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  1. Jun 2019
  2. May 2019
    1. The plates were kept in incubator gently and the colony formation was monitored every week. Media (500μl) was added to the plates every 4th-5th day to avoid drying. Colonies formed in soft agar photographed were taken without staining, under a microscope in light field
    2. Agar solution was prepared in a sterile 50ml Schott Duran Bottle and boiled in microwave until fully dissolved and kept at 55°C to 65°C. Master Mix with the rest of the components of bottom agar was made in a sterile corning 50ml tube prewarmed at 55°C and agar solution was added. The solution was once vortex briefly and then added (2ml) carefully to each well avoiding air bubbles. The plates were left undisturbed in laminar flow hood until the agar set fully. Two days before final assay, the bottom agar plates were kept in tissue culture incubator for equilibration. On the day of assay the following mix was prepared for Top Agar 4 dishes 5 dishes1.media with FBS, L-glutamine and Pen-Strep 4.8 ml 6 ml 2.fetal bovine serum 1.8 ml 2.5 ml 3.sterile water 1.8 ml 2.5 ml 4.agar 1.8% (1.8 g/100mLs) 1.8 ml 2.5 ml 5. cell suspension 1.0 X 105/ dish 100 to 350 μl 100 to 350 μl 6. Total 10.2 ml 13.5 ml Top agar mix without cells was first prepared and kept at 42°C. The cells were then trypsinized and re-suspended after counting in final volume of 100μl to 200 μl. Cells were then mixed with top agar and solution was quickly poured over the bottom agar.
    3. For soft agar assays 2x104, (A549) or 1x105 cells (E-10) were used in 1.5ml top agar. For preparing bottom agar plates (0.64% final con. of agar), a following mix was prepared for five dishes. 1.2X media with FBS, L-glutamine and Pen-Strep 10 ml 2.fetal bovine serum 5 ml 3.sterile water 1 ml 4.noble agar 1.8% (1.8 g/100mLs) 9 ml 5.Total 25 m
    4. Soft Agar Assay
    1. 12% resolving gel (for 25 ml)Water = 8.2 ml 30% Acrylamide = 10.0 ml 1.5 mM Tris (pH 8.8) = 6.3 ml 10% SDS = 0.25 ml 10% APS = 0.25 ml TEMED = 0.01 ml 5% stacking gel (for 10 ml)Water = 6.8 ml 30% Acrylamide = 1.7 ml 1.5 mM Tris (pH 6.8) = 1.25 ml 10% SDS = 0.1 ml 10% APS = 0.1 ml TEMED = 0.01 ml
    2. A double cylinder gradient former was used with 12% poly acrylamide gel mix in the inner cylinder and a 3% polyacrylamide gel mix in the outer cylinder that was stirred using a magnetic bead on a magnetic stirrer. A pump was connected to the flow tube and the flow rate adjusted at 5-8 to cast a 12-3% gradient gel. A 5% stacking gel was used. After the protein samples were run on the gradient gel, it was stained in instant blue over night under shaking. 3% resolving gel (for 25 ml)Water = 15.68 ml 30% Acrylamide = 2.5 ml 1.5 mM Tris (pH 8.8) = 6.3 ml 10% SDS = 0.25 ml 10% APS = 0.25 ml TEMED = 0.02 ml
    3. Casting a gradient SDS-polyacrylamide gel
    1. cellswere collected and washed with chilled sterile water.1 OD600cells were resuspendedin 20 μl chilled10%TCA solution containing 8 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) and incubated at room temperature for 15-20 min.Followingincubation, cellsuspension was centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 5 minat 4 ̊Cand supernatant was transferred to a fresh 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube. 10 μl of this supernatant fraction was diluted 75-foldwith ATPassay mix dilution buffer provided with the kit. 50 μl of diluted suspension was added to anequal volume of ATPassay mix (Sigma # FLAAM) which containedfirefly luciferase and luciferin with MgSO4, EDTA, DTT and BSA inTricine buffer.Luminescence was measured inluminometer (Varioskan flash-3001,Thermo Scientific). Total ATP was quantified usingpurified ATP as the standardand expressed in moles/OD cells
    2. ATPconcentrationin yeast cells was measuredby luminometricluciferase-luciferinbased assayusingATPbioluminescent kit(Sigma # FLAA).Briefly, log-phase yeast
    3. Determination of intracellular ATPlevels
    4. Estimation of total glycogen in cells was performed asdescribed previously (Parrou et al., 1997) with slightmodifications.Briefly, YPD medium-grown C. glabratacells were harvested, washed once with 1 ml ice-cold waterandresuspendedin 250 μl sodium carbonate(0.25 M)solution. After incubation at95 ̊C for 4 hin water bath with occasional stirring, cell suspension was cooled and pH of the suspension was adjusted to 5.2 by adding 150 μl 1 M acetic acid. Tothis suspension,600 μl 0.2M sodium acetatewas added and cell suspension was incubated with 1-2 U/ml of α-amyloglucosidase from A.niger(Sigma #A7420)at 57 ̊C for overnight with constant agitation.Resultant glucose liberated by α-amyloglucosidase digestion was collected in the supernatant fraction and quantifiedby phenol-sulphuric acid methodof carbohydratedetermination.For quantification, commercially available purified glucose was used as a standard and total glycogen incells was expressed as μg/2 x 107cells tonormalizeagainstcell density
    5. Estimation of glycogenlevels
    6. Trehalose from C. glabratacells was extracted by trichloro acetic acid (TCA)solutionas described previously (Lillie et al.,1980). Cells grown in YPDmediumwere collected at different time pointsof growth and washed thrice with ice-cold sterile water. Cells were immediatelystored at-20 ̊Ctill further use.For trehalose isolation, 10-20 OD600cells were thawed in 500 μl TCA (0.5 M) solutionon ice and incubated at room temperaturefor 1 h.Supernatant fraction was collected by sedimenting cells at 14,000 rpm for 5 minat 4 ̊C.TCA extractionwas repeated withcells once more and the resultingsupernatant was mixed with the earlier fraction.Extractedtrehalose was measuredby phenol-sulphuric acid methodof carbohydratedeterminationwithcommercially available purified trehalose(Becton, Dickinson and Co.) as a standard.Total trehalosecontent was normalized to the cell densityand expressed as μg/2 x 107cells
    7. Estimation of trehalosecontent
    8. Estimation oftrehalose, glycogen and ATPlevels
    1. QIAGEN QIAquick Gel extraction kit containing required buffers, spin columns and collection tubes was used to extract and purify DNA from agarose gels. Digested DNA sample was resolved on 1-1.2% agarose gel and gel piece containing desired fragment was cut ona UV-transilluminator. DNA fragment was purified as per the kit manufacturer’s instructions
    2. Gel extraction of DNA
    1. concentarion in the samples were determined based on their peak area against standard oxalic acid plot.For GC-MS analysis, N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) derivatization was performed with the dried HPLC fraction of samples as well as standards as described previously (Šťávová et al., 2011). Briefly, 200 μl BSTFA, and 100 μl hexane were added to the sample, and incubated at 50 °C for 70 min. GC analyses were performed using a Shimazdu GP 2010 plus instrument equipped with an autosampler, and a split injector.Separations were accomplished using a 30-m long DB-5 capillary column, 0.25 mm internal diameter (I.D.) at a constant helium flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Samples (10 μL) were injected with a split ratio of 10 into the column at 100 °C. The final column temperature program started at 100 °C and attained final temperature 280°C with a gradient increase of 5 °C/min. The MS data (total ion chromatogram,TIC) was acquired in the full scan mode (m/z of 50–500) at a scan rate of 1000 amu using the electron ionization (EI) with an electron energy of 70 eV. The acquired spectrum was searched against standard NIST-05 library
    2. Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzicola strains were grown overnight in PS medium supplemented with appropriate antibiotics. 0.2 % of the overnight grown culture was reinoculated in 250 ml of fresh PS medium supplemented with 50 μM 2,2’-dipyridyl, and allowed to grow till OD600reached 1. Cultures were centrifuged to obtain cell free culture supernatant, concentrated on vaccum evaporator, and freeze dried at regular time intervals to remove the water completely. Oxalic acid was estimated from the dried supernatant by using Agilent 1100 series HPLC system as described previously with slight modifications (Ding et al., 2006). In brief, dried supernatant fractions of different cultures were dissolved in mobile phase of pH 2.7, and allowed to stand for 3 h for the precipitation of humic substances. These samples were filtered through membrane filter (porosity, 0.45 μm), and 20 μl volume of the filtrate was injected into the Agilent C18 (4.6 mm× 250 mm× 5 μm) column. The mobile phase used was 10 mM KH2PO4-CH3OH (95:5, pH 2.7), and the samples were separated by isocratic elution at 0.8 mL/min at 26°C temperature. Standard oxalic acid was detected in similar way in mobile phase (pH 2.7 at 210 nm) with retention time (RT) of 6.7 min. Likewise, oxalic acid in the test samples were also detected at 210 nm with RT 6.7
    3. Oxalic acidestimation from culture supernatant of different strains of X. oryzaepv. oryzicola by HPLC and GCMS analysis