99 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2022
    1. This includes off-chain custodial stablecoins like USDC or Facebook’s proposed Diem which use “holdings of fiat currency or high-quality liquid assets as a reserve,” asset-backed on-chain varieties like those created by the MakerDAO DeFi protocol, and “algorithmic” stablecoins that use smart contracts and token supply modifications to maintain a stable peg


    1. Currently, USDC and Paxos publish monthly public auditor reports of the smart contract and of the reserve on their websites; to reduce fraud risk this process could be fully automated and even real-time.
    2. Embedded supervision is a framework that provides for compliance to be automatically monitored by reading the ledger of a DLT-based market (see Graph 6). The ledger of a DLT-based market contains much information relevant for supervisory purposes. As such, it can be used to improve the quality of data available to the supervisor, while reducing the need for firms to actively collect, verify and report data to authorities.
    3. FSB has called “global stablecoins” or the EU calls “significant stablecoins

      What does Canada Call them?

  2. www-oecd-ilibrary-org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca www-oecd-ilibrary-org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca
    1. esign and standardisation

      works best when harms are well understood.

    2. Participatory agenda-setting in mission-driven innovation

      good for when harms may be more obvious. ie good historic corrolaries.

    3. RRI is the ongoing process of aligning research and innovation to the values, needs and expectations of society”

      through public engagment and generally changing the culture of culture

  3. Jul 2021
    1. the citizen-costumer is king

      its not already?

    2. In Stephenson's book,they consist of private corporations which have replaced the State in all its functions,competing to each other to provide goods and services.

      tha taliban, median cartel and many other criminal organizations have al done this. (non-state actors are really just state competitors)

    3. namely self-sufficient agents derived from artificialintelligence and capable to execute tasks without human involvement, for which theblockchain can provide additional functionality.


    4. hyper-political tools,

      You can embed you politcs into the protocol. But as an actor within the protocol you are not political. you're an agent. Think arrendt technocracy.

    1. The null model was also used to generate Monte Carlo simulations for each country, which create a probability distribution of the expected requests in the ‘after’ period with no discontinuity.

      Any other studies that use this method?

    1. This data is networked and controlled by two central panoptic collective actors: capital and the state

      capital? Industry. emergent self interested actors.

    2. Information is non-rivalrousin consumption (as a resource, information is not used up when consumed). It is difficult to exclude others from access. Information can be easily copied. It is therefore an antagonistic commodity type that can be turned into a commodity, but that can also relatively easily resist commodification and be turned into a common good. Digital capitalism faces a contradiction between digital capital and the digital commons

      Information as a public good Non rival no exclusive.

  4. inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net
    1. The right of indigenous peoples to pursue development and cultural agendas in keeping with their self-determined aspirations and needs has been asserted by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). The reluctance of nation-states to recognise self-determination, let alone sovereignty, among the indigenous polities within their borders has been the subject of both critical commentary and advocacy. However, it is only recently that attention has been given to the kinds of internal expertise and institutions that are ne

      Funny to think that they should adopt our standards and practices. What the point of having sovreignty?

    1. This is yet another rendering of the‘extended order,’fully explicated by computer-mediation. Theelectronic text of the informated workplace has morphed into aworld-spanning living organism–an inter-operational, beha-vior-modifying, market-making, and proprietary God view.

      Create event -> profit off event -> Analyze data on event to strucutre future events and responses ->repeat

    2. The two entities at thevanguard of this new wave of‘reality mining,’‘patterns of lifeanalysis,’and‘predictive analytics’are Google and the NSA

      Seeing like a state. Information technology has democratized who can 'see', and therefore who can seek and wield power.

    3. The result is that human personsare reduced to a mere animal condition, bent to serve the newlaws of capital imposed on all behavior through an implacablefeed of ubiquitous fact-based real-time records of all thingsand creatures.

      how is this different form a states power?

    4. Varianadds a new dimension to both hegemonic ideals in that nowthis‘God view’can be fully explicated, specified, and known,eliminating all uncertainty

      This is a leap.

    5. Varian’s vision of the uses of computer-mediated transac-tions empties the contract of uncertainty. It eliminates theneed for–and therefore the possibility to develop–trust.Another way of saying this is that contracts are lifted from thesocial and reimagined as machine processes.

      Are we not just providing greater parameterization to contracts and extra legel enforcement to be embedded within the contract? Why is this bad? why would't we get as much adaptability from this process? It seems like iteration is actually faster under these conditions.

      In so many ways, the role of governemnt and platfrom is to be the layer that allows for trustless cooperation. You fear the enforcemnt of govt if you break the contract.

      There are always contract breach conditions baked in.

    6. These highly specialized material and knowledge require-ments further separate subjective meaning from objectiveresult. In doing so, they eliminate the need for, or possibilityof, feedback loops between thefirm and its populations.

      fasle proposition? Isn't that almost exatly what data anylis is? You can do both as well.

    7. nd its sub-stantial investments in technologies with explosive socialconsequences such as artificial intelligence, robotics, facialrecognition, wearables, nanotechnology, smart devices, anddrones, Google has not been subject to any meaningful publicoversight

      google can build whatever they want, create new ground and colonize it mia data extraction: Pro: greater innovation, new things that might help people, we now have a system that can incentivize risky innovation without the need for public coordination.

    8. Given Varian’snew facts of a knowable market, he asserts four new‘uses’thatfollow from computer-mediated transactions:‘data extractionand analysis,’‘new contractual forms due to better monitor-ing,’‘personalization and customization,’and‘continuousexperiments’

      this is not a suggestion that the market is moot. It is a suggestion that we can gather new information in scenrios where markets fail (monitoring, contracts/principal agent, being able to run faster experiemnts and iterate becasue you're abel to run better controlled experiemnts).

    9. Google and the‘big data’project represent a break with thispast. Its populations are no longer necessary as the source ofcustomers or employees. Advertisers are its customers alongwith other intermediaries who purchase its data analyses.Google employs only about 48,000 people as of this writing,and is known to have thousands of applicants for every jobopening. (As contrast: at the height of its power in 1953,General Motors was the world’s largest private employer.)Google, therefore, has little interest in its users as employees

      Free fucking product

    10. First, and most obvious, extraction is aone-way process, not a relationship. Extraction connotes a‘taking from’rather than either a‘giving to,’or a reciprocity of‘give and take.’

      free service?

    11. Now the enduring questions ofauthority and power must be addressed to the widest possibleframe that is best defined as‘civilization’or more specifically–information civilization

      This has always been the case according to Harold Innes.

    12. This helps to explain why there is so little real competitivedifferentiation within industries. Airlines, for example, haveimmense informationflows that are interpreted along more orless similar lines toward similar aims and metrics, becausefirmsare all evaluated according to the terms of a single shared logicof accumulation.

      Is there anything wrong if they're compting on price? Some industries are just like this.

    13. The action of a machine is entirely invested inits object, but information technology also reflects back on itsactivities and on the system of activities to which it is related.This produces action linked to a reflexive voice, as computer-mediation symbolically renders events, objects, and pro-cesses that become visible, knowable, and shareable in a newway. This distinction, to put it simply, marks the differencebetween‘smart’and‘dumb.


    14. If you have something that you don’twant anyone to know, maybe you shouldn’t be doing it in thefirst place, but if you really need that kind of privacy, thereality is that search engines including Google do retain thisinformation for some time...It is possible that that informa-tion could be made available to the authorities’(Newman,2009).
      • some nice Foucauldian logic
  5. Jun 2021
    1. China has taken both a hard and soft approach to engendering a degree of self-censorship among Western firms, which do not wish to alienate Beijing or lose market access.

      huge risk

    2. The central concept to understanding Russian information-influence operations beyond the country’s borders is the ‘protest potential of the population’.

      this is fucking hot

    3. There are no front lines—the war is total—and there is no neutrality. Driving wedges between people is sure to be one objective of the Kremlin, and it is incumbent upon everyone to make an effort to not be pawns in a Kremlin game

      impssible for me to noth think that covid could have been an act of decentralied warfare

    1. Economic incentives may be necessary for a healthy public sphere, but they will not be sufficient.

      TOTAL Lack of imagination

    2. InfoWars is an antagonistic source of information. Boy, is it antagonistic! But its goal is to destroy trust. Its goal is to get you to trust nobody. It reduces politics to tribalism and cultural participation to warfare. It reverses and undermines the spread and growth of knowledge.


    3. Fourth, these intermediate institutions and professional groups can successfully do their job only when they are generally trustworthy and trusted.

      Its a funny idea that we should accept this work be outsourced to others.

    4. They have to provide what Justice Hugo Black once called “diverse and antagonistic sources” of information.

      Dependance on authority has lead to serious dangers.

    5. f you want to realize these values, you need more than a simple free speech guarantee like the American First Amendment. You need more than a legal norm that the state doesn't censor. You need more than the formal ability to speak free of government sanction. You need intermediate institutions that can create and foster a public sphere. Without those intermediate institutions, speech practices decay, and the public sphere fails.

      There is a need for validating what kind of strucures meet these standards. This is where governemnt may be able to lend a hand in signaling media companies as democratic/publisc sphere friendly.

  6. May 2021
    1. Code is Law by Lawrence Lessig

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  7. Apr 2021
    1. ur medium, how they bend, and how to work together


    2. ur medium, how they bend,





    1. Designed identity functions ideologically— it is about idealizing an assumed audi-ence and reformatting that audience in an understandable and digest-ible way

      Boom, Spectacle.

    2. Designed identity is not a term meant to issue blame to game designers, artists, creators, advertisers, or others involved in the video game indus-try.

      Not due to mass media, but an entire culture of consumption and replication. The spectacle.

    1. However, in the case of Red Dead Redemption, this game does more than circulate genocidal narratives; players are sutured to John Marston, taking up his subjectivity and therefore the ideological stance of the frontier Western


    1. There is no clear difference between the corrupt governmental/military figures and the corrupt revolutionary figures.

      is she not conveiniently skipping the grander narratves being investigated like how power/war corrupts?

    2. Latinx identity is expressed as expendable in order to further the myth of white triumphalism when the truth is that the white population in the United States is actually in decline.The Latinx community in the United States has grown in the last two decades, with “one in six Americans now Hispanic.” This shift in U.S. demo-graphics means that “Hispanics are transforming the definition of what it means to be American” and also signaling a “white decline.”30 This “white decline” is not simply about demographics but about social, economic, and political control. U.S. politicians, with Trump as one of the most vocal and media savvy, can make false claims about Latinx people such as that they (and black Americans) are responsible for most violent crime because cultural narratives such as the frontier Western tell white Americans that they have the right to make ethnographic, simplistic, and incorrect claims about nonwhite U.S. citizens


    3. Instead, players have to consistently refer to the map in order to find locations and missions. If a player has absolutely no interest in gameplay and drifts through the game’s geography, then the map is insignificant, but if a player wants to complete any missions, then the map must be consulted frequently. Maps are not representations of truth but create a spatial concept of whatever is being represented.19 In other words, maps tell a story from a certain worldview.

      this is the most retarded book I have ever read

    4. particularly black and Latinx citizens,

      The primary prohibitive condition being poverty, not race.

    5. As of 2018 the U.S. housing and mortgage industry—the lifeblood of the American Dream—is still recovering from the 2008 collapse. The housing market in several key areas in the United States has not bounced back; in Tampa, Florida, “thousands of homes have been lost to foreclosure in the past decade.”10 The Pew Research Center released a report in 2017 that revealed the American middle class has shrunk over the last two decades “compared with those in many Western European countries.”11 Increasing numbers of Americans, particularly black and Latinx citizens, are finding it harder to participate in the culture of property ownership and accumula-tion that has traditionally defined American success and dominance over other countries.1

      SO lets get this straight:

      • Housing market is still recovering. Does that mean valuations are low? or credit is expensive? What the fuck is she talking about?
      • Middle class has shrunk: This is probably true, and it is also true that homeownership is how many in the middle class.
      • If recovering means house prices are low, isn't that good for poorer people? Isn't it more likely that they'll own a home if if it's more affordable.
    6. From television shows like Fear the Walking Dead (a zombie Western that first aired in 2015) to games like Ubisoft’s Gunslinger (2013), the Western (particularly frontier Westerns) make the struggle of the American middle class not only palatable but an apparent necessity to being a strong American citizen.

      why is everything a conspiracy theory?

    7. Is it any wonder that the Western has seen a resurgence since the economic collapse?

      such a fucking reach

    8. hat is, gameplay is performative, requiring the player to take on a role or multiple roles in a game world. But what if those roles are racist, sustaining white supremacist ideals? Red Dead Redemption enables the conditions through which players can enact such values and beliefs.

      iirc the entire narrative is in opposition to such ideals

    9. While Silko is referring to Laguna Pueblo stories, there is a lesson here that stories make our worlds plausible, real, and even aspirational.

      Okay. lets do a Debordian Analysis of her take.

    1. Perhaps it’s time to consider that if the “law of the law of genre” is to resist genre purity and embrace genre diversity, then, to echo Bold, other forms of the Western and hard-boiled noir need to elbow aside certain conventions and offer players more options.

      "need" lol

    2. However, he also works on behalf of the government and its corporate sponsors to usher in the end the frontier. This chapter argues that the procedural rhetoric of this ludo- frontier operates as a safety valve for the pressures brought to bear by the continued repercussions of the 2008 economic collapse

      okay. shut the fuck up. Excited to read this

    3. classifi-cation by iconography ignores the fundamental differences and similarities which are to be found in the player’s experience of the game.

      How different is the experience of a film from the experience of a video game.

      • Symbolic interactionism
    4. o literary genres, particularly durable ones, like the Western and hard-boiled noir, have an internal dynamic that is repeated, and through this repetition readers learn the formula of the genre and in turn gain knowledge from the formula that they can apply when needed.

      horse shit. Love the idea that every work must be a product of praxis with the intention of influencing the reader to copy behaviours.

    5. This “law of the law” is certainly true of noir, which is a notoriously broad and loose genre.

      Largets criticism of the book so far at 1 inch deep: it lends weight to the already retarded effort to platonify experience and art.

    6. Literary genres are not born in a vacuum but originate from powerful stories that have shaped how we think, fantasize, and behave.


    7. procedural systems like computer software actually represent process with process. This is where the particular power of procedural authorship lies, in its native ability to depict processes.”4 That is, while print, film, and even forms of digital audio broadcasting can attempt to represent genders, sexualities, race, class, objects, and so forth, game worlds “represent process with process

      WHy does this even matter? You can respresent the same thing without process.

    8. o prove my point, I track how the Western and Hollywood noir, particularly the hard-boiled variety, operate in two popular game worlds: Red Dead Redemption (2010) and L.A. Noire (2011).

      what a fucking obvious example.

    9. Thesis

  8. Mar 2021
    1. What appears is good; what is good appears.


    2. Objective reality is present on both sides. Each conceptestablished in this manner has no other basis than its transformation into its opposite: realityemerges within the spectacle, and the spectacle is real.


    1. Go through your application responses or survey replies of what students said they wanted to learn. For example, in the altMBA, we had thousands of applications that served as data points and customer development for why our target students wanted to join the course. This allowed me to see throughlines and patterns, which allowed me to create better marketing to appeal to these students and improve our course.
  9. Jan 2021
    1. he soul: the first condition of all mental properties

      emergent complexity

    2. Something that is unconditioned does not depend on anything else. It is a first ground or first “principle”: something that explains why other things are the way they are, but is not itself in need of explanation. A “first explainer” (cf. the idea of an unmoved mover).This is what metaphysicsistraditionally concerned with

      First principles as pure reason. Metaphysics is concerened with finding these first explainers. It explains why other things are the way they are.

    3. We can gloss this as ‘independent of experience’, ‘non-empirical’

      The Pure use of reason is it unconditioned reason/conclusion?

    4. Thus every syllogism is a form of derivation of a cognition from a principle. For the major premise always gives a concept such that everything subsumed under its condition can be cognized from it according to a principle.””

      Syllogisms represent reason.

    5. Understanding vs. reasonUnderstanding is the capacity for unity of appearances by means of rules.Reason is the capacity for unity of the rules of the understanding under principles

      Undersatnding: Knowling that things are similaer:

      Reason: Knowing how things are related, as expressed in inferrences



  10. Nov 2020
    1. If party and candidate spending is limited without corresponding limits on third-party spending, parties and candidates may be forced to use their limited spending capacity to “fend off attacks” by third parties rather than advertising their policy positions.
    1. crowd out, smaller individual contributions."

      Argument foe limits: we regulate monopolies, and think monoploies in the conomic sense are bad. By allowing unlimited money/power to flow into politics, are we allowing for monopolies on discourse? i.e. extreme or disproportionate influence in agenda setting that may crowd out smaller interests?

    2. An equality-based justification for campaign finance regulation must recognize that the modern regulatory framework can only superficially reduce the impact of economic inequality.
    1. On the other hand, donating and spending on a large scale are taxed at an everincreasing rate, which is beneficial as well. Because of this property, the rich would face arising marginal cost as they tried to exert more financial influence.

      Inequality of political voice is a bad property of a political system. But, limiting freedom of speech may violate charter rights.

    2. However, only the square root of the amount that they donate or spend, multiplied byan amount set to make the system as a whole budget-neutral, would actually be deployed.The rest of the money would enter the public Treasury. Assume, for example, that amultiplier of 10 would make the system budget-neutral. Then if a person donated $1 toBernie Sanders, his campaign would receive $10 (($1^.5)910). Similarly, if a personwanted to independently spend $10,000 to back Donald Trump (or if Trump wanted tospend $10,000 on his own candidacy), $1000 could be used on commercials, mailers, andthe like (($10,000^.5)910), and the other $9000 would go to the government.

      This is fair because it taxes political voice of larger proportional to the size of their spend and amplifies smaller donors. Equalizing the playing field.



    1. Examining inequality across provinces and time has many advantages.2 Canadian provinces possess considerable comparable autonomy in administering social policy and research shows that inequality shifts are predominantly owing to provincial rather than federal transfers

      Some evidence for rolling out the program on a provincial instead of a federal level.

    1. hat effect, if any, does the extent of economic inequality in a country have upon the political engagement of its citizens?
    1. n addition to deciding where to apply the tax, designers of a carbon tax would need to consider what entities or uses of fossil fuels, if any, would be exempt from the tax and whether certain activities would qualify for credits under the tax.

      Instead of deciding which are exempt from the tax, why not just give activities you want (i.e. technologies like carbon sequestration) a tax break/tax credit?

    2. Using the Revenues to Cut Marginal Tax Rates Would Also Decrease Total Costs

      This seems like a requirement. If work incentives will already be impacted by lower purchasing power, we need to do something to counter that. This is especially true for low income groups, probably less for higher income groups. But it's probably also true that returns on useful investments should not be taxed as much.

  11. Oct 2020
    1. Large-scale political organizations such as empires must be considered from the standpoint of two dimensions, those of space and time, and persist by overcoming the bias of media which over-emphasize either dimension.

      I understand the internet as the merger of these 2 forms. where does the bias go in that case? likely, the tension shifts from between the 2 forms, and towards quantities (of information) and streams of narratives (ie large quantities of information producing separate realities within the empires population).

    1. To empower municipalities to build more homes, a new Conservative government will introduce the Build More Homes Competition.

      How much red tape are we talikg> The assumption here would be that there is currently an infeccient level of zonig/red tape

    2. Introduce the Green Home Renovation Tax Credi

      Lower Income Candians Will not realize the benefits of this. Those who are looking to buy their first home may be impacted by increased housing prices.

    3. How will we price in the negative externalities without a tax?

  12. Jun 2020
    1. The Weaponization of Social Media
    2. These narratives were spread overseas by the Political Warfare Executive which targeted the enemy, while at home the British Film Unit produced a series of patriotic films to reinforce domestic morale.

      today, Platforms allow any independent creator to supply content that supports any narrative. It is up to the creator to decide which narrative is seen.

    3. Having come of age in the First World War, propaganda was used extensively between 1939 and 1945. Combatant nations found it necessary to develop narratives that would resonate within their own and opposing populations. For example, in November 1940, the British War Cabinet produced a memorandum on Propaganda Policy which directed that the British would wage psychological warfare with “the simultaneous object of destroying the moral force of the enemy's cause and of sustaining and eventually enforcing conviction of the moral

      ...force of our own casue".

    4. This conflict can accurately be described as a competition between narratives with the North attempting to impose “cultural hegemony” on the South which rejected the North’s interpretation of American identity.

      How is this any different than the U.S's current equity/social justice movement?

    5. Successful narratives will be told and re-told until the conclusions contained within the story become the social norm - “the way we do things here.”

      memes are successful/highly competitive narratives, or memes are narratives generally?

    6. world by playing roles with those around him

      literally a sim

    1. is trained to ask. Learning to see waste and then systematicallyeliminate it has allowed lean companies such as Toyota todominate entire industries. In the


  13. May 2020
  14. Apr 2020
    1. Five Ws and How” (5W1H):

      WHY am i building this? WHO am I building this for? When and Where will it be used? What am I building? How could I measure it?


    1. Mechanisms of interaction are muted by dom-inant signals

      We dont see the neccesity for having local control becasue the signals from centralized power are over powering


    1. He is not really a European, despite the color of his skin


    2. “In this role, electronic man is no less a nomad than his Paleolithic ancestors.”

      Homo Sapiens Informaticus


  15. Mar 2020
    1. Which should tell you: narcissism is essentially defensive. It’s a regressive psychological tic, something that comes from an inability to control oneself or one’s surroundings concretely, becuase you never learned your own powers, and so you try to control everything mentally. This is appearance because, after all, your whole world is appearance. You can’t do the thing yourself, so you require other people both to do it and to tell you you can – but that just makes you turn everyone towards you. You’re obsessed with images (that’s all you can do!) but that makes you contemptuous of them. Everyone else must be just as superficial, and something something phonies. You want to be “great, elite, powerful”, but you can’t risk imitating those you admire – to do so would be to risk your identity, would be to risk failure, another ego-wrecker. Anyway, you can’t even separate them from you, how could you suss out what they can do and you can’t in order to learn it? Hence you adopt the prestigious signifiers without any of the competence, convinced that it’s the only distinction between you. If any of that fails, you hulk out, because “failure” is not something you ever learned. All the while, the inside of you looks like WWI no-man’s land: vast emptiness punctuated by shells and explosions, by a rage that does nothing but roil the muck.

      Ouuuchhhhhieeeee ow owowowowwww. I felt this peel a layer from me or something.

    1. Psychoanalysissimplyturnsthecomplexbackonitself,oedipizestransference,oedipizesthecom-plexitselfonthecouch,itsmuckylittlekingdom.Butwhetherinitsdomesticoranalyticform,theOedipuscomplexis basicallyanappa-ratusforrepressingdesiringmachines,andinnosensea formationoftheunconsciousitself

      To the patient and the analyst, the desiring machines disappear as they are converted to Odipel complexes. It is a simplification of the problem, Its reduces the scope and uses a single lens.

    2. FG is making the point that Psychoanalysis reduces a complex system of desire machines - an ecology of interacting and even competing desire machines - to a few Unconscious representations of Desire (superego, Ego Id) which are all fueled by Libido. Frued then forces other perceived sources of desire into the Oedipal complex and transforms them into libido?? Maybe??? haha lmao.