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  1. Jul 2019
  2. Jun 2019
  3. May 2019
    1. Overnight cell culture raised in LB medium was subcultured 1:100 in LB with 20 mM MgCl2. When the A600 reached 0.4-0.6, the culture was centrifuged at 2800g for 5 min at 4 ̊C. To the cell pellet 0.4 volumes of ice-cold TBF-I buffer was added and incubated on ice for 15 min. The cell suspension was centrifuged at 2800g for 5 min at 4 ̊C and the cells recovered were dissolved in 0.04 volume of ice-cold TBF-II buffer and kept on ice for 45 min. 100 μl aliquots of these competent cells were used for transformation using the normal transformation protocol
    2. TBF method for preparation of high competency cells
    1. Typically 200-300 ng of DNA was used in each ligation reaction. The ratio of vector toinsert was maintained between 1:3 to 1:5 for cohesive end ligation and 1:1 for blunt endligation. The reaction was generally performed in 10 μl volume containing ligationbuffer (provided by the manufacturer) and 0.05 Weiss unit of T4-DNA ligase, at 16ºCfor 14-to 16-hrs. On using the rapid ligation kitfrom Fermentas, incubation was at 22ºC for 1-2 hrs
    2. Ligation of DNA
    1. the disrupted gene, BLAST N of the sequences from rescued plasmids was performedagainstC. glabrataGenolevures database (http://www.genolevures.org/blast.html
    2. Identification of disrupted locus in Tn7insertion mutants was carried out as described previously(Kaur et al.,2004). Disrupted locus in each mutant is physically marked with a mini Tn7 transposon derivative containing conditional origin of replication R6K(facilitates Tn7recovery), S. cerevisiae URA3and Klebsiella pneumoniae hphgene (confers resistance to hygromycin B)(Castaño et al.,2003). Briefly,genomic DNA was isolated fromovernight grown Tn7insertion mutants using spheroplast lysis method. After RNAse treatment, 10μgDNA was either digested withMfe1or SpeIrestriction enzymeas the Tn7 cassette lacks these enzyme sites. Followingovernight digestion, DNA wasprecipitated with 1ml ethanol and 1/10thvolume of 3 M sodium acetate (pH 5.2).DNApellet was washed twicewith ice-cold 70% ethanol, air driedand resuspendedin sterile MQ water. DNA was recircularized withT4 DNA ligase. Resultant circular plasmid contains the Tn7cassette flanked on either side by the gene,it has disruptedin the genome of C. glabrata.This circular plasmid DNA was transformedin E.coliBW23473 strain,which contains protein Π (the product of the pir gene)required by R6Korifor replication.Transformation of circularized DNA in E.coliBW23473 electrocompetent cells was performedas described below.Plasmids fromselected transformants were isolated and sequenced with outward primers from Tn7right and left ends to sequencethe disrupted gene fragment.For identification of
    3. Tn7insertion mutant rescueand gene identification
    1. 10 mg phosphatidylinositol-sodium salt(from Glycine max)was dissolved in 2 ml chloroform to prepare a 5 mg/ml stock solution. This solution was prepared in a small glass vial aschloroformis known to reactwith polypropylene. Small aliquots of stock solution were madeand stored at -20ºC till further use. To avoid spillage due to vapor pressure, vials containing phosphatidylinositol-sodium salt solutionwereopened very carefully.To prepare sonicated phosphatidylinositolfor one PI-3 kinase reaction, 2 μlof the stock phosphatidylinositolsolution (10 μg) wastransferredtoanew1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube. Using vacuum evaporator apparatus, chloroformwas evaporated from the solution and phosphatidylinositol-sodium saltwas resuspended in 5 μl sonication buffer.For sonication, a total of 20 pulses, each of 30 sec with30 sec resting time weregiven on ice
    2. Preparation and sonication of phosphatidylinositol-sodium salt solution
    3. C. glabratastrains were grown overnight in YPD medium. Cellswereharvested from 1 mlcultureandwashed withPBS.Cells were next washed with50mM NaH2PO4andresuspendedin 100 μlFITC-dextran(50mg/ml). After incubation at 37°Cfor 45 min, cells were washed thrice with PBS for complete removal of FITC-dextran.Yeast cells were resuspended in 1 ml PBS and used to infect PMA-treated THP-1 cells in 4-chambered glass slide
    4. Fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC)staining of C. glabratacells
    1. QIAGEN QIAquick Gel extraction kit containing required buffers, spin columns and collection tubes was used to extract and purify DNA from agarose gels. Digested DNA samples and PCR products were resolved on 1% agarose gel and gel piece containing desired fragment was cut on an UV-transilluminator. DNA fragment was purified following manufacturer’s instructions
    2. Gel extraction of DNA