47 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2017
    1. Thesis: The rhetoric of the built environment of Atlanta shows that racial discrimination, white flight, car dominated transportation network, and segregation by race and class have caused Atlanta to have the highest income inequality ratio in the country, and the same factors that led to severe income inequality in Atlanta are perpetuating the problem today.

      The author makes the claim that Atlanta has a preeminent car based transporation system and that race, class, and racial discrimination has been a determinant in income inequality in Atlanta, stating it to be the highest in the country. Providing data or a referenced source would help to give clarity to Atlanta's ratio compared to all other countries in the U.S.

      The authors' thesis is very thought-provoking and descriptive, but can be broken up into two-three sentences.

    2. Built Environment Analysis (DRAFT)

      Overall, the author does a great job in providing claims and arguments, but the draft in totality is not complete and needs the inclusion of citations from sources and data, graphs, etc. to provide evidence for the claims that are being made and also for general reference when mentioning ratios and numbers. Also, the author did not incorporate multiple modes of presentation. To meet the requirement, the authour should provide photographs, videos, charts, etc. which will also help to give stated claims and arguments a varied perspective.

    3. As a result of a long history of white flight and racial discrimination, Atlanta’s transportation network is predominately designed for travel by car. Consistent public transportation is present downtown and in the immediately surrounding areas. Evidence:

      This section makes the claim that Atlanta has an intentional, leading car based transportation system and that it has a connection to past racial segregation.

    4. Cost of living map and MARTA map side by side

      Listed here seems to be a description of two photographs that are to be compared, however there are no photograpghs posted to compare anything. The author should provide those images for reference and comparison as well as a description on what is being compared and why.

    5. The neighborhood one grows up in has been shown to impact their chances for upward economic mobility, therefore gentrification and neighborhoods segregated by class perpetuate income inequality.

      The author makes the claim that the neighborhood of ones upbringing has a direct correlation to their future rank in the economic sphere of the world. Examples on how this statement may be accurate should be provided in this area.

    6. The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility Since 1940” by Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren “All Cities Are Not Created Unequal” by Alan Berube

      The author provides a list of evidence based sources, but does not provide key details in how the sources benefit the claim. Author needs to provide citations and references from sources to support the claim that is being made

    7. history of white flight

      Listed here is a term that was unfamilar and provided research shows that there is a book entitled by this name White Flight by Kevin M. Kruse: http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8043.html

      Author could provide a brief description of the term because it will enhance this specific claim amd also include the link to the book's overview and how it possibly relates to the claim.

    8. While there is some public transportation for people living further away from the center of the city, the current accommodations are insufficient for people without cars.

      The author makes the claim that exisitng public transportation does not benefit persons without a vehicle, but acknowledges its benefits to persons that are located in somewhat distant locations from Atlanta.

    9. The trend of Atlanta’s middle and upper classes moving out to the suburbs is shifting, and these groups are beginning to move back into the city. Therefore, neighborhoods are being gentrified to meet the growing demand.

      The author makes the claim that Atlanta neighborhoods are becoming more gentrified due to the incoming masses of middle class persons/families.

    10. Low-income residents that have settled close to the city, along public transportation routes, are having to move further out because the gentrification of neighborhoods raises the cost of housing.

      Author's claim is gentrification and higher property taxes in Atlanta neighborhoods have caused perons/families of lower incomes to leave cities allowing middle-class persons/families to move in. Specific examples of this scenario in scecific Atlanta areas should be incorparted into the author's claim and provided for reference.

    11. The quality and quantity of public transportation decreases as you move further away from the center of the city. Consequently, those living in poverty who have relocated further away from the city are in a worse situation because they do not have the same amenities available to them.

      This claim explains the disadvantages that lower-income person families face when leaving areas that provide abundant access to public transportation and move to areas with little to less public transportation prone to be of lower quality. An example of this case should be provided in this area to compare public tranportaion between a city area and an area in which it lacks.

    12. “Atlanta: Unsafe at any Speed: Transit Fatality Raises Issues of Race, Poverty and Transportation Justice” by Laurel Paget-Seekins “Health Impact Assessment of the Atlanta Beltline” by Catherine Ross

      This is a list of the sources that the author included to support the claim, but there are no specific details provided to explain how or why it benefits the argument being made.

      The author should provide direct, specific evidence from the listed sources to support the claim.

    13. “Using Vehicle Value as a Proxy for Income: A Case Study on Atlanta’s I-85 HOT Lane” by Sara Khoeini and Randall Guensler “Atlanta: Unsafe at any Speed: Transit Fatality Raises Issues of Race, Poverty and Transportation Justice” by Laurel Paget-Seekins “The Human Scale” by Andreas Mol Dalsgaard

      This is a list of the evidence based sources for the authors claim. The author should add links to the sources and provide specific evidence and citations from the sources that pertains to the claim that is being made.

    14. Photo of bench in Little Five Points

      The author makes note of a photograph that is not posted so there needs to be a photograpgh in this area as well as a description on its relation to the claim.

    15. “Atlanta: Unsafe at any Speed: Transit Fatality Raises Issues of Race, Poverty and Transportation Justice” by Laurel Paget-Seekins “How Cities Use Design to Drive Homeless People Away” by Robert Rosenberger

      Here are the sources provided to accomodate the author's claim, but the evidence to back up the claim in not provided.

    16. “CHANGING BOHEMIA Little Five Points, a Haven of Counterculture, Faces Gentrification and Dissension” by Melissa Turner “Health Impact Assessment of the Atlanta Beltline” by Catherine Ross

      Sources for this claim focus on the Atlanta Beltline and the Little Five Points Area, however, the author does not include any major points or refernces to enhance the claim on gentrification in Atlanta areas directly. An incorporation of in-text citations is needed.

    17. “Atlanta: Unsafe at any Speed: Transit Fatality Raises Issues of Race, Poverty and Transportation Justice” by Laurel Paget-Seekins “The Human Scale” by Andreas Mol Dalsgaard

      Provided here are a list of evidence based sources to reiterate the authors claim.

      Again, the author should add links to the sources and provide specific evidence and citations from the sources that pertains to the claim that is being made.

  2. Mar 2017
    1. Urban life refers here to social interaction between people in places.

      Social interacton between people in cities seems very common, however I do notice that disabled persons do get ignored/overlooked many times which doesn't open the door for them to have social interaction unless they are the initiators.

  3. Feb 2017
    1. Implementing universal design in a Norwegian context: Balancing core values and practical priorities

      Scruggs, Gregory. "'I love cities, but they don't all love me back,' advocate for disabled says before Habitat III." Citiscope. N.p., 4 Oct. 2016. Web. 15 Feb. 2017.

      The article, written by Gregory Scruggs, explains the everyday obstacles that individuals with disabilities may face opposed to those without. Scruggs gathers quotes and background from those who have first-hand associations/experiences with disabilities as well as the opinions of those who do not. Numerical data is also included by Scruggs which compares how different countries have made adjustments to accommodate disabled persons.

      Scruggs allows for people who have disabilities to express their person trials and concerns on the lack of accessibility, specifically in cities, prior to Habitat III. Individuals that Scruggs interviewed point out the injustice that they feel due to no accommodations for their disabilities (par. 4). Scruggs' opinions on this issue aligns well with those with disabilities that are facing difficulties on a day to day basis.

      The primary and supplementary reading center around people with disabilities and some of the difficulties that they face with accessibility in cities. Both readings had a lot of similarities and a few differences throughout. In the primary reading, the author discusses in great detail her personal opinions and observations on the limited accessibility for those who are disabled in a Norwegian city. As a person who is not disabled, Lid tries to look in on the issue through the eyes of one who is disabled. Lid also interviews disabled individuals who have dealt with their own struggles on the subject. She discovers the effects that derive from the lack of accessibility, exclusion and avoidance, which people with disabilities may experience on a daily basis, particularly in cities (Lid 2016 par. 4).

      As a nondisabled person, I have noticed these effects as well and some of the avoidance and exclusion takes place due to ignorance and biased ideas, which in that case it should not be forced upon disabled individuals to conform and try to put their personal complications to the side for others to feel comfortable about the issue. When disabled individuals express that there is a problem and adjustments need to be made then it is up to architects, politicians, etc. to come together and solve those issues and leave unnecessary prejudices out of the equation.

      The supplementary reading was somewhat similar to the primary reading being that Scruggs also interviewed disabled individuals to get their personal experiences and opinions on the subject. Essentially, people who suffer with disabilities should not have to feel like an inconvenience for the way that they are, especially if it is how they were born (Scruggs 2016 par. 4). Accepting their differences and integrating them into society like human beings would speak highly on human decency, which is always a good quality for humankind.

    2. Since 1974, many pedestrian crossings also have sloped curves, in order to enable wheelchair users and people with strollers to cross the streets Making room for vulnerable individuals can thus be seen as a friendly aspect of the city.

      This is perfect example of sloped curves for wheelchair accessability, and also provides benefits to other mobilities such as bikes, strollers, luggage, etc.

      Reference link: http://mtv2day.info/znamezrez-zebra-crossing.html

    3. While the CRPD does not establish new human rights, it does set out with much greater clarity the obligation of states to promote, protect, and ensure the rights of persons with disabilities. Of key importance are accessibility, participation, and inclusion.

      These three factors align together to meet the end goal which enables persons with disabilities to receive normal/equal treatment that those without disabilities are graced with on an everyday basis.

    4. Disability is complex, and comprises individual, political, social, medical, and normative factors

      I can agree with this statement because there are many disabilities out there, some that are still being determined, so I can see how trying to factor all of them into architecture may be difficult, but it's always good to try.

    5. Disability-based exclusion is the result of both architectural barriers and negative attitudes

      As stated earlier, when disabled persons are using their voices to connect with those who are able to make changes to promote/include equal accessibilty in areas, cities specifically, it further reveals some of the biases that may play into the non-existent or lack of accessibily available for diasbled persons.

    6. When I was studying the experiences of accessibility and barriers persons with disabilities faced in urban areas (Lid & Solvang, 2015), a wheelchair user and one of the interviewees emphasized the importance of being present in urban public places

      Acknowledging the presence of those that are disabled allows for them to be included into the overall imagery of a city, overlooking them leads to ignoring the difficulties that they may face with accessibility in cities.

    7. Realizing that people with disabilities were grossly invisible in urban public areas, Jane 1 argued that politicians and spatial planners needed more knowledge about accessibility for wheelchair users. However, she also pointed to a catch-22: namely, that if wheelchair users, like herself, stayed indoors because of barriers in public places, politicians might fail to recognize their need for access.

      This interviewee gives meaning to the concept of not seeing/experiencing a problem individually so therefore there is no problem.

    8. Thus, she calls for a dynamic where people with disabilities engage with their local communities by being present in inimical places, thereby insisting on the need for equal access to all public places.

      This could allow for disabled persons to have a voice, having a voice and using it can futher determine whether you were being ignored for the lack of using said voice or for other reasons may be biased.

    9. Access to urban public areas involves both political processes and architectural design.

      Some architechs may not factor in accessibility for disabed persons because they are building based on their design, which may not primarily include people at all and/or more so as an after thought. However, those who may have knowledge/association with persons with disabilities would more likely incorporate accommodations.

    1. Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces

      Newlon, Cara. "The College Amenities Arms Race." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 31 July 2014. Web. 02 Feb. 2017.

      In this article, Newlon describes the luxuries that modern colleges have become accustom to possess. Newlon provides specific comparisons to American colleges from the 20th century adjacent to the 21st century. Newlon further points out how some of the modernized college luxuries provide benefits for colleges and students overall.

      Newlon's article discloses numerical data which demonstrates increasing costs of modernized college luxuries in America. Newlon also points out the expansion of college enrollment over a 10 year span (par. 4). The author suggests the idea of colleges having luxuries helps to generate more capital for the college (par. 10).

      Each of the readings focused on college campuses, but had contrasting ideas on how its surrounding locations affect academia and the college essentially. The primary reading focuses on how the incorporation of natural outdoor spaces and landscapes can positively contribute to a students learning process. College campuses in cities more likely pose an issue with this integration because cities are usually over crowded with businesses, people, buildings, etc. (Scholl et al., 2015 par. 4). With all of these growing circumstances, it becomes more difficult for surrounding locations and landscapes to remain in its natural form, eventually alterations to natural areas can occur benefitting businesses and consumers. Colleges that are located near small-town/suburban area could stand a better chance of fusing together natural surroundings into academia due to fewer distractions. However, it ultimately depends on the persons individual ability to focus and learn (Scholl et al., 2015 par. 11)

      The supplementary reading alludes to the benefits that added luxuries can provide for colleges. Luxuries such as, movie theaters, spas, arcades, ice rinks, etc., will attract more people and even business which allows for growing enrollment at colleges that provide such amenities. This also produces more assets for the college through businesses. Although colleges allow students to access these luxuries, ultimately it is the college that is able to capitalize on this (par. 10). In the long run, these added luxuries don't directly provide a higher quality of academia for students opposed to higher standards of living solely, but it does improve the prominence of the college resulting in more recognition, interest, and capital.

      Scholl, Kathleen G., and Gowri B. Gulwadi. "Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces | Scholl | Journal of Learning Spaces." Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces | Scholl | Journal of Learning Spaces. N.p., 2015. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.

    2. Students spend most of their tightly structured learning time indoors amidst traditional instructional classrooms (where students’ direct attention is most required) that are primarily structured for the visual mode of learning (e.g., whiteboards on designated walls, seating that faces the instructor).

      This statement resonates with my personal experience for elementary and middle school. The high school that I attended and graduated (Arabia Mountain) did incorporate outdoor open spaces and academia which did allow for a balanced learning process for some students like myself, but not for all students.

    3. Table 1. Student-nature interactions in campus landscapes

      Arabia Mountain high school provided a mixture of these settings: a greenhouse, classes held on trails,etc. which allowed for student-nature interactions.

    4. Therefore, providing opportunities for interactions that draw upon involuntary attention could be impactful on university campuses for attentional, fatigued students and their learning mechanisms.

      This statement sounds like an opinion rather than a proven fact, if a study was done there would most likely be a range of outcomes.

    5. Early American colleges and universities were self-sufficient and often built in rural locations with dormitories, dining halls and recreation facilities (Bowman, 2011; Eckert, 2012). Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry (Eckert, 2012; Gumprecht, 2007; Turner, 1984).

      Due to changing times it seems that universities have adapted to modern amenities to not only accommodate its students, but also for the campus in totality and its attraction to outside factors like businesses and consumers.

    6. This ability to focus one’s attention is essential for effective performance of many of life’s necessary and daily activities, such as acquiring and using selected information; making and carrying out plans; and self-regulation of responses and behavior to meet desired goals

      This ability is important, but not everyone can freely tune into it, one example would be parents, they are multitaskers and have to split their attention many ways especially when there are multiple children involved.

    7. Direct attention requires mental effort and cognitive control for an individual to sustain focus and prevent distracting stimuli from interfering with an intended activity

      I agree with this statement in totality because when it comes to my learning process I have trained myself to give each subject my direct attention and ignore other factors that interfere. However, this may not be something that everyone can do willingly.

    8. Student-nature interactions during study breaks help restore attention

      Personally I haven't experienced this to be true for others, however, I can ignore distractions and give my undivived attention to a subject no matter the location, but I have observed that some are not able to focus on a task period and a nature based study break sometimes poses as a distraction.

    9. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located” (Dober, 1996, p.47).

      Regarding this statement, I believe expectations of a college campus depends on the location, if it is located in a familiar area then expectations of something different won't necessarily be met.

    10. Flexibility in seating and spatial configuration can begin to help diffuse this emphasis and begin to accommodate other auditory and kinesthetic learning modalities.

      MIxing up the learning process by incorporating the natural outdoors sounds like a nice idea, but it also depends on surrounding areas when focusing on a campus specifically.

  4. Jan 2017
    1. Crowell, Charlene. America must equalize access to homeownership and its wealth opportunities. Crusador, 2016.

      In this article, Crowell explains the importance of homeownership and its pivotal role in American families. Crowell's article uses analytical data to display the differences between various ethnic groups in regards to homeownerships. Crowell points out some of the issues that few groups in particular face when trying obtain loans to establish home ownership.

      Crowell is aware of the disproportionate effects that foreclosures have had on Hispanic and Black households notably and gives insight on why and how it transpires. Crowell's article is very descriptive of the issues plaguing these two groups and its hindrance on future generations. The article includes detailed research and has also forewarned on how the current issues via considerable loans and homeownership can have negative effects in the future.

      Essentially, both readings have a direct link to property and disposition towards certain ethnic groups. The primary reading looks into African influences in American architecture while the supplemental reading examines the difficulties among Hispanic and Black families receiving homeownership through cost-effective loans to further build wealth for future generations. The connection between the two readings is very apparent which is home/property and race.

      The primary reading discloses hidden facts that were used to make major contributions to housing in the early 18th century through perhaps modern times. The supplemental reading delves into the detriments that two ethnic groups specifically, Blacks and Hispanics, are facing in modern times which is a deficiency in access and censorship to reasonable loans for housing and homes. The underlying connection between these two readings analyze previous African American benefactions towards American architecture and how home ownership for African Americans/Blacks and other minorities proves to be a difficult task.

    2. America must equalize access to homeownership and its wealth opportunities

      The title implies that home ownership in America is not proportionate and does not allow for generational wealth, but this only affects minorities negatively.

    3. Few conventional mortgages, the most affordable and sustainable loans, were made to African-American and Latino consumers

      This makes it difficult for minorities to build wealth through home ownership to pass down to future generations.

    4. “If the trends found here continue, few families will become homeowners, with implications for overall national wealth and for the health of the real estate market,” concluded the report.

      This will further widen the gap between the middle class and the wealthy/rich and increase the poverty rate for minorities.

    5. Discriminatory government policies of the past prevented many Blacks and Latinos from building wealth via homeownership.

      The statement gives reference to this issue occurring in the past due to prejudice reasons yet it is still an issue for the same ethnic groups, prejudice may still play a part in some cases however I think that there are more factors that go into this in modern times such as status and ancestry.

    1. Deetz, James. Digital image. The Plymouth Colony Archive. N.p., 2007. Web. 30 Jan. 2017.

      Each new floor plan shows small transitions and expansions from the original; without the original would the expansion look the same?

    1. Piecing together black history on a local level is a fascinating and often frustrating process of assembling fragments to form a coherent whole.

      This resonates with current times as well and African American history continues to be uncovered and leaves some to wonder what else hasn't been disclosed.

    2. terminus post quem

      "terminus post quem" is a Latin phrase; the latest date is taken into account over an earlier date (Definition: Terminus Post Quem 1).

      Definition: Terminus Post Quem. 1st ed. Smithsonian, 2017. Web. 25 Jan. 2017.


      I've never seen a modern day gravestone that classifies individuals as slaves or giving indication to race and then to further detail their contributions; why bother mentioning the contributions when status and race seems to be more important.

    4. Parting Ways

      The title "Parting Ways" seems opposite only to the African culture/architectural background Howe, Turner, Goodwin, and Quatamy were able to preserve.