75 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2016
    1. hey named themselves "The Posse," and became a "brotherhood" of read- ers gathering information from their worlds and the world around them, constructing meanings that extended their understandings, responses, and par- ticipation

      This is such creative idea for a teacher to allow happen. If a group of students do not wholly care about what they are learning or do not find the meaning in it, allow that group to take on a different perspective and find their own meaning.

    2. Literature has the potential to make a differ- ence in the lives of African American males; that is, reading, writing, and discussing literature can help them to make sense of and negotiate their life experience

      Literature as a whole provides a sort of third party view of experiences and events. In class the other day, Dr. Marx said, "reading is like magic, you get to read the words of somebody you may never meet". This really struck me and I instantly thought of it when I read this sentence. When you read something by someone you don't know, it shows how there is a world around you in which people do see the struggles and tribulations you are going through in your world. It brings to light for people that their trials are not only theirs, but instead shared by others, and there is something really powerful in that because people begin to see that they are not alone.

    3. I know that a mind "turned off' to literature is a mind often ignored in traditional classrooms, and therefore a mind that will have fewer venues for expression

      This is very true, especially at the college level. As an English minor, I know from my higher level classes that when I admitted that I had not read some classics, I was often met with the response, "How could you NOT have read that!" This made me more hesitant to share my opinions because I did not feel that my reading portfolio was comparable to my peers, and therefore my opinion was less important.

    4. African American educator

      The fact that the author of this article included this detail about themselves really struck me and I couldn't pass by without annotating it. This may be because I just completed Dr. Marx's class in which we discussed how the vast majority of educators are white females, reading from the point of view of someone who is considered a minority in the field of education really piques my interest.

    5. Therefore the student's lack of engagement could lead to boredom at the very least, and aca- demic failure at worst

      This is one of my greatest fears as a teacher. I know it is inevitable that students are not going to enjoy every single aspect that they are taught, but I am concerned that students will become so out of touch with the material that they will cause themselves to fail.

  2. Apr 2016
  3. edu307class.networkedlearningcollaborative.com edu307class.networkedlearningcollaborative.com
    1. iss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children by Ransom Riggs (2011

      The movie for this book is coming out soon! This could be interesting to incorporate in a classroom! (Also, its great book!)

    2. always allow alternatives for students who are not comfortable with the text choices

      Above all the other modifications suggested, this is the most important. Just last semester, in my comics class, we read a book with a clear depiction of violence with gore and all. The image made me very uncomfortable, and when I vocalized this to my professor, his response was, "Good. It is supposed to elicit some reaction from its readers". Although I understood his point, I did not enjoy the following two classes we spent examining the page. I felt very uncomfortable and did not want to participate.

    3. Perhaps that is one of the greatest roots of the misunderstandings around fantasy works: out of context, a book that creates space for examining a social issue may appear to overtly celebrate one point of view at a glance. Great science fi ction or fantasy, however, calls the reader to think critically for him or herself about the issue at hand.

      It is interesting that a genre that is so complex in its understanding gives such opportunities for children. As I said before, it presents a topic and then opens up the space to talk about it in context of the book which leads to a more open discussion.

    4. The Harry Potter series, perhaps the most demonized work of fantasy to date, is a story of good’s triumph over evil, perseverance in diffi cult times, and the importance of loyalty and friendship.

      I laughed when I read this because I had mentioned it in my annotation a paragraph ago. Although I personally do not see the harm in Harry Potter and was in fact encouraged to read the books as a child, it is important for myself as a future educator, to see that fantasy can be viewed differently by so many people.

    5. Some people have a clear religious objection to fantasy and science fi ction as genres

      cough Harry Potter cough

    6. My students’ stories surface of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (GLBTQ) youth at their own high schools wanting to go to prom only to fi nd that the rules have suddenly changed (“No friends allowed”) when a student wants to bring a same-sex date. A scene about peer violence in the text calls another student to recount the way a senior boy was beaten after school because he was gay. Another student notices a strong connection to the Jim Crow era and the fear of the “living impaired” in the text’s Oakvale High.

      It would be interesting for students to read literature that they can connect to real life on this level because they see that these types of situations occur in other places and brings about an open forum for them to discuss.

    7. adolescents who might be otherwise reluctant to discuss historical and contemporary discrimination fi nd themselves able to more comfortably look at this issue and draw parallels between the text and their own world when reading

      The first book that comes to mind when reading this sentence is Uglies by Scott Westerfeld. Although I have not read this, as it is not something that appeals to me, I do have a basic understanding of the premise. This is that when people turn 16, they have a surgery to "turn them pretty". I feel as though this would be such an interesting way to approach differences and get kids talking without creating an awkward situation.

    8. As a highly feminized profession, however, many elementary teachers were taught as young people to avoid fantasy and science fi ction

      This is such an interesting point that they are making. We see modern culture is trying to break away from these gender specific ideas and concepts, but it is true that women are generally steered away from fantasy and science fiction. Even in Beauty and the Beast, Belle is an avid reader, but the book that seems to be her favorite is a romance novel.

    9. Since we fi rst read the words E.B. White penned, “Where’s Papa going with that ax?” most of us understood the power of a great fantasy story. Instead of the terrible fate our small pink hero might have faced, he becomes recognized instead as “some pig” in the words of his dear friend Charlotte. Perhaps as a child you visited the Hundred Acre Wood and learned something about being a loyal friend from “a bear of little brain” named Pooh? Or maybe you have delighted with a child in your own life in Max’s “wild rumpus” that begins “where the wild things are.”

      I am already intrigued by this concept of fantasy literature. I never really put much thought into children's books' genre, but after reading this paragraph, and realizing that some of my childhood favorites are considered fantasy literature, I am struggling to come up with a book I read as a child that doesn't fall under the fantasy genre.

    1. Discussion and review of the categories always brings up modern parallels so that students al- ready begin to see how heroes, quests, and other archetypes are a part of their contemporary world.

      It is very important to connect literature to student's lives. Many times during school, I, personally, have found myself asking why and asking what the point is. If there are connections made to real life, it adds that much more meaning to the student's learning.

    2. This would consist of two phases: (1) an introductory unit on the ninth- or tenth-grade level illustrating promi- nent archetypes or themes through stories drawn from around the world; and (2) reacquaintance with these archetypes/themes on later levels by showing their appearance in varied works of liter- ature

      I like how the author illustrates that mythology is not being taught, and then instead of just saying, "this is a problem", they provide a solution.

    3. By noting how the trickster behavior of Odysseus in his confrontation with Polyphemus is echoed in Chaucer's "Miller's Tale," Shake- speare's fools, and R. P. McMurphy,

      I just laughed to myself a bit after reading this. This is because throughout the beginning of the article I was thinking to myself, "I think I have learned quite a bit of mythology over the years", and now reading this sentence, I have no idea what the majority of the references being made are.

    4. more aware of cultures that have often been better educated about us than we have about them. Knowledge of other people's cultural bases increases both respect for others and an apprecia- tion of our own place in the world

      This is important no matter what the situation. When making decisions, no matter the severity, it is always good practice to look back on what others have done and see how different decisions have worked out. From this, a person can adequately make a decision.

    5. Because few un- dergraduate degrees require instruction in my- thology and its related fields, most teachers ac- quire a BA without coming near them. Conse- quently, few high-school curricula require myth instruction because (in a tautological stance) few colleges require undergraduate coursework in it.

      This is very interesting. This means that it is just a cycle at this point because we are not learning about mythology in college, so we cannot teach mythology to those in grade school.

    6. An effective ap- proach to mythology should illustrate the connec- tion among international myths, folktales, and leg- ends that continue to be told in current literature and media, including films, songs, television, and cultural icons.

      The definition given for mythology is interesting because just after implying that it is not taught, the author gives a definition that says that mythology is in nearly everything, including things that students experience in their everyday life. Does this mean that students are inadvertently learning mythology?

    1. "What if" questions force an analysis and evaluation from a completely different point of view.

      I never really thought about how something so simple as asking someone "what if?" forces them to look at the situation from a new perspective. It is true though, because asking "what if" means looking at what we know actually happens and applying it to a made up scenario.

    2. "The Boy Who Cried Wolf" is one of the most well known of Aesop's fables. Children can easily relate to the shepherd boy who is bored and is looking for attention

      This is definitely a good example of a fable because it is something that can be directly related to the child's life. In a sense, the student can see themselves as the boy and see what they would do in his situation. If they would choose to act as the boy does, then they can see the repercussions.

    3. Introducing the concept is as simple as asking a question that causes the child to view the story from another perspective.

      We do this a lot in the 1st grade classroom I am placed in, every time we read a story we ask the students, "how do you think this character feels?" I like to ask the students to explain how they know that the character is feeling certain way because it allows me to gauge how well the student can read other people.

    4. they present a typical problem that children readily understand and can relate to. One or more characters, often animals, resolve the problem, thereby presenting the evaluation and analysis from a singular point of view

      It is interesting that fables seem to be so basic in structure, but carry such great meaning in our society. For example, The Tortoise and the Hare is a fable that teaches children to take their time with things and not to rush, and it something that is read to most (if not all) kids, but it really is so basic.

    5. As we all know, young children are most comfortable with clear rules and "black and white" thinking. The idea that a situation may have multiple answers that depend upon variables and context is a foreign and complex notion to children (and even many adults). Critical thinking begins with the recognition that there are multiple points of view

      As we know, the younger children are the more egocentric they are. Im not sure if this is the correct term, but I mean this in the sense that they only see the world from their own points of view. As children grow older, they become more aware of the idea that other people have different points of view.

    6. I am however, suggesting that children must first understand the concept of "it depends" and how it relates to their daily lives, if they are to think critically.

      This is very true. In order to make informed decisions, people much be able to weigh the pros and cons and see how it fits into the scheme of things. This is much easier to do when a person has an idea of how something would apply to their own lives.

    1. The fun of word plays, the cadence of language, and the literary effects of many of the books would be lost to a child busily involved in the mechanics of de coding.

      The students in the classroom I am doing my placement in are currently learning how to read so that they don't sound like robots. The teacher is trying to get the kids to read "like they would talk". I think for the time being, while students are learning how to read they are not going to entirely grasp every aspect of a story because they are still learning to be fluent readers.

    2. "that group of books in which pictures and text are con sidered to be of equal importance

      This directly correlates with what I am learning in my EDU305 class. We talked about how when children are learning to read, they use pictures to facilitate their reading. This can also be a detriment however, because the child may be reading and they come across a word they don't know that starts with the letter 'o'. They can look at the picture that has an owl in it and they recognize that owl starts with an "o" and they just guess that the word is owl. The child never learns to read the word.

    3. Most picture storybooks re quire a reading ability level of at least third grade and are generally read t

      I am struggling to annotate this; I wanted to comment on the entire quote. I would never think that children's books would be written at a 3rd grade reading level but to the interest of younger children. That seems to defeat the purpose of a children's book in some sense. If a child is learning to read and is at a first grade level, there should be options for them that are appropriately challenging but not two grade levels above where they currently are.

    4. Do the adults concerned assume that the children will be able to read and enjoy the books inde pendently, simply because they are children's books, or do they under stand that picture books are meant to be read to children by adults?

      This is very interesting. I would not say that picture books are meant to be read to children by adults. I would agree that this is their initial reason, but ultimately, the goal is to have the children reading the picture books on their own and developing their reading skills, not having a book read to them.

  4. Mar 2016
    1. what inspires kids to write is their teacher's dedication and attitude to ward the process"

      This is something I have been taught in almost all of my education classes. If the teacher is not interested or does not like the subject, the students pick up on it and then they will not be as excited about the topic either.

    2. Do you notice anything about the way the poet writes? Can you see any particular patterns?"

      This is a great way to avoid having to become a master at poetry and also have the students figure out the information on their own.

    3. stioning the Author approach attempts to give teachers questioning techniques that help the stu dent to find deeper meaning through modeling what excellent readers do when they read silently

      I feel like this is a great strategy that would work with most literature concepts. When students are learning to analyze texts, questioning things causes them to dig deeper into the meaning.

    4. have found through trial and error that even a first grader can write poetry in the style of a favorite author, and that modern, unrhymed poetry gener ally works best.

      If only all teachers could see this. One of the arguments pointed out above was that children would struggle to write poetry on their own. However, this teacher is saying the complete opposite.

    5. owever, reading poetry is simply not enough. What happens all too often when teachers choose to only read poems with students is that the students become confused by the complexity of the poetry, which often makes them reluctant to try writing their own poems.

      Everything needs to be taught in writing. A student isn't one day just going to be able to write a persuasive essay. The same applies to poetry. If teachers do not teach students how to write poetry, but instead just to read it, that does not mean they will understand it.

    6. erfect (1999) noted that these fears may include a teacher's perceived need to have skill in the teaching of poetry methods and conventions, as well as an understanding of how to analyze and interpret poetry.

      This makes complete sense. When thinking about future lessons I am going to teach, I worry because I know already that I am not proficient or completely knowledgeable in all of the subjects. This is why I have asked my cooperating teacher for my field work to work on a math lesson plan with me.

    7. large and ominous-looking anthology of long-dead poets. I can clearly remember the fear I felt when one such instructor asked me to voice my opinion about the meaning of a particular poem. E

      English 307. We had a huge book of them and nearly no one understood what they meant and our final was just three long poems that we had to answer questions about.

    8. It nurtures a love and appreciation for the sound and power of language. Poetry can help us see differently, understand ourselves and others, and validate our hu man experience. It...enhances thinking skills, and pro motes personal connections.... Such attributes deserve a closer look.

      I agree with this quote. Writing poetry is entirely different than writing short stories or papers. People need to think about how they are going to say something very carefully because more so than in any other type of writing, every single word matters in a poem.

    1. "use com mon sense and experience to create a combi nation program

      This is interesting. Ever since my admittance to the education program I have been told what I need to teach but not necessarily how or when to teach it. This quote breaks it down plain and simply. Use common sense when teaching.

    2. if we wish to stimulate the imagination, provide strong language models, expose students to lucid discourse, and expand their cultural awareness, we need quality, memorable litera ture in the reading program

      Looking back on my childhood, the most memorable books I read were the ones that I feel I learned the most from, meaning the teacher actually spent time going over the vocabulary and what things meant and the parts of the book etc.

    3. 972; Chomsky, 1972; White, 1984). Hence, "the richer the language environment, the richer the lan guage learning

      I like this quote a lot. I feel it holds a lot of truth to it. This is why when a person gets higher in a language class the teacher or professor requires that the class only speak in the language being learned. If a person is immersed in a language they learn it faster. This is also why people from different parts of the world speak differently as well. Just taking English for example. Multiple countries and places have people who speak English, but there are so many different dialects and ways in which people speak it. Everyone is speaking the same language, but they all were immersed in a different type and therefore they learned it that way. Literature is ultimately the same way. The more a child is exposed to literature and taught how to use it and understand it, the more proficient they become.

    4. he authors of Becoming a Nation of Readers: "On the average, children who are taught phonics get off to a better start in learn ing to read than children who are not taught phonic

      To me, this just further emphasizes the importance of phonics education.

    5. This is why phonics instruction is so important. It is proven that it is needed to decode, recognize words and comprehend them. These are all vital skills for children to learn and if they are all connected to phonics instruction then it it proof that phonics are essential to education.

    6. This approach can be achieved when phonics instruction is provided within the con text of real reading tasks and texts, especially through the use of quality children's literature

      As most of my peers have already said, phonics instruction is so fundamentally important. The skills that are learned during this type of instruction are critical to reading all lifelong. When combining phonics instruction and literature it can help the children's learning to be more effective.

    1. I would also like an embed so I could share finished stories on my blog or your classroom website.

      I agree, all of these modifications would be nothing but useful not only for a teacher, but for the promotion of their cite. If a person cannot share what they have created, then what is the point?

    2. Character Traits-Develop two characters with flat (very predictable) traits such as good and bad. Static/Dynamic characters-Do characters change because of the conflict? Problem and Solution-Conflict is at the center of plot.

      At the beginning of the article, I was only thinking of ways that teachers could use the site, not students. But this is a very good point. If students can make their own projects to illustrate the points then that is a fun assessment that shows the kids have learned.

    3. Since so much is done on the phone now a days it would be very convenient to have a phone app that allows a person to work on their story scape while out of the classroom as well.

    4. You can select backgrounds and between characters. Add text to each page. The amount of editing tools are perfect for schools. A

      The amount of modifications this site allows is amazing. Being able to manipulate a story in a way you need in order to teach a lesson can be very useful to teachers and it seems like this website would be very useful for that.

    5. Next you draft your story (after careful pre-writing of course)

      This is such an interesting concept. It would really help in a classroom setting because you can create a story based on whatever concept it is that you are working on with your students.

  5. Feb 2016
    1. haring follows the writing time. About one fifth of the class shares a piece each day. That enables me to con fer one-on-one with each child each week.

      This is a good idea, especially if it is random who is going to be called on when. This makes the students actually try when they are writing, rather than just putting words on a paper for the sake of getting the assignment done.

    2. use a kitchen timer set for 10 minutes, and the children know that they should be ready to begin their writ ing by the time the bell rings. They may start writing sooner if they are ready.

      This is SO SO important. So often I am told to plan out my writing before I do it, but I was never taught it that way. I was just told to, never taught how or have practiced it in a classroom setting. The closest I have ever come to this would be writing a first draft of a paper. I think this is such a valuable and important skill to learn.

    3. earn a great deal from one another. I frequently observe children using wri

      The teacher I am doing my fieldwork with strongly believes this as well. She tends to air her kids up by putting a strong reader with an under grade level reader. She says that the higher level readers will help the lower ones, and even if it does not necessarily benefit the higher level readers, at least they are reading.

    4. I believe several children could profit from a given mini lesson, it is time to teach it to the class. I repeat the content of most minilessons several times throughout the year, so if a child does not pick up on what is taught initially, there will be other op portunities to learn. F

      This is just plain good teaching. I don't think much else needs to be said about it.

    5. also include minilessons on illus tration in this group as a means of re hearsal for writing as well as for its contribution to the final product. Drawing people engaged in action and showing details in the environment helps children elaborate in their writing.

      I feel this is quite an interesting thought. I participated in a program called Jumpstart, in which we worked with preschoolers. When we just asked students how someone was feeling when they were at a playground for example, the answers were much different from when they are asked how someone is feeling based on a picture of someone at a playground. So images can very much change the way a person sees and interprets ideas and concepts.

    6. trategies and skills make up the largest category of minilessons.

      I think this is a good idea to make it take up more time than the other two sections. This is because the students will be learning specific skills during this time, and the less time they are taught it, the less practice they have and the less proficient they will be.

    7. arly in the school year, procedural minilessons predominate as I explain and demon strate behaviors for participating in writing and sharing time.

      This is very important. Teacher's sometimes just expect their students to know what to do when they are given an assignment. Everything needs to be explained when it is new or even just a new teacher so students know exactly what can be expected of them.

    8. st of my direct writing instruc tion takes place during these brief ses sions, which may last up to 15 minutes.

      This is a good idea because I have noticed, especially for younger grades, students will pay more attention and retain more if the instruction only lasts for a little while. If the teacher goes on and on, the students will tend to lose focus and get distracted and not care so much about what they are being taught.

    9. his article is the result of a col laboration of three experienced teachers. W

      I am already interested in this article right off the bat. Knowing that the authors of it are teachers themselves makes what they say in their article more validated for me. The things they will say and suggest will be tried and true, not just based off research done by someone else.

    1. here must be opportunities for regular demonstra tions of reading strategies, for sharing in the reading process including responding to books, and for evaluating individual reading progress. Atw

      I think this is would accomplish the same thing as a worksheet. If a child is able to share what they read and give a presentation on it, then they clearly need to have read the text and have understood it. Worksheets tend to check these concepts, so a presentation or discussion post reading could replace the worksheet idea.

    2. econd, the classroom environment and daily routine must encourage reading as a pri mary activity integrated with other language modes, i.

      I like this concept. I have noticed through my education and field work that there is much more emphasis placed on being able to speak effectively with others, but not so much emphasis placed on reading and writing.

    3. us, organizing for successful reading instruction should provide a way to spend much less time completing worksheets while maintaining

      I agree with this. I have always found that when I know I need to fill out a worksheet or answer questions or take notes while reading a text, it detracts from what I am doing. For example, I find myself rereading the same paragraph multiple times over, not because I did not understand it the first time, but because I lose my place and need to find it again.

    4. ypical primary grade classrooms read independently only 7 to 8 minutes per day; an

      I am currently doing fieldwork hours in a 1st grade classroom, and I don't know if I can attest to this claim, but I can say that more often than not, the children are reading with a partner. That being said, this is because there are several kids who cannot read at grade level and there are several kids who are above grade level. The teacher uses the kids who are above grade level to help the kids who are under.

    5. e know that children's reading fluency and consequent enjoyment of reading are re lated to sustained encounters with interesting texts

      I find this to be very interesting. The article is claiming that the more engaging the material is for the students, the easier it is for them to read and the more they enjoy it. I easily buy into the premise that they enjoy it more, but I do not understand the claim that it is easier for them to read. Just because a child likes the text they are reading, does that make them a more fluent reader?

    1. It is important—even necessary—to support learners in deconstructing socially accepted norms about gender and, indeed, the ability to engage critically with gender is for many children no less than a question of survival.

      I agree with this concept and this is why I respect Target so much. They took a huge step toward this when they got rid of the "boy" and "girl" sections in their stores and just made it one giant toy section.

    2. “begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development’. (p. 33)

      I agree that children can be taught most subjects. Children are naturally curious and tend to repeat what they hear, so whatever they are told becomes engrained in their minds. This means that, building off of a previous statement made, children need to be taught that there are more options when it comes to gender identity other than just "boy and girl"from a very early age.

    3. Yet a growing body of research makes it clear that children begin to internalize dominant beliefs about gender as early as preschool

      This is why it is important to teach children from an early age about acceptance and gender. I agree with rogerskali in that children need to know that there are more options than just "male and female" and that they do not need to be "boxed into" society's standards.

    4. The project of this dissertation is to transform the social order with the aim of achieving increased support for those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA), but it is equally about dismantling misogyny, homophobia, and transphobia so that all people, regardless of their sexual or gender identity, can be free. Cultural expectations about gender are folded into, for example, the spoken and tacit rules for how women and men, girls and boys, should dress and carry their bodies and engage with others and make decisions about relationships, family, and careers.

      I took a class last semester called Young Adult literature in which we read young adult books about different topics. One of the ones that had the most discussion was when we read Boy Meets Boy by David Levithan because it took place in a world where there is very little homophobia and the concepts about it were generally the opposite from what we hear in the real world. The vast amount of the discussion at the end of this novel was about how this was not a realistic setting because it was so difficult to buy into the premise. I found this to be extremely aggravating because it made me realize we live in a society that has programmed us to believe that it is nearly impossible for people to be accepted. This is why this topic was so interesting to me.

    1. These practices have created an oppositional identity in students, a resistance to school-related tasks, and a diminished sense of self as an academic being

      I would like to see the data that relates what students read to their lack of academic motivation. It would be interesting to see how the data relates.

    2. These instruments, the use and misuse of the data resulting from these instruments, and the associated education practices that these instruments influence—such as academic tracking, retention in grade, and remedial curriculums—have had dire effects on African American adolescents

      It is interesting to see that so much is impacted by these tests, straight down to texts that students read.

    3. History is laden with these kinds of enabling texts for African American males. An enabling text is one that moves beyond a sole cognitive focus—such as skill and strategy development—to include a social, cultural, political, spiritual, or economic focus

      I think it is very interesting that educational systems have incorporated this type of literature into their curriculums. I think all literature read in schools should move beyond just a cognitive focused mean something greater to the student reading it. I feel the greater the meaning of the text impacts the student, the more they will remember and incorporate it into their daily life.

    4. Modifying curriculum on the basis of such texts and creating a responsive environment can foster meaningful discussions among students against an education backdrop of standards and accountability

      This is an interesting concept that had not occurred to me before reading this. Though it is blatant and obvious, now that it has been brought to my attention I am very interested. When students are given literature and have lessons that are based around something of meaning to them then the discussion becomes much more meaningful. When students are able to relate school work to the real world and issues they face on a daily basis they have more to say, and what they say tends to be more important (instead of just silence fillers).

    5. I took a Psychology class that discussed the concept of priming (I can not remember the exact term, but I think priming was it). It essentially claims that, for example, if a group of women are told (or it is implied) that women are inferior to men, then they take a test shortly after, the women tend to do worse on the test than if they are not "primed" at all. The reason I mention this is because there was a second example when it came to sports that showed white males and black males going into a study. When they were "primed" to believe that black males were better at sports than white males, the results proved to follow this. Then when they were told "white males are better" the white males performed better. Since we live in a society that tends to favor white males over any other race or gender it can be seen why what the article is discussing is true. It is interesting to see something I learned in a psychology class translating into an education class.

    1. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

      I think Pezzettino by Leo Lionni would be a good text for this standard because the characters in this book are more abstract and the text is very basic, so it provides students with an opportunity to give a variety of answers.

    2. describe the relationship

      Students need to be able to convey what they are seeing in an illustration and compare it to the text that was read.

    3. illustrations

      A kindergarten student must know the definition of a illustration.