railroad track and waited.

      I have never seen an author use dialect as effectively as Hurston.

      So as not to break the flow of the story (which is as good as making it inauthentic, for it places a veil of commentary and technique between the events and the reader), she maintains dialect even in her third person narration between direct quotations when she is in a story, clearly demarcating it from her personal and philosophical paragraphs earlier.

    7. I don’t remember what the quotais. Perhaps I did hear but I forgot. One woman had killed five when Ileft that turpentine still where she lived. The sheriff was thinking ofcalling on her and scolding her severely.

      It's hard to tell, without more context, whether this is meant as a dry satire on the law's lack of desire to prosecute these crimes or as a simple statement of fact. Perhaps Prof. L. has some context he can provide.

    1. e should consider himself as in the situation of a translator

      I think this justifies a lot of discrepancies that may be found between real rural vernacular of the time and his poems themselves; as a translator as long as what Wordsworth is trying to say with this language is understood, he is accomplishing his goals and since he expressly states this as a desire in his writing then it is logical to argue that he is achieving this wish. .

    2. overflow of powerful feelings:

      I feel that this is clearly demonstrated in Michael. The language used by Wordsworth is both fueled by deep emotion, and is intrinsically deeply emotional.

    3. passion

      He uses the word passion so much wow.

    4. modifying only the language which is thus suggested to him by a consideration that he describes for a particular purpose, that of giving pleasure

      I think this shows what Wordsworth thinks to be the exceptions to always using vulgar, rural language of the common man in his diction. The only time he sees it makes sense to alter language to be more fancy and eloquent is when it is to bring pleasure to the reader. Using this any more often than on occasion would in Wordsworth's mind be "painful or disgusting"

    5. separate themselves from the sympathies of men

      This is fascinating to me, when compared with the clear divide in language used by Wordsworth in Michael, separating his point of view from that of the subject. While he doesn't completely separate himself from the emotion of the subjects of the poem, there is some distance created by the presence of the narrator, which is in direct conflict with Wordsworth's claim in this line.

    6. er portion of this faculty we may suppose even the greatest Poet to possess, there cannot be a doubt that the language which it will suggest to him, must often, in li

      I believe this paragraph shows Wordsworth confessing that while he will attempt to demonstrate as "real" and "authentic" a work as possible he will probably fall short of this goal

    1. On man, the heart of man,

      In the Preface, Wordsworth says that the main purpose of his poems is to, " choose incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them, throughout, as far as was possible in a selection of language really used by men, and, at the same time, to throw over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual aspect." What is a more common, well known subject than that of our lives and hearts?

    2. not verily

      This is the word used in my paragraph.

    3. morrow'

      This is the word I discussed.

    4. of p

      Prelim #2 Word: "pottage"

    5. Helpmate

      This was my word for my ACE Paragraph