- May 2019
connectivity (chunking) among new concepts, such as concept mapping, can improve outcomes for subsequent memory-intensive exercises. Formative assessments, when performed frequently, help learners by prompting them to apply new content before it has been overwritten. Faded examples both minimize demands on short-term memory and offer context that helps improve connectivity for future work, in which the “scaffolding” of contextual support can be gradually removed. Anything you can do to a) recognize and b) support learners in working with the limitations of short-term memory will improve the effectiveness of your teaching
Strategies that help in moving information from short term to long term memory:
- chunking (tying disparate facts together)
- concept mapping (done best before lessons begin)
- repeated formative assessments
- faded examples All times, avoid cognitive load
guided practice: we set up a structure in which learners can test their skills and get feedback on their progress. This contrasts with another teaching strategy variously known as constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential or inquiry-based learning.
Guided practice is where we do:
- We work, our learners in the workshop work
- We use frequent formative evaluations every 5-10 minutes using multiple choice questions and the MCQs are so created that they can tap misconceptions, not just fact checking.
- We hold student's hand and guide
- We do this so that repeated practice will help to store information from short term memory to longer term memory
- Minimalist guidance actually increases the burden of learning new tools
An instructor can draw a concept map for an entire topic, and use that to decide where to introduce a formative assessment to avoid overloading short-term memory.
Great tip for desining a lesson
A concept map is a picture of someone’s mental model of a domain
Steps of drawing concept maps:
- List all concepts
- Put most abstract concepts on top
- Place all specific concepts at bottom
- Link them using verbs
- The more links the better
memory by creating chunks
This is the principle of chunking. In chunking you relate or connect the disparate pieces of information by forming connections among them, and then that forms the story or the narrative. this is like the 'attic' of Sherlock Holmes.
ask “What questions do people have?”
In a workshop setting repeatedly ask: "what questions do you have?"
Several teaching strategies were discussed. Start with reverse design and start with the goals in mind and tailor your teaching to that end. Then, use formative assessments
Reverse-design setting is where you start with the goals and objectives and tailor your teaching to meet these goals. See more ...
Wiggins and McTighe’s Understanding by Design,