96 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2019
  2. Sep 2019
    1. This prompted us to use nanodiamond as an additive

      The Nature of Science and the Next Generation Science Standards:

      NS3-Scientific knowledge is open to revision in light of new evidence.

  3. May 2019
    1. previous observations that some ZI cells project to the PVT (13, 14),

      This shows that science builds on the replication of studies to increase confidence in findings. Further, science advances by current studies building on those from the past.

    2. We asked whether the PVT may be a critical target for ZI regulation of food intake.

      The authors showed that ZI GABA neurons send input to the PVT. They then assessed through further experimentation whether these PVT neurons are involved in food intake. Thus, they have used scientific questioning and evidence to build on their model of how the ZI controls feeding behavior.

    1. In spite of the uncertainty of many of the experimental data, there are certain codes which have been suggested in the past which we can now reject with some degree of confidence.

      Science is a way of knowing.

      Science is both a body of knowledge that represents a current understanding of natural systems and the processes used to refine, elaborate, revise, and extend this knowledge.

    2. If the code does indeed have some logical foundation, then it is legitimate to consider all the evidence, both good and bad, in any attempt to deduce it. This is not true if the codons have no simple logical connection.

      Scientific knowledge is open to revision in light of new evidence.

      Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.

    3. From such work it appears that, with minor reservations, each polynucleotide incorporates a characteristic set of amino acids. Moreover, the four bases appear quite distinct in their effects. A comparison between the triplets tentatively deduced by these methods with the changes in amino acid sequence produced by mutation shows a fair measure of agreement. Moreover, the incorporation requires the same components that are needed for protein synthesis and is inhibited by the same inhibitors. Thus, the system is most unlikely to be a complete artifact and is very probably closely related to genuine protein synthesis.

      Scientists often make models to describe something cumbersome and complicated. In the experiments above, the scientists used synthetic RNA as a model for natural genetic material.

      In this paragraph, Crick is assuring us that the results are not an "artifact" of the model: Synthetic RNA is fundamentally the same as natural RNA.

    4. though a small multiple of 3, such as 6 or 9, is not completely ruled out by our data.

      Scientific knowledge is open to revision in light of new evidence.

    5. This brings us to our first question. Do codons overlap? In other words, as we read along the genetic message do we find a base which is a member of two or more codons?

      Science addresses questions about the natural and material world.

      Great scientists tend to think in terms of questions which guide their discoveries. Good questions keep us curious, objective, and goal-oriented.

    6. in response to a letter of

      Science benefits when scientists communicate and collaborate across disciplines.

      Science would make little progress without the exchange of ideas, especially across different disciplines. Here George Gamow, a theoretical physicist, shares his ideas about the genetic code with Linus Pauling, one of the pioneers of quantum chemistry.

      http://scarc.library.oregonstate.edu/coll/pauling/dna/corr/sci9.001.43-gamow-lp-19531022.html

  4. Apr 2019
    1. environmental benefits

      Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas:

      ESS3.D Global Climate Change

      Though the magnitudes of human impacts are greater than they have ever been, so too are human abilities to model, predict, and manage current and future impacts.

    2. Friction

      AP Physics 1

      Dynamics: Essential Knowledge 3.C.4

      Contact forces result from the interaction of one object touching another object and they arise from interatomic electrical forces. These forces include tension, friction, normal, spring, and buoyant. (See page 23)

    3. The temperature and velocity range for maintaining stable superlubricity is further backed by theoretical simulations (tables S2 and S3)

      Common Core State Standards English Language Arts-Literacy

      RST.11-12.8

      Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.

  5. Feb 2019
    1. To align moral algorithms with human values, we must start a collective discussion about the ethics of AVs

      Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Idea ETS2.B: Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

      The student may consider how manufacturing, research, consumer preference, and governmental regulation can impact the widespread adoption of a technology.

  6. Dec 2018
    1. We advocate the inclusion of phenology into predictive models integrating evolutionary history to identify species groups that are either resilient or sensitive to future climate-change scenarios, and understand how phenological mismatches can affect community dynamics, ecosystem services, and conservation over time.

      "Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs"<br> This paper constructs an argument on how plants phenology changes due to the warming climate and how they adapt to these changes. Link: https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/k-ess2-2-earths-systems

    1. popular fungal barcode

      AP Biology Standards EK1.A.4: Molecular, morphological, and genetic information of existing and extinct organisms add to our understanding evolution. Biochemical and genetic similarities, such as DNA nucleotide and protein sequences, provide evidence for evolution and ancestry.

    2. a symbiosis

      Next Generation standard LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

      AP Biology Standards EK2.D.1: All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.

    3. These data suggest that the gall-inducing form of Cyphobasidium completes its life cycle entirely within lichens.

      AP Biology Standards EK4.B.2: Cooperative behavior within or between populations contributes to the survival of the populations, i.e. mutualistic relationships.

    4. phylogenomic tree

      AP Biology Standards EK1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested.

    5. analysis placed the basidiomycete as sister to Cystobasidium minutum (class Cystobasidiomycetes, subphylum Pucciniomycotina) with high support

      AP Biology Standards EK 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested.

    6. mRNA transcriptome sequencing

      AP Biology Standards EK 1.B.1: DNA and RNA are carriers of genetic information through transcription, translation, and replication.

    7. genetically distinct strain of the basidiomycete

      AP Biology Standards EK1.A.4: Biochemical and genetic similarities, such as DNA nucleotide and protein sequences, provide evidence for evolution and ancestry.

  7. Oct 2018
    1. failed to reveal

      NGSS Nature of Science: Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods and Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

    2. showed no correlation

      Next Generation Standards LS3.B Cross cut: Cause and Effect

    3. these organisms form stratified, often leafy or shrubby body plans (thalli) that resemble none of the symbionts in isolation, a feature thought to be unique among symbioses

      Next Generation Standards LS1.A: Structure and Function LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

      AP Biology Standards EK2.D.1: All biological systems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions.

    1. has not been developed. We report the design and demonstration of a device

      A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Disciplinary Core Ideas, Practice ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem.

  8. Sep 2018
    1. for image search, the tag of an elephant image will be more similar to the tag of another elephant image than to the tag of a skyscraper image.

      Common Core State Standards English Language Arts-Literacy, RST 11-12.6: Students should be able to explain why the authors provided this example in the paper, specifically addressing how it adds to the reader's understanding of the research.

      http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/11-12/

    2. This led us to conjecture that the fly’s circuit produces tags that are locality-sensitive

      AP Science Practices, Practice 6: The student can work with scientific explanations and theories.

      Students should be able to articulate the authors' reasoning that led them to develop this theory. Looking at the results of the paper, students may also list specific conclusions that support or refute this theory.

      https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/courses/resources/science-practices

    3. The tag for an odor is computed by a three-step procedure

      AP Science Practices, Practice 1: The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems.

      Looking at the model in Figure 1A, students should be able to provide a verbal explanation of what the diagram is showing and what each shape and symbol represents.

      https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/courses/resources/science-practices

    4. Similarity search—for example, identifying similar images in a database or similar documents on the web—is a fundamental computing problem faced by large-scale information retrieval systems.

      A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Disciplinary Core Ideas, Practice ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem.

      After reading and engaging with the article, students should be able to define:

      1. What a similarity search is
      2. What the limitations are with traditional LSH algorithms
      3. How the fly algorithm helps improve similarity searches

      https://www.nap.edu/read/13165/chapter/12#203

    5. may also appear in other brain regions and species

      AP Biology Practices Essential Knowledge 1.B.1: Students should be able to discuss how this statement supports the idea that "Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today."

      http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/10b_2727_AP_Biology_CF_WEB_110128.pdf

    6. Our goal was to fairly compare two conceptually different approaches for the nearest-neighbors search problem

      A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Science and Engineering Practices, Practice 7: Students should be able to evaluate whether the authors of this study accomplished their goal, citing specific evidence from the paper to support their argument.

      https://www.nap.edu/read/13165/chapter/7

    7. Imagine that you are provided an image of an elephant and seek to find the 100 images—out of the billions of images on the web—that look most similar to your elephant image.

      Common Core State Standards English Language Arts-Literacy, RST 11-12.6: Students should be able to explain why the authors provided this example in the paper, specifically addressing how it adds to the reader's understanding of the research.

      http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/11-12/

  9. Aug 2018
    1. Our results demonstrate that evolution on ecological time scales can increase the speed of advance in spreading populations, and markedly so in the most patchy landscapes.

      NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas, Learning Standard 2: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

      The study looks into how evolution of one species impacts the ecosystem around it, thereby impacting the organisms around it. This goes back to the idea that organisms living in the same area interact and can determine the survival or decreased success of the other. The rapidly spreading species competes with other organisms in the area for resources, effecting the success of its surroundings.

    2. These evolutionary changes reflect the combined effects of selection and drift.

      NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas, Learning standard 4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity.

      The evolution of the spreading species is evident in Figure 3 as it shows the changes in allele frequency due to the changing environmental conditions (larger gaps).

    3. evolving populations spread 11% farther than nonevolving populations

      NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas, Learning standard 4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity.

      LS4.C: Adaptations Evolution leads to more fit and adapted species for specific environments.

      In this study, this phenomenon leads to the superior expansive and competitive ability of the evolving population over the non-evolving population.

  10. Jul 2018
    1. Improving waste management infrastructure in developing countries is paramount and will require substantial resources and time. While such infrastructure is being developed, industrialized countries can take immediate action by reducing waste and curbing the growth of single-use plastics.

      This paper connects to Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practices 6 by presenting the ecological consequences of marine plastic pollution in a societal context.

    2. Plastics in the marine environment are of increasing concern

      This paper connects to Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practices 3 and 4 by using modeling and emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    3. It is widely cited that 80% of marine debris originates from land; however, this figure is not well substantiated and does not inform the total mass of debris entering the marine environment from land-based sources.

      The article connects to the Learning Standards, Common Core: Statistics and Probability (Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others).

    4. The inclusion of the economic cost of implementation, as well as socio-cultural, environmental, and other factors that affect infrastructure development or behavioral change, would improve the evaluation of mitigation strategies

      This paper connects to the English Language Arts Standards 11-12.1. It analyzes the problem of plastic waste in the ocean and explains the method used to estimate which countries likely generate most of the waste. The authors describe the sources of uncertainty in their estimates, and this paper also identifies strategies for reducing the amount of plastic waste entering the ocean in the future.

    5. By applying a range of conversion rates from mismanaged waste to marine debris, we estimated the mass of plastic waste entering the ocean from each country in 2010, used population growth data (13) to project the increase in mass to 2025, and predicted growth in the percentage of waste that is plastic.

      The authors developed a model to represent a large-scale system. Next Generation Science Standards: Connects to Practice 2: Developing and using models www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=42A

  11. Jun 2018
    1. study three

      Common Core State Standards CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.9

      The student may synthesize information from different experiments into a coherent understanding of participants' attitudes towards the morality of a self-driving car's action versus buying a car programmed in a specific way.

      http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/11-12/9/

  12. Mar 2018
    1. [Mount Evans and Niwot Ridge combined (16)] indicate increased species diversity

      Next Generation Science Learning Standard 3LS4-2- Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/3-ls4-2-biological-evolution-unity-and-diversity

      This learning standard focuses on how characteristics can play into natural selection as well as evolution. This paper highlights how climate change is causing natural selection to favor bumble bees with shorter tongues.

  13. Aug 2017
    1. To test learning and memory

      Next Generation Science Standards: Connects to Practice 2: Developing and using models

      The authors developed and used an animal model to study how different levels of tau might interact with amyloid-β to cause the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

      www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=42A

    2. Therefore, we determined the effect of reducing endogenous tau expression on cognitive deficits in

      This paper illustrates the Science Practices standards (SP.1-SP.4).

      The authors take observed phenomena, note that they have yet to be fully explored, and carefully form testable hypotheses about their role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

      In their study, the researchers combine knowledge from earlier research using mouse models to study the molecular basis of the disease with two main observations:

      (1) Tau is known to build up in Alzheimer’s disease patients, and

      (2) a higher than normal level of tau protein results in a higher risk for developing the disease.

      They hypothesize that changing the level of tau will result in less severe disease symptoms, which they carefully test in well-designed experiments, choosing powerful methods to collect and analyze data and to control for as many variables as possible.

      Finally, they incorporate their findings into a general model for tau working together with amyloid-β to cause the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

      http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/cbscs-science-standards-2009.pdf (Page iii)

  14. Apr 2017
    1. In most vertebrate appendages, the density of innervation is lower than in salamanders, and Singer suggested that this is a primary determinant for the loss of regenerative ability, for example in mammals (9, 39). This hypothesis now seems unlikely because there are other variables apparently curtailing regeneration

      Connects to Next Generation Science Standards Science and Engineering Practice 6: Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering).

    2. Limb regeneration occurs in various species of salamander and offers important insights into the possibilities for regenerating a complex structure in adult vertebrates

      Connects to AP Science Practice 1:

      The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems.

  15. Jan 2017
    1. The fabrication of these microlattices is enabled by projection microstereolithography

      Can you, based on the procedure described in the text, explain how the different microlattices are manufactured?

      The Common Core English and Language Arts Standards

      • 11-12.3: Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.

  16. Sep 2016
    1. To test learning and memory

      Next Generation Science Standards: Connects to Practice 2: Developing and using models

      The authors developed and used an animal model to study how different levels of tau might interact with amyloid-β to cause the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

      www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=42A

    2. Therefore, we determined the effect of reducing endogenous tau expression on cognitive deficits in transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)

      This paper illustrates the Science Practices standards (SP.1-SP.4).

      The authors take observed phenomena, note that they have yet to be fully explored, and carefully form testable hypotheses about their role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

      In their study, the researchers combine knowledge from earlier research using mouse models to study the molecular basis of the disease with two main observations:

      (1) Tau is known to build up in Alzheimer’s disease patients, and

      (2) a higher than normal level of tau protein results in a higher risk for developing the disease.

      They hypothesize that changing the level of tau will result in less severe disease symptoms, which they carefully test in well-designed experiments, choosing powerful methods to collect and analyze data and to control for as many variables as possible.

      Finally, they incorporate their findings into a general model for tau working together with amyloid-β to cause the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

      http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/cbscs-science-standards-2009.pdf (Page iii)

    1. Both approaches represent potentially powerful strategies to treat anxiety disorders by manipulating traumatic memories within fear circuits

      Next Generation Science Standards

      ETS2.B: Influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world.

      This is good example of how basic research can translate into real-world applications.

      http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=212

    2. Does extinction depend on endogenous BDNF levels in the IL mPFC or its inputs

      Next Generation Science Standards Practice 1: Asking Questions and Defining Problems

      The authors clearly state the question that they want to answer, followed by a description of the experiments used to answer it.

      http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=54

    3. enhance extinction via direct application of BDNF to the IL mPFC

      Next Generation Science Standards Practice 2: Developing and using models

      This is something that cannot be directly tested in humans, so the authors must develop a model to test their hypothesis.

      http://www.nap.edu/read/13165/chapter/7#56

  17. Jun 2016
    1. plays an important role in

      The article connects to NGSS 8 practices for science and engineering Practice 8 and Science practices for AP Biology Practice 7 by explaining why the coagulation process is important in water treatment and relating it to the knowledge of the disinfection process.

    2. The emission of hydrogen sulfide

      The article connects to English Language Arts Standards 11-12.2 by summarizing how sulfide causes sewer corrosion.

    1. After DNA damage, many cells appear to enter a sustained arrest in the G2 phase

      AP Biology Essential knowledge 3.A.2.a.2: The cell cycle is directed by internal controls or checkpoints. Internal and external signals provide stop-and-go signs at the checkpoints.

    2. Inhibition of Cdc25C prevents the removal of inhibitory phosphates from Cdc2, a protein kinase that complexes with mitotic cyclins and is required for mitotic entry (8

      AP Biology Essential Knowledge 3.A.2.a.3: Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases control the cell cycle.

    3. cannot traverse the nuclear membrane and therefore can enter the nucleus only during mitosis (13)

      AP Biology Essential Knowledge 2.B.3: Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.

    1. A question that arises from our work relates to aging-associated changes in the balance of positively and negatively acting circulating factors.

      The Next Generation Science Standards, LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

      Guiding question: How do organisms obtain and use the matter and energy they need to live and grow?

      http://www.nap.edu/read/13165/chapter/10#147

    2. This phenomenon of vascular remodeling in the Het-O mice extended to other neurogenic areas such as the hippocampus (fig. S7, A and B) and also to non-neurogenic areas such as the cortex

      The Next Generation Science Standards, LS1.D: Information Processing

      Guiding question: How do organisms detect, process, and use information about the environment?

      http://www.nap.edu/read/13165/chapter/10#149

    3. local source of signaling molecules secreted from endothelial cells (1) as well as by delivering systemic regulatory factors

      The Next Generation Learning Standards, Crosscutting Concept 2: Cause and Effect

      http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=88

      The Next Generation Science Standards, LS1.A: Structure and Function

      Guiding question: How do the structures of organisms enable life's functions?

      http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=144

  18. May 2016
    1. Figure 4 shows the location of these material properties on the stiffness versus density material selection chart, together with other recently reported ultralight materials for comparison

      What do you think about the material properties achieved by the proposed objects? Do they satisfy the criteria indicated as desired in the introduction of the article?

      Next Generation Science Standards, Science and Engineering Practice 4: Analyzing and interpreting data

    2. To study how the loading direction and lattice orientation of an octet-truss lattice affects its E-ρ scaling relationship

      What experiment can you propose to answer this question?

      AP Biology Science Practices:

      • Practice 3: The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations within the context of the AP course. • Practice 4: The student can plan and implement data collection strategies appropriate to a particular scientific question.

    3. The power n of the scaling relationship between relative material density and the relative mechanical property depends on the material’s microarchitecture

      According to what you have read so far, can you explain the goal of the present study?

      Next Generation Science Standards Science and Engineering Practice 1: Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)

      http://www.nextgenscience.org/get-to-know

    1. We subsequently conducted an extensive industry survey in Australia, comparing sulfate data in drinking water with and without sulfate addition during water treatment.  

      The paper connects to Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practice Competency 6 while showing students how science could be connected to society even in the process of data collection.

    2. Although the technical challenges of reducing sulfate in sewage seem simple, institutional barriers may prevent a shift toward a whole-of-water-cycle optimization strategy. Given the increasing complexity and interdependence of the urban water systems, including recent trends in local water reuse, water-sensitive urban design, and low-impact development, the development and consistent application of novel, system-wide integration tools are essential to an overall optimization strategy.

      The paper connects to the English Language Arts Standards 11-12.6 as it analyzes the problem of sewer corrosion and explains the main sources of high sulfide concentrations with the designed experiments and modeling. Moreover, it identifies the importance of an integrated urban water management system as an issue that remains unresolved.

    3. Although integrated urban water management and total water-cycle planning are firmly anchored in many policies developed by various levels of governments, in reality, individual subsystems—such as drinking water production and sewer and/or wastewater management—are often considered separately and optimized to generate locally maximized benefits (or least cost) without taking into account the existing connections across the water cycle.

      The article connects to the Learning Standards, Common Core: Statistics and Probability (Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others) :

      The paper critiques the current division in drinking water production and sewer/wastewater management in the decision-making process and encourages the implementation of a water cycle approach that integrates these governmental subsystems.

    4. Sulfide-induced concrete sewer corrosion costs billions of dollars annually and has been identified as a main cause of global sewer deterioration.

      This paper connects to NGSS 8 practices for science and engineering Practice 1 and Science Practices for AP Biology Practice 3 by describing the problem that sulfide is the main reason for sewer corrosion globally.

    5. As much as 52% of the sulfate present in the sewage of the monitored area is contributed by the addition of aluminum sulfate as coagulant in the drinking water production, with a net contribution of 9.2 mg S/liter (Fig. 1and fig. S1).

      The paper connects to Learning Standards Common Core:Statistics and Probability (Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies) : Figures 1 and 2 demonstrate results from gathered data and surveys explaining that aluminum sulfate has a major role as a sulfate source in sewer corrosion.

  19. Apr 2016
    1. measles epidemics

      Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practice. Competency 4: Ability to tap into the interdisciplinary nature of science

      This paper relies heavily on the data collected by national public health organizations, previous observations and research, and the ability of biostatisticians and mathematicians to analyze the data in new and creative ways.

    2. 30.9 months

      Common Core: Statistics & Probability: Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems

      The authors have calculated the length of immunomodulation in this paper and used it as a model to understand the impact of measles on childhood infectious disease mortality, students have been able to follow that process in this paper.

    3. Our data provide an explanation

      Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practice. Competency 1: Ability to apply the process of science Students who read this article are being shown how scientists gather and analyze data to test a hypothesis and come to conclusions. They are then asked new questions based on those conclusions and evaluating the results.

    4. reductions in infectious disease mortality after measles vaccination can last throughout the first 5 years of life (5–10), which is much longer than anticipated by transient immunosuppression

      NGSS 8 practices for science and engineering/Science practices for AP biology. Practice #6 The student can work with scientific explanations and theories

      This paper deals with a topic which has been well researched in the past, in order to understand this work students must understand the previous theories and how the authors theory of using high-income country data provides a new explanation on previous observed phenomenon

    5. To assess the underlying immunological hypothesis (Fig. 1D) using population-level data, we required that

      English Language and Standards (Science & Technical Subjects) 11-12.3: Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or preforming technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.

      This article requires students to follow a process which analyzes data based on 4 stages of testing to evaluate a conclusion

    1. InDrosophila, we found that MCR mutations efficiently spread from their chromosome of origin to the homologous chromosome, thereby converting heterozygous mutations to homozygosity in the vast majority of somatic and germline cells

      Connects to Essential Knowledge 3.A.1 of AP Biology Course Description.

      http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/courses/teachers_corner/2117.html

    2. According to Mendelian inheritance, all F1 female progeny of such a cross should have a y+ phenotype

      Connects to Essential Knowledge 3.A.3 of AP Biology Course Description.

      http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/courses/teachers_corner/2117.html

  20. Mar 2016
    1. The information content of the presented data sets, which are publicly available, provides a transparent, sound, and consistent basis on which to quantify critical environmental issues, including

      In this paragraph, Hansen and colleagues structure information to show how public global imaging data sets such as Landsat data can be used to address environmental, economic, and social issues.

    2. The converging rates of forest disturbance of Indonesia and Brazil are shown in Fig. 3

      Hansen and colleagues use linear models (y=mx+b) to test whether the trends in forest loss in Indonesia and Brazil are both significant through time. What did they find?

    3. Acknowledgments:

      Science is collaborative and support from scientific research can come from many different sources. Check out which organizations helped to fund this research.

      Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

      U.S. Geological Survey

      Google, Inc.

      David and Lucile Packard Foundation

      NASA

      US Agency for International Development

    1. Future research

      Connects to Vision and Change Core Competency #1: ability to apply the process of science.

      The authors look beyond their own conclusions and consider additional questions that should be investigated in the future.

    2. inform public policy

      Connects to Vision and Change Core Competency #6: ability to understand the relationship between science and society.

      The authors relate their findings to the link between psychological research and public policy.

    3. nonrandomized groups (e.g., cultures, nations, and religious groups)

      The experiments in this article also use nonrandomized groups (i.e., participants cannot be randomly assigned to be a member of the Democratic or Republican party).

      How might you run a similar study using randomized groups? What would this add to our understanding of happiness?

      This connects to Science Practices for AP Biology Practice 3: The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations within the context of the AP course.

    4. it is possible that ideological happiness differences may simply be an example of conservatives’ stronger tendency to evaluate the self favorably.

      Connects to NGSS Practice 1 (Asking questions [for science] and defining problems [for engineering]) and Practice 3 (Planning and carrying out investigations).

      How would you design a study to evaluate this idea? How do the researchers go about testing their hypotheses?

  21. Jan 2016
    1. We were particularly interested in factors that can influence whether such training procedures produce transient or persistent effects. Because pervasive stereotypes in the media and broader culture could function to regenerate a bias that is momentarily reduced (14), maintaining the benefits of training is crucial for the ultimate usefulness of potential bias-reducing interventions.

      Connects to English Language Arts Standards Science & Technical Subjects Grade 11-12 11-12.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.

    2. Connects to Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practice Competency 6: Ability to understand the relationship between science and society

    3. how much training is needed to make implicit benefits persist for long periods of time and transfer to explicit benefits in interpersonal interactions? To what extent do persistent benefits depend on repeated training, the nature of other waking activities after training, and repeated memory reactivation during sleep?

      Connects to Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practice Competency 1: Ability to apply the process of science

    4. within-subject analysis of variance (ANOVA), F1,39= 15.453, P < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.284

      Connects to Common Core: Statistics & Probability Model with mathematics

    5. Connects to Common Core: Statistics & Probability Interpret linear models

    6. Connects to Common Core: Statistics & Probability Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables

    7. For example, documented policing errors have repeatedly shown the potential harm of racial profiling

      Connects to Vision and Change Core Competencies and Disciplinary Practice Competency 6: Ability to understand the relationship between science and society

  22. Oct 2015