80 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2019
    1. Therefore, there is ongoing work on rep-resenting logical knowledge and proofs in web languages.

      Book is from 2012, search for updates on this.

    2. An important advantage of logic is that it can provideexplanationsfor conclusions:the series of inference steps can be retraced.

      And present them in a human-readable way (lots based on research made on AI).

    3. logiccan be used to uncover ontological knowledge that is implicitly given. By doing so, itcan also help uncover unexpected relationships and inconsistencies

      Because logic provides i) formal languages ii) well-understood formal semantics iii) can be implemented by automated reasoners.

    4. Horn logic,

      See Horn Logic.

    5. ontologies providea shared understanding of a domain

      And support semantic interoperability (mapping between ontologies, mapping to a shared ontology) to overcome differences in terminology.

    6. Anontology is an explicit and formal specification of a conceptualization.

      For a domain of discourse. Usually includes a finite list of terms(concepts or classes of objects) and their relationships (hierarchies, properties, value restrictions, disjointment statements, specifications of logical relationships between objects)

    7. : XML describesstructure while RDF makes statements about pieces of information

      To make the web machine-readable, XML could be used instead of HTML. But XML assigns structure, not meaning (we humans see the structure and assign meaning to it). This is why RDF is more useful, it males statements about pieces of information about data, or metadata.

    8. dealingwith the ever-increasing scale, lowering the barrier of adoption, and of course fightingthat omnipresent bane of information systems: semantic heterogeneity

      Challenges for semantic web adoption

    9. 1. We must agree on standard syntax to represent data and metadata.2. We must have sufficient agreement on the metadata vocabularies in order to shareintended semantics of the data.3. We must publish large volumes of data in the formats of step 1, using the vocab-ularies of step 2.

      Requirements for the semantic web to become real, which received much attention during the last 20 years (W3C standards, e.g.)

    10. It is this decouplingthat is the essence of the weblike nature of the Semantic Web

      By decoupling the role of datasets publishers from vocabulary creators and even from the action of annotating the 1st using the 2nd, without requiring permissions, the semantic web follows the principle of decentralized growth of the traditional web.

    11. 3. useontologies(briefly: hierarchical vocabularies of types and relations) as thedata model to formally represent the intended semantics of the data

      RDF Schema, Web Ontology Language

    12. 1. uselabeled graphsas the data model for objects and their relations, with ob-jects as nodes in the graph, and the edges in the graph depicting the relationsbetween these objects.


    13. The Semantic Web (or The Web of Data, as it is becoming known in recent years2)follows different design principles, which can be summarized as follows:1. make structured and semi-structured data available in standardized formats onthe web;2. make not just the datasets, but also the individual data-elements and their rela-tions accessible on the web;3. describe the intended semantics of such data in a formalism, so that this intendedsemantics can be processed by machines.

      Three main principles of the semantic web

  2. Apr 2018
    1. We identify inclusion models with regard toexpertise,9which is attributed to theincluded actors. Following on from Collins and Evans [2007], we shall distinguishseveral levels of expertise, which — in descending order — are consideredcomparable to science:–contributory expertise: Expertise corresponding to a scientist in a particularscientific area,–interactional expertise: Expertise enabling technical communication withexperts of a given scientific area as well as informed decisions,–primary source knowledge: Expertise originating from the reception of scientificliterature,–beer-mat knowledge: Expertise requiring only schematic knowledge which fitson a beer mat.1

      Grados de expertise (incluidos y excluidos)

    2. Paradigmatically, reference needs to be made to the “Biohacking” Scene, which hasjoined the above-mentioned trends to be able to practice life science also outsideestablished institutional settings [Bennett et al., 2009; Delfanti, 2010; Wylie et al.,2014]. With regard to biohackers, Seyfried, Pei and Schmidt [2014] have come to theconclusion that prototypical forms of the opening up of science can be outlined,which are no longer focused on a safe experts/lay people difference [Seyfried, Peiand Schmidt, 2014]

      Biohacking refs

    3. The major changesbrought about by digitization include the fact that digital communicationfacilitateslinksbetween amateur scientists, produces reciprocal visibility andenables the publicrepresentationof research beyond the circle of professional scientists to reach thepublic at large, through the creation and editing of Wikipedia articles. Finally,digitalization increases themeansat the disposal of amateur scientists through theuse and further development of open-source software and hardware [Haklay, 2013;Wylie et al., 2014; Xue, 2014].

      Cambios concretos que trae aparejada la masificación del acceso a internet


  3. Jan 2018
    1. With its focus on interactions betweenniches, regimes and landscape, the MLP perspectiveprovides narrative explanations. This does not imply sto-rytelling or empiricism. The main point is that narrativeexplanations do not work with dependent and indepen-dent variables, but explain in terms ofpatternsthatresult from interactions. This is a specific type of theory,coined in the literature as process theory (Abbott, 2001;Pettigrew, 1997; Poole et al., 2000).

      MLP como una process theory

    2. The MLP typically is a global model that maps theentire transition process. Such a global model tends togive less attention to actors. Yet, the MLP does allowthe analyst to zoom in on actors: “Because the link-ages between processes at different levels are made byactors in their cognitions and activities, the dynamics [inthe MLP] are not mechanical, but socially constructed.(...) Transitions are contested and different groups strug-gle, negotiate, and form coalitions”

      MLP es global pero da la posibilidad de trabajar más detalladamente en actores

    3. If landscape pressure takes the form of ‘disrup-tive change’, asequence of transition pathwaysis likely,beginning with transformation, then leading to recon-figuration, and possibly followed by substitution orde-alignment and re-alignment.

      Ante un cambio disruptivo en el landscape se puede desatar una secuencia de transformaciones

    4. Technological substitution

      Presión a nivel de landscape + nichos estables, el nicho sustituye al régimen anterior.

    5. De-alignment and re-alignment path

      Cambios amplios, divergentes y repentinos en el landscape afectan al regimen. Si los nichos no estan estables, no hay una posibilidad clara de sustitución, por ende emergen multiples innovaciones que coexisten y compiten por atencion y recursos. Finalmente una domina, que será el proto-regimen.

    6. Landscape changes only exert pressure if they areperceived and acted upon by regime actors.

      Relevancia de mov sociales, profesionales/cientificos/firmas independientes que comiencen a desarrollar alternativas que puedan ser 'vistas' por los actores del régimen

    7. Transformation path

      Presión moderada desde el landscape, los nichos aun no estan estables. El regimen responde modificando la dirección del desarrollo de la innovación.

    8. P0.Reproduction process:

      Estabilidad del régimen, con un landscape que no lo desafía sino lo estabiliza, hay problemas pero pueden ser resueltos sobre rutas predecibles (trayectorias). A través de cambios incrementales mejora performance.

    9. Niche-innovations have acompetitiverelationshipwith the existing regime, when they aim to replace it.Niche-innovations havesymbioticrelationships if theycan be adopted as competence-enhancing add-on in theexisting regime to solve problems and improve perfor-mance.

      Relación nicho-régimen

    10. Reinforcing landscape developments have stabilisingeffects on the regime and form no driver for transitions.Disruptive landscape developments exert pressure on theregime, creating impulses for change

      Relación landscape-regime

    11. we propose the following proxies asreasonable indicators for the stabilisation of viableniche-innovations that are ready to break through morewidely: (a) learning processes have stabilised in adominant design, (b) powerful actors have joined the sup-port network, (c) price/performance improvements haveimproved and there are strong expectations of furtherimprovement (e.g. learning curves) and (d) the innova-tion is used in market niches, which cumulatively amountto more than 5% market share.5

      Criterios para determinar si un nicho es estable

    12. ,Van Driel and Schot (2005)elaboratedthe landscape concept, distinguishing three types: (1)factors that do not change or that change only slowly,such as climate; (2) long-term changes, such as Germanindustrialisation in the late 19th century; (3) rapid exter-nal shocks, such as wars or fluctuations in the price ofoil.

      Tipos de landscape

    13. kinds of rules1: regulative, normative, and cognitive.Examples ofregulativerules are regulations, standards,laws. Examples ofnormative rules are role relationships,values, behavioural norms. Examples ofcognitiverulesare belief systems, innovation agendas, problem defini-tions, guiding principles, search heuristics.

      set de reglas

    14. Both niches and regimes have thecharacter of organisational fields (community of inter-acting groups). For regimes, these communities are largeand stable, while for niches they are small and unstable.Both niche and regime communities share certain rulesthat coordinate action. For regimes these rules are sta-ble and well articulated; for niche-innovations, they areunstable and ‘in the making’.

      Cómo es la acción dentro de nichos y regimen

    15. he analystshould first demarcate the empirical level of the objectof analysis, and then operationalise the MLP

      MLP no son categorías empíricas si no analíticas

    16. This article aims tomake progress by developing a typology ofmultipletran-sitions pathways

      El artículo desarrolla una tipología de múltiples vías de transición sociotécnica, utilizando MLP y entendiendo que las TT son resultado de variaciones en el timing y la naturaleza de las interacciónes multinivel.

      En primer lugar responde a críticas al MLP

      • falta de relación empírica (como se estudia?)
      • falta de dimensión política
      • demasiado énfasis en nichos
    17. MLP is “overlyfunctionalistic. Despite the breadth of the regime con-cept, there is a tendency to treat regime transformationas a monolithic process, dominated by rational actionand neglecting important differences in context. We alsoargue that existing approaches tend to be too descrip-tive and structural, leaving room for greater analysis ofagency”

      Crítica a la falta del aspecto político en MLP (Smith, 2005)

    18. One new addition to this figure are downwardarrows towards the niche-level, indicating that percep-tions of niche actors and the size of support networksare influenced by broader regime and landscape devel-opments.

      Los actores dentro del nicho y sus redes sociales de contención son influenciadas por lo que pasa en el regimen y el landscape. Esto es nuevo a Geels 2002.


    1. Evolutionas ‘unfolding’ is included by understanding regimechanges as reconfiguration processes.

      Lo que toma de la corriente evolucionista más por el lado de Schumpeter

    2. Cascade dynamics are important,meaning that changes in one elements of the regimetriggers changes in other elements which, in turn, trig-ger further changes. Such reconfiguration processestake place on all dimensions of the socio-technicalregime (e.g. markets, user groups and user practices,technologies, production networks, policies).

      El cambio no es súbito, se da en cascada, cambios en algún lugar desatan cambios en otros elementos, se reconfiguran todas las dimensiones del sistema ST.

    3. The general pattern by which radi-cal innovations break out is that they follow trajec-tories ofniche-cumulation

      Cómo surgen las innovaciones del nicho al régimen? Patrones de acumulación por aplicación en otros dominios o nichos d emercado

    4. even dimensions in thesociotechnical regime: technology, user practices andapplication domains (markets), symbolic meaning oftechnology, infrastructure, industry structure, policyand techno-scientific knowledge

      Dimensiones de análisis en régimen ST - los elementos presentan cambios incrementales pero también tensiones que pueden originar ventanas de oportunidad en ciertos momentos

    5. “It is the alignmentof developments (successful processes within theniche reinforced by changes at regime level and at thelevel of the sociotechnical landscape) which deter-mine if a regime shift will occur”

      Que un cambio suceda no depende sólo de los desarrollos en el nicho

    6. These internal niches processes have beenanalysed and described under the heading of strategicniche management

      Procesos que se dan en los nichos: aprendizaje y conformación de redes de contención.

      Más sobre nichos en strategic niche management (Kemp et al., 1998; Kemp et al., 2001; Hoogma, 2000).

    7. Because these niches are protected or insulated from‘normal’ market selection in the regime, they act as‘incubation rooms’ for radical novelties (Schot, 1998)

      El nicho es el hogar de la innovación radical, por fuera de la trayectoria del régimen, porque en él el ambiente de selección es distinto. Deben ser espacios protegidos de la selección del régimen debido a la naturaleza errante y la baja performance y alto costo de las innovaciones al inicio.

    8. The landscape is an external structure orcontext for interactions of actors. While regimes referto rules that enable and constrain activities withincommunities, the ‘ST-landscape’ refers to widertechnology-externalfactors.

      Landscape es el factor externo, de mayor rigidez. Cambia pero lentamente y afecta al régimen ST.

    9. ‘sociotechnicalregimes’ to refer to the semi-coherent set of rulescarried by different social groups. By providing ori-entation and co-ordination to the activities of relevantactor groups, ST-regimes account for thestabilityof ST-configurations. This stability is of a dynamickind, meaning that innovation still occurs but is of anFig. 2. The multi-actor network involved in sociotechnical regimes.incremental nature

      El régimen ST refiere al set de reglas que incorporan los distintos grupos sociales, y da estabilidad a la configuración. La estabilidad es dinámica, el cambio ocurre pero de forma incremental.

    10. Technical trajectories are notonly influenced by engineers, but also by users, policymakers, societal groups, suppliers, scientists, capitalbanks etc.

      Geels toma el concepto de régimen de Nelson&Winter, que decían que las rutinas se anclan en la comunidad de ingenieros, y las amplía con el concepto de configuración ST de Rip&Kemp (1998). Entonces incorpora no sólo ingenieros si no usuarios, policy makers, movimientos sociales, proveedores, científicos, etc.

    11. Organisations, and the actors involved, remember bydoing. Such routine-based behaviour also goes forengineers, e.g. in the form of search heuristics. In sofar as engineers and firms share similar routines, theseform atechnological regime. Technological regimesresult intechnological trajectories, because the com-munity of engineers searches in the same direction.Technological regimes create stability because theyguide the innovative activity towards incremental im-provements along trajectories.

      Por qué los regímenes son estables? Cómo se originan las trayectorias ST que influyen en la innovación?

    12. Within evolutionary economics, there are two viewson the process of technological evolution.1In the firstview, evolution is a process of variation, selectionand retention. InSection 2, I build upon this view byusing Nelson and Winter’s concept of ‘technologicalregimes’ to understand inertia of established tech-nologies. In the second view, evolution is a process ofunfolding, creating ‘new combinations’ (Schumpeter,1934, p. 66), resulting in paths and trajectories

      Visiones del cambio tecnológico dentro de la economía evolucionista.

      Link con Nelson&Winter 1982 (concepto de régimen tecnológico)

      Crítica a la visión de la variación y la selección como instancias independientes, a la selección como algo externo, 'dado' (por el mercado) siendo que las nuevas tecnologías muchas veces no tienen mercados o preferencias establecidos. Crítica también a la minimización del rol del usuario (domesticación). Propone un modelo co-evolutivo entre variación y seleccióń, y amplía el ambiente de selección mediante el concepto de configuraciones sociotécnicas.

    13. Thedifferent levels are not ontological descriptions ofreality, but analytical and heuristic concepts to under-stand the complex dynamics of sociotechnical change.

      MLP es un intento de aunar estos insights de la economía evolucionista y los estudios sociales de la tecnología a través de proponer categorías de análisis (no descripciones de la realidad) que permitan comprender mejor la complejidad del cambio socio-técnico

    14. the idea that linkages be-tween technical and social elements provide stabilityis particularly emphasised in actor-network theory(e.g.Latour, 1991, 1993; Law and Callon, 1992).Sociotechnical change is described as a process ofshifting assemblies of associations and substitutions, areweaving of elements.

      Teoría del actor-red para explicar como los links entre aspectos técnicos y sociales proveen estabilidad a un sistema, y como cambios en unos elementos disparan cambios en otros.

    15. TT consist of a changefrom one sociotechnical configuration to another

      La transformación implica no sólo un cambio tecnológico si no también una reconfiguración en los elementos heterogéneos. La transformación cuesta porque estos elementos alrededor están linkeados a la tecnología existente y no suelen ser compatibles con el nuevo modelo.

    16. Configurations that work cannot easily bebounded from the rest of society in a simple and ob-vious way. Things and skills are part of routines, ofpatterns of behaviour, of organisations. They workonly because they are embedded. Societal functionsare fulfilled by sociotechnical configurations.

      El aporte sociológico

    17. In thisperspective technology, of itself, has no power, doesnothing. Only in association with human agency, so-cial structures and organisations does technology fulfilfunctions.

      El autor utiliza una perspectiva sociológica que entiende que la tecnología por si misma no es nada, es el accionar humano, la estructura y organización sociales lo que llevan a cumplir esa función social. Lo que importa es el link entre esos elementos

      Acá está el link con Rip&Kemp 1998: la tecnología es una configuración de elementos que funcionan.


    1. Smith et al. (2005)caution against too muchemphasisinniche-derivedagencyintransitions,arguingthatincre-mental reforms in regimes can lead to radical transformations overthe long periods under consideration. They suggest a typology oftransitionpathways(also,GeelsandSchot,2007),andsuggestwaysthat power and agency could be incorporated more centrally intoMLP analysis.

      MLP & power

    2. The allure of the MLP is that it provides a relatively straight-forward way of ordering and simplifying the analysis of complex,large-scale structural transformations

      Ventajas del enfoque MPL

    3. It argues ‘normal’ innovation pat-terns reproduce broad socio-technical regimes. Regime shifts occurthrough inter-linkages and interactions between multiple devel-opments on three levels. These involve the rise of both strongsocio-technical alternatives in nichesandfavourable openingsin regime selection environments. The latter is associated withthe unsettling of regimes arising from landscape developments.

      Logica del MPL

    4. andscapeprocesses include environmental and demographic change, newsocial movements, shifts in general political ideology, broad eco-nomic restructuring, emerging scientific paradigms, and culturaldevelopments.

      examples of landscape

    5. valuable lessons beinggenerated, supportive institutional requirements becoming betterarticulated, and enrolling commitments from a growing networkof actors (including potential investors and users from more main-stream settings) (Raven, 2006). Niche actors need to performconsiderable cognitive, institutional, economic and political work:they have to be persuasive to a variety of constituencies on dif-ferent terms (Smith, 2007; Hendriks and Grin, 2007).

      Por qué son valiosos los nichos?

    6. Niche protection can be affordedthrough lead markets, subsidised projects for research demonstra-tion and learning, or specific cultural milieu of early adoption andexperimentatio

      Formas de proteger un nicho

    7. Niches provide ‘protective spaces’ for path-breaking,radical alternatives whose performance may not be competitiveagainst the selection environment prevailing in the regime

      Los nichos como espacios protegidos de la selección

    8. Socio-technical regimes constitute themainstream,andhighlyinstitutionalised,wayofcurrentlyrealisingsocietal functions. Change within the regime tends to be incre-mental and path dependent. Regimes also exert a structuring forceupon novel alternatives, which arise in niche spaces. In a Kuh-nian vein, regimes tend to produce ‘normal’ innovation patterns,whilst ‘revolutionary’ change originates in ‘niches’. The implica-tion is that the quality of incremental innovations subsequentlygenerated within a new regime will be radically different to thoseunder the preceding regime. Finally, both niches and regimes aresituated within a broader landscape of social and physical factorsthat provides a macro-level structuring context. Over time, the riseof some regimes can prove quite influential upon broader land-scapedevelopments

      Explicación de cómo funcionan los conceptos de régimen - nicho - landscape

    9. Transition scholars are interested inthe broader societal transformations arising from the establish-ment of novel technological regimes, but also how broader societaldevelopments are effectively selecting between possible would-beregimes and exerting pressure on them to adapt or causing themto wither

      Retroalimentación entre las transformaciones de una tecnología nueva en la sociedad y también cómo la sociedad afecta a estos procesos

    10. quasi-evolutionary’ conceptuali-sation of historic transitions in societal functions. It combinessociological appreciation of processes of technology shaping, as inSCOT, with more structural notions of ‘technological regimes’ and‘paradigms’ prevalent in evolutionary economics (Rip, 1995, seeGeels’ paper in this special section). Research emphasises the waysselection environments are anticipated, reinterpreted and (par-tially) transformed by (networked) innovators (Rip, 1992; van denBeltandRip,1987;DiscoandvanderMeulen,1998).Relevantstud-ies are those interested in how new technologies become involvedin wide-ranging processes of social change (e.g. the move from gaslight to electric light (Schot, 1998), from sail to steam ships (Geels,2002), the rise of the turbo-jet in aviation (Geels, 2006), improve-ments in public sanitation (Geels, 2006b).

      Útil para referencias de estudios históricos que utilizan el abordaje cuasi-evolucionista

    11. A sociological sensibility extends the regime notion toembrace institutions (such as regulations and markets), heteroge-neous networks (including devices and people), user relations, andsocial expectations. Mutual reinforcement across these plural pro-cesses creates the structural patterns that shape innovation andcreates trajectories of social development

      Aporte de la sociología de la tecnología a este enfoque

    12. The systems innovation literature frames its prob-lem as concern for the realisation of ‘societal functions’ throughthe configuration and alignment of heterogeneous socio-technicalelements and processes, and how these restructure over long peri-ods of time

      Diferencia entre enfoque de sistemas de innovación y otros enfoques existentes

    13. The conceptual understanding of transitionsto new regimes draws upon theories at the interface of innovationstudies and STS. They combine a view on the micro-level processesof constructing new technologies, with a view on emerging macro-and meso-level patterns of culture, organisation, markets, regula-tion and infrastructures (Rip and Kemp, 1998; Schot, 1998; Geels,2002).

      Origen de transitions

    14. The first purpose of thispaper is to explain the logic for this broadening of perspective.

      El paper trata sobre innovación para la sustentabilidad. En ese sentido, plantea que la innovación como es propuesta usualmente no alcanza para este tipo de problemas, es necesario ampliar el marco desde el cual se piensa la innovación. Por otro lado proponen también ampliar el marco analítico, es decir el surgimiento y éxito de una nueva tecnología (proponen MLP).


    1. The starting point for a quasi-evolutionary model is the search processes which are embedded in heuristics. These search processes and the variations pursued are heterogenous by their very nature. The products of the search processes encounter selection environments, which have their own dynamics which are only partly determined by the variation process. Actors do try to anticipate and influence the selection environment.

      quasy-evolutionary model

    2. there is no independent variation and selection (the building blocks of the evolutionary model) but rather coevolution of both technology and the selection environment. Technologies appear as actor networks of heterogenous elements. The analysis must then focus on how links are made.

      Bases de transitions

    3. ntent and form are given to technical developments simultaneously with the construction of their context.

      corriente constructivista

    4. The latter concept embraces not only the neo-classical market (structure and size of supply and demand as well as prices) but also all kinds of institutional factors (regulation, relationship between employers and employees, political structure) and even geographical factors.

      Ambiente de selección

    5. a set of rules or heuristics that indicate what the relevant problems are and in which direction the solution should be sought.

      paradigma tecnológico


    1. The division of labor contributes to the black boxing oftechnology in such a way that technology actually appears primarily as a set oftools. This division of labor in making and using tools dates from ancient times,but became very strong with the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth andnineteenth centuries, and the increasing role of research and development(R&D) in the twentieth century.

      La división del trabajo contribuye al black boxing

    2. Artifacts can be used without an indication of their history andtheir inner working; this is called “black boxing.”

      Concepto de Black Box


    1. (a) niche accumulation, (b) co-evolution of technologies, and (c) actor-related patterns

      Factores internos del nicho, ST, que influyen para su salida a competir en el régimen

      a- El salto al régimen se da por acumulación, a partir de que el desarrollo se mueve hacia nuevas aplicaciones, por ej

      b- co-evolución con otras tecnologías (interlocking) que permitan abordar problemas que tenga el nuevo desarrollo

      c- más allá de que MLP sea un abordaje de procesos, éstos son implementados por actores -requiere más research-

    2. Several phases can be distinguished in transitions

      Dinámica a través del tiempo: 1- Surgimiento de la innovación en el nicho, en un contexto (paisaje) y régimen determinados. No existe aún un diseño dominante y pueden existir diversas alternativas técnicas en etapa de experimentación 2- La innovación se comienza a probar en pequeños nichos de mercado donde se posibilita la especialización. Comienza a surgir una comunidad técnica dedicada a mejorar el diseño, que establece nuevas reglas y una trayectoria para el desarrollo. En este punto los procesos de aprendizaje decantan en una mejora del desarrollo y los usuarios comienzan a interactuar e incorporarlo en sus prácticas, explorando nuevas funcionalidades. Resultado: estabilización de reglas, diseño dominante, articulación prefs de usuarios 3- El desarrollo sale a competir con el régimen, tanto por causas internas (mejoras en costos, performance, usuarios interesados) como externas (ventanas de oportunidad). El régimen puede tener problemas internos o estar sometido a presiones externas, originar externalidades negativas que cambien su percepción en los actores. Los factores están interconectados 4- El desarrollo reemplaza a la tecnología dominante, convirtiéndose en el nuevo régimen gradual, ya que los intereses afectados se resisten.

    3. iteral connotation ofrelativedhardnessTand to include the material aspects of society

      A nivel macro, dentro de la mlp el landscape es el factor exógeno, de mayor rigidez, e incluye arrangements de tipo material [diseño urbano, tendido eléctrico, mapa de caminos] y no tanto [cambios culturales]

    4. Niches are important, because they provide locations for learning processes

      key no sólo procesos de aprendizaje si no también desarrollo de redes sociales de contención

    5. This stability is dynamic

      El régimen ST es un factor de estabilidad, donde los cambios ocurren de forma incremental, originan trayectorias técnicas y path dependency

    6. technological niches

      El nivel micro, donde ocurre la innovación, protegida de la selección del mercado cuando todavía se encuentra en etapas de baja performance.

    7. Their activities reproduce the elements and linkages in sociotechnical systems


    8. Atechnological regime is the rule-set or grammar embedded in a complex of engineering practices,production process technologies, product characteristics, skills and procedures, ways of handlingrelevant artefacts and persons, ways of defining problems; all of them embedded in institutions andinfrastructuresQ

      Definición de régimen socio-técnico (Rip & Kemp)