22 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2020
    1. ANOVA

      Analysis of Variance - statistical test used to determine whether there are any statistically significant differences between the means of three or more independent observables.

    2. extracellular fluid

      Any body fluid outside of the cells in any multicellular organism. This includes interstitial fluid and plasma.

  2. Mar 2020
    1. endoscopic overtube

      An endoscopic overtube is a sleeve-like device designed for both upper and lower endoscopic procedures. During upper endoscopy it is designed to protect the hypopharynx from the trauma of repeated intubations, the airway from aspiration, and the esophagus during extraction of sharp foreign bodies.

    2. 45 ± 2 pg/ml (n = 3) and 54 ± 29 pg/ml (n = 3) on days 3 and 11, respectively.

      Using the capsule with three arms, they found concentrations of 45 ± 2 pg/ml on day 3 and 54 ± 29 pg/ml on day 11. These results illustrate that the capsule is steadily releasing the hormone over a 20-day period. One problem with this formulation is that the drug concentration fluctuates significantly over time which may reduce its effectiveness for pregnancy protection.

    3. Using long-acting formulation–1, we observed a maximal concentration of 55 ± 18 pg/ml (n = 3) on day 17 (Fig. 2B).

      Using the capsule with half of the drug loaded in poly(sebacic anhydride) and the other half in PDMS, the authors illustrated birth control drug delivery for an extended period. They observed a peak concentration of the drug on day 17. This shows that, unlike the daily tablet, their formulation slowly and steadily releases the drug and provides protection over a longer period.

    4. pharmacokinetics

      A branch of pharmacology which studies how drugs are taken up, distributed, metabolized, and cleared from the body.

    5. Hence, the rate of drug release could be modified by altering the drug loading and the type of polymer.

      Inferring results from experiments

    6. Poly(sebacic anhydride)

      A biodegradable polymer substance used in drug delivery applications

    7. patient adherence.

      A patients commitment (how well a patient follows prescribed directions) to taking said medication at the correct time each day.

    8. 126 ± 24 pg/ml (n = 3) on day 2

      Using the capsule with six loaded arms of PDMS, a maximum concentration was reached on day 2. Note how the maximum concentration is 126 ± 24 pg/ml, as opposed to the latter configuration with a maximum concentration of 55 ± 18 pg/ml.

    9. Fig. 1 Concept and in vitro characterization of an oral, long-acting contraceptive.

      CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.ID.B.6: Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.

  3. Feb 2020
    1. poly(anhydride)-based matrices

      A class of biodegradable polymers which are characterized by anhydride bonds. In vivo, they degrade into non- toxic monomers that are metabolized and eliminated from the body.

    2. injectables

      A once a month, or every three month shot that contains a series of hormones designed to stop the body from releasing eggs, and thicken the cervix mucus, thus preventing pregnancy.

    3. oral pills

      A daily pill that consists of progestin and estrogen to prevent pregnancy.

    4. human pylorus

      The opening from the stomach into the small intestine.

    5. transdermal patches

      A once-a-week patch that adheres to the skin and releases the necessary hormones to prevent pregnancy.

    6. intrauterine devices

      Also called an IUD, this device is planted within the uterus in a t- shaped form to prevent pregnancy.

    7. subcutaneous implants

      A small rod- like implant under the skin of the arm which releases the hormone progestin, to prevent pregnancy.

    8. contraceptives

      A drug or device used to prevent pregnancy.

    9. Poor patient adherence

      Women who use daily contraceptives have a lack of commitment to taking their prescribed pill at the same time everyday.

    10. hydrolysis

      The chemical breakdown of of a compound due to its reaction in the presence of water.

    11. Bonferroni

      A statistical analysis test used to counteract false positive results within multiple comparisons. It is used when several independent or dependent tests are being performed simultaneously.