42 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2017
    1. I can't be said to have knowledge of the fact unless I can intelligently exploit

      Again, this continues with the theme of naturally occurring events that cannot be explicitly explained, but must be taken at face value because of their frequency.

    2. It is always possible in principle, if not in practice, to explain why he tends to succeed, that is, to state the reasons for his action

      This is true for natural phenomena, such as the earth revolving around the sun, as we physically cannot see the revolutions occurring, but we can assume it is based on scientific research.

    1. thoseatypical occasions when at the time one knows that one’s emotion is notjustified.

      It really is a rare occasion for an individual to be cognizant of their emotional bias.

    2. , such as the confirmatory bias

      confirmation bias is similar to emotional bias, as both result in an individual ignoring information.

    3. it is typical of emotional experience to considerone’s emotional feeling to be justified and to perceive the object of one’semotion as having the emotion-proper property.

      Strong emotion interferes with logical thinking, until further analysis reveals the truth

    4. Intentionality is the mind’s capability of being directed onto things in theworld.

      How can intentionality be a capacity of the mind if certain experiences are caused unintentionally?

    5. bodily feelings andas feelings directed toward the object of the emotion

      This is an interesting point, as sometimes emotions feel very palpable, such as anxiety being a sinking feeling or fear being goosebumps.

    6. they can tell us nothing about the world and how to act in the world

      Emotions seem to be a sort of blinders to our truer perception of the world, as strong emotion clouds or judgement and our senses.

    1. does notexistoutthere‘inreality’butisonly,sotospeak,‘inmyhead

      This is startlingly similar to the point Descartes makes in his "Second Meditation"

    2. whatwenowcall‘sight’wouldhavebeenone ofthatindefimtenumberof additionalsenseswhichweknowtobepossibleinprinciplebutareunabletoimagine

      Our perception of "sense" is completely relative, as the way we perceive reality is competently different from other organisms, simply because we have the ability to "perceive perception" per say.

    3. Theconcept‘darkness’hasnoexperientialcontentforthem,justastheconcepts ‘hght’ and‘sight’havenoexperientialcontent

      This is an interesting thought, as an individual who was blind from birth has no concept of light and dark, but rather they would experience the world in a way wholly inconceivable by a sighted individual.

  2. Oct 2017
    1. ‘Do you follow your natural instincts and inclina-tions

      Natural instinct drives us to survive, but in the modern world. this is not the case. We must now always strive to build upon our experiences and better society as a whole

    2. To that extent, then, reason compels us to contradict ordepart from the basic instincts of nature

      Reason and Intellect is what drives man to question the natural world, such as Descartes questioning whether he truly is in existence.

    3. humanmental faculties are either absolutely deceitful

      This is very reminiscent of the evil demon theory, as both argue that our realities are not what we perceive them to be.

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    1. A pattern or scheme which was adopted very early in life is maintained throughout, and every new experience is interpreted in terms of it

      What could the process be to eliminate this predisposed view of the world? If it is learned from birth then reinforced through every experience, then it must be difficult to change that viewpoint

    2. we shall m the end find un-conscious, inborn expectations

      Here I believe Popper is saying that every individual has a predisposition towards the world. Be as that may, that does not define how a person sees the world, but rather their general inclination think.

    3. objects change ... according to the needs oft_ e arum~

      This is an interesting point, as everything we come in contact with on a daily basis is put into a different light based off of our needs at that point in time.

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    1. Einstein's theory

      Einstein's theory of relativity was partially proven recently when gravitational waves were detected in deep space, validating a facet of his theory

    2. Oedipus complex

      This is where a son develops an intense resentment towards his father, as a result of irrational attraction to his mother. This usually stems from lack of attention as a child

    3. pseudo-science may happen to stumble on the truth

      This is an interesting point, as sometimes the best way find a problem's solution is to think abstractly, a la outside the box

  5. Sep 2017
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    1. pedagogical

      adjective: relating to teaching.

    2. By hearing and reading only one perspective, they come to think that perspective has a monopoly on truth -any other view must be completely wrong.

      This is quite similar to John Stuart Mill's: "Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion." Both readings speak of how ideas must be free.

    1. No wise man ever acquired his wisdom in any mode but this; nor is it in the nature of human intellect to become wise in any other manner.

      Mill argues here that great minds are open to new ideas, and constantly question that which is around them.

    2. few think it necessary to take any precautions against their own fallibility

      This connects to the very core value of philosophy, as we must always question what we take for truth, just as Descartes and Plato did.

    3. will often attempt to control the expression of opinion, except when in doing so it makes itself the organ of the general intolerance of the public

      It seems here that Mill means that a government will attempt to control the public's opinion, lest they become the subject of the public's opinion

    1. You’re not supposed to ask. Don’t think. Buy

      This is a strangely accurate description of our consumer culture, as everything can be replaced, or bought at whim.

    2. If the Universe is infinitely old, there will be an infinite number of such reconstitutions

      Considering the subject matter of the previous paragraphs, this somehow seems slightly less incredulous. It really illuminates the broad spectrum of topics covered by philosophy

    3. Failing that, how might we test the claim?

      This rhetorical question makes me think of Descartes' claim, in that we honestly cannot be sure of reality

    1. Sometimes students have a hard time understanding the idea ofattachment because we live in a society in which virtually everything isowned by someone

      For me personally, I have a difficult time understanding the idea of attachment because of my desire to see an idea to its end

    2. This draws attention away from our real goal,which is to see reality more clearlyFto discover the truth

      This rings very true to what Plato set out to do, as he constantly attempted to find the meaning of things.

    3. Doing this makes it much easier to changeone’s mind, and to avoid feeling that one has to ‘‘dig in’’ anddefendapersonal position.

      This is interesting, as almost all of philosophy revolves around choosing a viewpoint and arguing/ discussing it

    1. Similarly, the study of the human mind, which was a part of philosophy, has now been separated from philosophy and has become the science of psychology.

      Maybe at one point, the study of philosophy will follow suit and branch off into a completely different field, just as psychology has done.

    2. It is in these effects, therefore, if anywhere, that the value of philosophy must be primarily sought

      This is an interesting thought, as philosophy cannot be judged upon its means, but rather it must be judged by its effects upon society as a whole

    1. So dangerous is it to sow prejudices, because sooner or later these will revenge themselves on those, or on those whose predecessors, were their creators.

      It certainly seems that the age old adage; "What comes around, goes around" rings true here

    1. outlining, paraphrasing, or summarizing the argument

      The author mentions a very effective technique for understanding an argument here

    2. If p, then q.

      This is quite similar to the scientific method of forming a hypothesis

    3. As noted in Rule 1-3, the simplest way to locate an argument is to find its conclusion first, then its premises

      This is an ingenious way to find the argument, as it doesn't require you to scan the whole piece for one info nugget, but many parts which lead to one another

    1. when he came to the light, wouldn't he have his eyes full of its beam and be unable to see even one of the things now said to be true?

      I feel that Plato's hypothetical here challenges the old adage; "Ignorance is bliss," as he questions whether or not an individual can truly comprehend the world around them

    2. that city in which those who are going to rule are least eager to rule is necessarily governed in the way that is best and freest from faction, while the one that gets the opposite kind of rulers is governed in the opposite way

      I felt as if Plato here is compelling the governing bodies to derive their power from able-minded individuals who will in turn, continue the cycle of empowerment

    3. Whenever one of the men passing by happens to utter a sound do you suppose they would believe that anything other than the passin~ shadow was uttering the sound?"

      This draws a nice parallel between the claim made by Descartes in "First Meditation," as both raise the question of whether or not we can truly believe what we perceive.

  7. Aug 2017
    1. The schedule is subject to change

      Will schedule adjustments be sent to us over our outlook emails?

    2. some of the fundamental problems in philosophy

      The fundamental problems in philosophy, "why are we here?/ what is reality?/ where did we come from?," have been questioned by many of history's greatest minds, such as Buddha, Confucius, Nietzsche, etc. for millennia