1,052 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2018
    1. Because that’s just how we did it because we were men and this was our little terms of endearment. When I got mixed up with actors, I started doing that with them and they took it very personally because that’s not the way they operate. They’re more womanish, you know? So it wasn’t my fault! (l

      Norm Sexism

    1. Although the Phaedrus also criticizes the rhetoric of the day,4 it explains what an art of rhetoric would be: the speech of the true rhetorician is based on knowledge of the soul and its different forms and of the kinds of speeches appropriate to eac

      Plato's version of rhetoric

    2. e. Rhetoric is the counterpart of cookery, Socrates says, for just as cookery provides pleasure for the body with no regard for what truly benefits it, rhetoric gratifies the soul without considering its good. Consequently, rhetoric is ignoble flattery rather than art, both because it aims at the pleasant and also because it cannot give a rational account of its own activity.

      Rhetoric as bad.

    3. He wants to learn, in other words, how to "make the weaker argument the stronger" (Clouds, 112-115

      Rhetoric as slick

    1. ut thousands of begatsare only written on air,and they remain unnamed,born forgotten,or wrongly remembere


    2. Ishtar.
    3. the Great Flood's blue-black

      Noah's Ark

    4. scripture and lore

      Culture / Ideology / Religion

    5. And a river godfashioned woman from a man's ri

      Referencing Genesis:

    6. Euphrates
    7. Tigris
    8. Go to the temple and find the Woman of Red Sashes.Bid her to use her charmsagainst the wild manwho frolics with the dumb brutes.

      hetero-normative ideology.

    9. till you are kneeling on the groundand gazing up at the sky.


    10. dumb brutes of the forestand rejoice in their darkness

      differentiation between human and animal. Ideological.

    11. almost a man

      Why the distinction?

    12. our oldest law!

      Who is "our"? Inside game; cultural ideology. Universal, too?

    13. man-beast


    1. deliberative, forensic, and epideictic.

      The Greek epideictic means "fit for display." Thus, this branch of oratory is sometimes called "ceremonial" or "demonstrative" oratory. Epideictic oratory was oriented to public occasions calling for speech or writing in the here and now. Funeral orations are a typical example of epideictic oratory. The ends of epideictic included praise or blame, and thus the long history of encomia and invectives, in their various manifestations, can be understood in the tradition of epideictic oratory. Aristotle assigned "virtue (the noble)" and "vice (the base)" as those special topics of invention that pertained to epideictic oratory.

      Epideictic oratory was trained for in rhetorical pedagogy by way of progymnasmata exercises including the encomium and the vituperation.

      Sample Rhetorical Analysis: EPIDEICTIC ORATORY

      We can understand the dedicatory prefaces to early books and manuscripts as a species of epideictic oratory. Given the system of patronage that for so long made publication possible, one can understand the sometimes long-winded flattery of dedicatory epistles and prefaces. To praise a patron was to effect the possibility of obtaining sponsorship. One Renaissance entrepreneur inserted some 30 different dedicatory epistles into the front of different copies of his work, attempting to hedge his chances that this epideictic oratory would move at least one of his potential patrons, to whom he presented the copy.

    1. tekmeria
    2. persuasive in reference to some one


    3. Now arguments that depend on examples are not less calculated to persuade, but those which depend upon enthymemes meet with greater approval.

      Enthymeme > Example

    4. Dialectic induction, in Rhetoric example; but when, certain things being posited, something different results by reason of them, alongside of them, from their being true, either universally or in most cases, such a conclusion in Dialectic is called a syllogism, in Rhetoric an enthymeme.

      Enthymeme = Syllogism = premise -> conclusion. Rhetorical Example = Dialectic Induction

    5. induction
    6. but where there is no certainty and there is room for doubt, our confidence is absolute

      The power of Authority, ethos. Think, Sacha Baron Cohen.

    7. in so far as it proves or seems to prove.


    8. putting the hearer into a certain frame of mind


    9. moral character of the speaker


    10. Rhetoric then may be defined as the faculty of discovering the possible means of persuasion in reference to any subject whatever
    1. the orator should be able to prove opposites, as in logical arguments; not that we should do both (for one ought not to persuade people to do what is wrong), but that the real state of the case may not escape us, and that we ourselves may be able to counteract false arguments, if another makes an unfair use of them.

      The key sentence in this first section: truth exists; right exists; wrong exists.

    2. Nevertheless, Rhetoric is useful, because the true and the just are naturally superior to their opposites, so that, if decisions are improperly made, they must owe their defeat to their own advocates; which is reprehensible.

      Aristotle here argues that "truth" and "the just" are universally definable, discernable?

    3. wherefore one who divines well in regard to the truth will also be able to divine well in regard to probabilities

      What we might call "a fact."

    4. forensic

      Forensic Oratory

      Sometimes called "forensic" oratory, judical oratory originally had to do exclusively with the law courts and was oriented around the purposes of defending or accusing. The judicial orator made arguments about past events, and did so with respect to the two special topics of invention described by Aristotle as appropriate for this branch of oratory, the just and the injust (or the right and the wrong).

      Sample Rhetorical Analysis: JUDICIAL ORATORY In his famous speeches against Catiline, Cicero blatantly and forcefully accused Catiline of forming a conspiracy that would undermine republican Rome. Although speaking to the senate, he might as well have been speaking in a legal court, for he employed the methods and topics of judicial oratory, as though he were the prosecutor and Catiline the hapless defendant. Although Cicero lacked the solid evidence we would expect in today's courtroom, his dynamic summoning of witnesses (including the personified Rome herself!) secured popular sentiment against Catiline, and the conspirator fled the city.

    5. deliberative

      Deliberative Oratory

      Sometimes called "legislative" oratory, deliberative oratory originally had to do exclusively with that sort of speaking typical of political legislatures. This sort of oratory was oriented towards policy and thus considered the future and whether given laws would benefit or harm society. Aristotle considered four special topics of invention, grouped in pairs, to pertain to deliberative oratory:

      The good and the unworthy The advantageous, and the disadvantageous. Deliberative oratory has come to encompass any communication for or against given future action.

      Sample Rhetorical Analysis: DELIBERATIVE ORATORY When Sir Thomas More was faced with the dilemma of deciding whether to sign the oath of loyalty to Henry VIII or to abstain and be charged with treason, he must have considered deeply the effects of either choice. Should he sign, he would save his life and his influential position as Lord Chancellor, thus saving himself to further influence his sovereign and his nation for good. Should he refuse to sign, he would probably die, but his death would serve the purpose of inspiring fidelity to the Church. His martyrdom would have the advantage of increasing piety. More must have so argued within himself, deliberating as though his mind were the parliament house, divided as to the best policy for his country. In the end he persuaded himself to allow himself to be martyred, and we are left to judge whether this did indeed prove to be an advantage or not. His example of moral backbone is generally regarded as his having succeeded in making the right choice. Still, we cannot know what More could have done should he have remained in the king's service longer.

    6. the artificial proofs,

      i.e. Constructed / learned vs Natural, organic.

    7. therefore, it is proper that laws, properly enacted, should themselves define the issue of all cases as far as possible, and leave as little as possible to the discretion of the judges

      Judges: too immediate and too subjective. Begs the question, too: Can language be so precise that it bends towards objectivity?

    8. Now, previous compilers of “Arts”4 of Rhetoric have provided us with only a small portion of this art, for proofs are the only things in it that come within the province of art; everything else is merely an accessory.


    9. dicast

      Definition of dicast : an ancient Athenian performing the functions of both judge and juror at a trial Origin and Etymology of dicast Greek dikastēs, from dikazein to judge, from dikē judgment First Known Use: 1820

    10. enthymemes

      More info here.

      1. The informal method of reasoning typical of rhetorical discourse. The enthymeme is sometimes defined as a "truncated syllogism" since either the major or minor premise found in that more formal method of reasoning is left implied. The enthymeme typically occurs as a conclusion coupled with a reason. When several enthymemes are linked together, this becomes sorites.


      We cannot trust this man, for he has perjured himself in the past. In this enthymeme, the major premise of the complete syllogism is missing:

      Those who perjure themselves cannot be trusted. (Major premise - omitted) This man has perjured himself in the past. (Minor premise - stated) This man is not to be trusted. (Conclusion - stated) 2.

      A figure of speech which bases a conclusion on the truth of its contrary. Example

      If to be foolish is evil, then it is virtuous to be wise. This also an example of chiasmus

  2. www-jstor-org.proxy.library.georgetown.edu www-jstor-org.proxy.library.georgetown.edu
    1. ™invention∫


    2. Perhaps epideictic rhetoric isbest regarded as any discourse that does not aim at a speciÆc action but isintended to inØuence the values and beliefs of the audience.

      Epideictic rhetoric

    3. udicial, deliberative, epideictic

      Aristotle's three types of rhetoric

    1. Homogeneous groups — whether they are united by ethnic background, gender or some other commonality like politics — tend to come to decisions too quickly. They settle early on a most-likely scenario and don’t question their assumptions, since everyone at the table seems to agree with the broad outline of the interpretation.A 2008 study led by the management professor Katherine Phillips using a similar investigative structure revealed an additional, seemingly counterintuitive finding: While the more diverse groups were better at reaching the truth, they were also far less confident in the decisions they made. They were both more likely to be right and, at the same time, more open to the idea that they might be wrong.

      This. Tacit

  3. Aug 2018
    1. oblatum

      oblat.um VPAR 3 2 NOM S N PERF PASSIVE PPL

      oblat.um VPAR 3 2 VOC S N PERF PASSIVE PPL

      oblat.um VPAR 3 2 ACC S M PERF PASSIVE PPL

      oblat.um VPAR 3 2 ACC S N PERF PASSIVE PPL

      oblat.um SUPINE 3 2 ACC S N<br> offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatus V [XXXAX]<br> offer; present; cause; bestow;

    2. videtur.

      vid.etur V 2 1 PRES PASSIVE IND 3 S<br> video, videre, vidi, visus V (2nd) [XXXAX]<br> see, look at; consider; (PASS) seem, seem good, appear, be seen;

    3. pertinebat

      pertin.ebat V 2 1 IMPF ACTIVE IND 3 S<br> pertineo, pertinere, pertinui, pertentus V (2nd) [XXXAX]<br> reach; extend; relate to; concerns, pertain to;

    4. sedandam

      sed.andam VPAR 1 1 ACC S F FUT PASSIVE PPL sedo, sedare, sedavi, sedatus V (1st) [XXXDX] lesser settle, allay; restrain; calm down;

    5. optandum

      opt.andum VPAR 1 1 NOM S N FUT PASSIVE PPL opt.andum VPAR 1 1 VOC S N FUT PASSIVE PPL opt.andum VPAR 1 1 ACC S M FUT PASSIVE PPL opt.andum VPAR 1 1 ACC S N FUT PASSIVE PPL opto, optare, optavi, optatus V (1st) [XXXAX]<br> choose, select; wish, wish for, desire;

    6. maxime,

      maxi.me ADJ 1 1 VOC S M SUPER<br> magnus, magna -um, major -or -us, maximus -a -um ADJ [XXXAO]<br> large/great/big/vast/huge; much; powerful; tall/long/broad; extensive/spacious; great (achievement); mighty; distinguished; skilled; bold/confident; proud; full/complete/utter/pure; intense; loud; at high price; notable/famous; old; maxi.me ADJ 0 0 VOC S M SUPER<br> maximus, maxima, maximum ADJ [XXXAO]<br> greatest/biggest/largest; longest; oldest; highest, utmost; leading, chief; maxime ADV SUPER<br> maxime ADV [XXXAO]<br> especially, chiefly; certainly; most, very much; (forms SUPER w/ADJ/ADV);

    7. Quod

      qu.od PRON 1 0 NOM S N<br> qu.od PRON 1 0 ACC S N<br> [XXXAO]<br> who; that; which, what; of which kind/degree; person/thing/time/point that; who/whatever, everyone who, all that, anything that; any; anyone/anything, any such; unspecified some; (after si/sin/sive/ne); who?, which?, what?; what kind of?; quod ADV POS<br> quod ADV [XXXDX] lesser with respect to which; quod CONJ<br> quod CONJ [XXXDX] lesser because, as far as, insofar as; [quod si => but if];

    8. conentur,

      con.entur V 1 1 PRES SUB 3 P<br> conor, conari, conatus sum V (1st) DEP [XXXBO]<br> attempt/try/endeavor, make an effort; exert oneself; try to go/rise/speak;


    1. In other words, Trump picked this fight—obviously poltical—because he thinks he can win it, that it works for him.

    1. “Woman to woman, I shared a connection with Omarosa as a friend and a campaign sister, and I am absolutely shocked and saddened by her betrayal and violation on a deeply personal level,” she said. “I hope it’s all worth it for you, Omarosa, because some things you just can’t put a price on.”

      Oh, this is rich!

    2. “diversity outreach,”

      Racism a la Trump.

    1. Thespace of politics is filled by dispute, contingency, inconsistency, unreason,and passion: here the arts of persuasion rule. Rhetoric is thus the key tountangling the legal and extralegal tensions shot through life in the com-munity, where the networks of identity that make up the civic self intersectand blur together

      Stanley Fish all day.

    2. Cicero, always intensively studied for thelight his work sheds on the chaotic political developments of the 60sthrough the 40s BCEand on Hellenistic philosophy, has recently foundmore readers for his rhetorical and political theory.

      New emphasis on "rhetorical and political theory" in Cicero.

    3. Thesis

    4. Rhetorical discourse, I argue, directlyreflects and mediates the historical negotiation of power in the Romanrepublic among members of the elite senatorial order and between thatorder and the citizenry, a relation expressed in the well-known formulaSenatus Populusque Romanus.
    5. Though it certainly seeks to discipline language and behavioraccording to standards imagined to embody elite norms, its appropriationof purportedly alien elements means that its prescriptions constructpolitical power in terms of communication—as fundamentally dialogicin nature—thus illuminating how authority, resistance, and consentachieve expression and interact with one another in the world

      Constructed reality

    6. What is surprising, and what I seek to show, is how in its exposure ofpersuasive language’s power to sway, mislead, theatricalize, distract, anddelight, rhetorical discourse reveals unexpected (if often explicitly dis-avowed) points of resemblance between the reason and honorableauthority of free citizen men and the confusion and abjection that issupposed to be everyone else’s lot.

      Rhetorical Complexity: Pathos

    7. Cicero is not principally concerned inhis rhetorical writings with the ethical formation of the privateindividualbut with a civic ideal

      Public > Private

    8. If philosophy maybe “divided into three branches, natural philosophy, dialectic, andethics,” Cicero declares in his dialogue de Oratore (On the Orator), “letus relinquish the first two,” but, he continues, rhetoric must lay claim toethics, “which has always been the property of the orator; . . . this area,concerning human life and customs, he must master” (1.68).


    9. Isocrates
    10. we will also enrich our own politicalculture, I propose, if we examine Roman rhetoric’s contribution to idealsof civic identity—if we explore the meaning, in rhetorical discourse, ofdialogue, civility, and compromise, of the expression and the critique oftraditional authority, the limits of reason, and love of country

      Classical rhetoric can help us today make a better Republic.

    11. Above all, I concentrate on rhetoric’s representa-tion of the ideal orator, which I read as an exploration of the ethos of theideal citizen.

      The ideal orator; the ideal citizen.

    12. I treat rhetoric, especially the work ofCicero, as an extended engagement with the ideals and demands ofrepublican citizenship.

      Rhetoric and Citizenship

    1. At the very same time, I go back to being completely convinced that these were legitimate I.D.F. special forces soldiers that had trained with these techniques or had actually used them.
    2. The way it was explained to me is that there was a group of Israeli special forces soldiers that were going around the United States shooting a show for Israeli television about terrorism and how Americans defend themselves.

      Rhetorical Authority.

    3. Authority

  4. Jul 2018
    1. Unlike the movement of the body, in scholarship we can—and often do—look at one piece of a system of communication without seeing its relationship to others.

      But is that a good thing, to decontextualize?

    2. US

      Is that problematic?

    3. as a force which connects us to the universe, and as a force which allows our body to make meaning from this connection. What we can understand from such a connection includes the distinction between our self and other selves, or our self and the rest of the world, but also, importantly, our relationship to the world, to other bodies in the world

      embodiment as Identity formation:

    4. Barbara Mahler,


    5. Embodied rhetoric
    1. "Aristotle is Not Our Father."

      What does she mean by this?

    2. A cultural rhetorics orientation requires an investment in a methodological frame that values the relation among history, practice, and knowledge.

      "history, practice, and knowledge."

    3. Can we be inclusive in an exclusive community?

    4. mainstream (and thus applicable to all peoples) or marginal

      Work: Mainstream vs Marginal

    5. a practice that creates a decolonial space inside rhetoric studies. It is here, we believe, where we can forge necessary relations inside and outside of the university.

      But how? And in all disciplines?

    6. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples
    7. Linda Tuhiwai Smith
    8. from an idea that the academy is apart from the "real" world to an understanding of the ways it's really an important part of systems that perpetuate oppression

      Such a positional claim.

    9. how we do scholarship

      Provocative thesis.

    10. that most of those people don't really care about what we do in the academy

      They do care, i.e. right-wing groups.

    1. The real danger is in ignoring content: if content has indeed changed the rhetorical game, composers who ignore it risk failing in their rhetorical attempts, and a field that ignores it risks marginalization and missed opportunities for growth.

      Exigence for the argument.

    2. Multimodal writing, a concept that has guided much of the field’s engagement with the digital, for example, typically construes digital composition in this way—as what Jodie Nicotra, in her discussion of networked writing, calls “the act of producing a discrete textual object” (261)

      Old way: "producing a discrete textual object."

    3. Additionally, as a number of popular writers have argued, networks value surplus over scarcity and, more arguably, democratic participation over hierarchy:

      Hierarchy vs Surplus

    4. ent professions, both to better signal to employers that our students are prepared to do content work, and to offer students opportunities to engage directly with conten

      Share language with content professions

    5. n a multimodal writing class. Their work suggests that it is perhaps even possible to integrate approaches to writing-a
    6. ng meets human needs—and exchange value—value based on profit—Trimbur points to the often-contradictory relationship between the two forms of value that is realized w

      Object-Oriented Ontologies

    7. We might also consider creating courses that share language with the content professions, both to better signal to employers that our students are prepared to do content work, and to offer students opportunities to engage directly with content as a concept and set of practices.

      Straight up selling out?

    8. Understanding how content travels and how to optimize it for successful rhetorical effect(s) in these travels is a key reason to attend to structure.

      Ok. How so?

    9. structure
    10. about writing-as-content and content-related professional practices.

      Should teach all levels of students this new weriting as content metaphor

    11. However, my argument is not that the writing metaphor should be erased or superseded, but rather that we should acknowledge writing’s unavoidable status as content, keeping the two metaphors simultaneously in mind both in individual rhetorical acts and in our under-standings of the field concerns of writing studies.


    12. Can models of composition premised on stable rhetorical situations be deployed in a climate of what Jim Ridolfo and Danielle Nicole DeVoss call “rhetorical velocity”?


    13. One of the greatest utilities of the content metaphor, I suggest, is that it moves us beyond a focus on the designed document and its digital equivalent, the text designed for screen display, and attendant concerns with modal affordances (i.e., what images do well, what words do well), concerns that have claimed an outsize proportion of our field’s attention in the early days of networked digital composition.

      The content metaphor helps us move beyond intentionality?

    14. content is writing—or composed texts—also conceived of as digital assets, conditional in their shape and value, that are assembled within and pushed out to networks, where human and machine audiences will assess them, assign value to them, consume them, appropriate and repurpose them, extract from them, and push them into other networks.

      Definition of Content for Writing Studies.

    15. Such commodification always happens to texts in circulation, says John Trimbur, in “Composition and the Circulation of Writing.”

      Texts in circulation necessarily become commodified.

    16. Additionally, as a number of popular writers have argued, networks value surplus over scarcity and, more arguably, democratic participation over hierarchy: Clay Shirky’s Cognitive Surplus synthesizes both of these arguments.2Networks tolerate and, in fact, seem to want more content, from more people, than did pre-digital publication venues.

      What's the payoff here?

    17. networked

      "Content" is also "networked."

    18. When writing is content, then, we must imagine machine audiences, programmed to algorithmically manipulate any composed text—to mine, rank, process, match, reconfigure, and redistribute it—at many places in its rhetorical travels.

      writing = content :: imagine machine audiences to repurpose it.

    19. through structure and se-mantics,


    20. Content has a core conditional quality, fluidity in terms of what shape it may take and where it may travel, and indeterminacy in terms of who may use it, to what ends, and how various uses may come to be valued.

      Object-oriented ontological thinking?

    21. text transformed into data”

      "text transformed into data."

    22. also the values we must defend if content substitutes for writing in professional and other settings.

      Defending the ethos of "Writing" over "content."

    23. growth, merg-ing: the old thing, writing, is now also the new thing, content. The second implication is that of a change

      Becoming: "growth" and "change" from "writing" to "content."

    24. I argue that the word content highlights important aspects of composing in the digital age that existing and popular language—such as digital writing or multimod-al—do not.

      Content vs digital writing or multimodal

    25. content is conditional, computable, networked, and commodified.

      Content definition: "conditional, computable, networked, and commodified."

    26. The first time I ever heard the word “content” used in its current context, I un-derstood that all my artist friends and I—henceforth, “content providers”—were essentially extinct.

      The first time I ever heard the word “content” used in its current context, I un-derstood that all my artist friends and I—henceforth, “content providers”—were essentially extinct. This contemptuous coinage is predicated on the assumption that it’s the delivery system that matters, relegating what used to be called “art”—writing, music, film, photography, illustration—to the status of filler, stuff to stick between banner ads. (9

  5. May 2018
  6. Apr 2018
    1. Coe (2002), arguing against this dichotomy from a New Rhetoric (NR) perspective, pointed out that NR theorists view genre asa motivated, functional relationship between text type and rhetorical situation. That is to say, a genre is neither a text type nor a situation, but rather the functional relationship between a type of text and a type of situation. Genres survive because they work, because they respond effectively to recurring situations (p. 197).
    1. It is in this sense that writing changes social reality and not only, as Lloyd Bitzer argues, in response to ex- igence.

      Writing changes social reality

    2. Culler's conventions, Fish's strategies, are not present in the text; rather, they are part of the mental equipment of writers and readers, and only by examining this mental equipment can we explain how writers and readers communicate.

      Fish : problems with forming problems . .. .



    1. rhetorical reading

      Rhetorical Reading

    2. Instead, it aims to teach students “what’s going on with [their] writing and how writing works” (Wardle and Downs 2011, 1).
    3. construct knowledge about

      help students "construct knowledge about" writing.

    4. My emphasis in this chapter on teaching students how to learnto read rather than arguing for a particular reading approach, such as rhetorical or close reading, is modeled on Elizabeth Wardle and Doug Downs’ theory that rather than teaching students “how to write,” which suggests that there is such a thing as good writing across all contexts, we should teach them “‘how to learn’ to write” (Wardle and Downs 2010, 21).
    1. 77 percent of adults in a recent Monmouth poll said they think that TV news and newspapers at least occasionally regularly report fake stories. That number included 31 percent who said the news outlets report fake news “regularly” and 46 percent think they occasionally do. When asked to define the term “fake news,” 65 percent said it also applies to how news outlets make editorial decisions about what they chose to report, not just stories where the facts are wrong.
    2. Forty percent of blacks in this survey said they live in suburban areas, and 19 percent said they live in rural areas. Often “inner-city” and “urban” are used to describe black people or black communities, but that perception is no longer accurate. (Census data shows that the majority of blacks do not live in cities.)

      Jeff Chang . . .

  7. Mar 2018
    1. The New Folger Edition



    1. This matters because rather than feeling the gravity of a nation, he feels only himself.

      That's terrifying.

  8. Feb 2018
    1. “A threshold concept can be considered as akin to a portal, opening up a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about something.” (p. 1)

      Definition of Threshold Concept

    2. They proposed the idea based on a round of interviews with economics faculty members.

      Does this then "infect" other Bounded Spaces with Economic concepts? In other words, this idea of "Threshold concepts" works for Economics, but maybe profoundly changes other disciplines into something other than what they are?

    1. t stage,the originsof“Pepe”,andthe supposedhijackingofPepebythe alt-right movement in a successfulattempt toturn it intoatwistedformofpropaganda tofurthertheircause.The underlyingquestion we willattempt toansweriswhether an int


    2. younggirls,because those typesoffictionareoften theonlytypestoofferpositive,well-roundedfemale protagonists.When societyshamesyounggirlsfortheirinterests in these kindsofstories,girlsfindthemselvescutofffrompotentialrole models,fromrelatable stories,andfrom a widercommunityofgirlslike themselves.Representation matters,partic

      Thesis / Response

    1. By virtue of this, bullshit is a greater enemy of the truth thanlies are


    2. The liar is inescapably concerned with truth-values. In order to invent a lieat all, he must think he knows what is true.

      Liar believe she knows the truth

    3. In fact, people do tend to be more tolerant of bullshit than of lies, perhapsbecause we are less inclined to take the former as a personal affront. We may seekto distance ourselves from bullshit, but we are more likely to turn away from itwith an impatient or irritated shrug than with the sense of violation or outrage thatlies often inspire. The problem of understanding why our attitude toward bullshitis generally more benign than our attitude toward lying is an important one, whichI shall leave as an exercise for the reader.

      bullshit vs lie

    4. novel
    5. Eric Ambler
    6. Pascalís Wittgenstein


    7. udwigWittgenstein
    8. Longfellow

    9. Nonetheless, I do notbelieve that it adequately or accurately grasps the essential character of bullshit

      humbug vs bullshit and why his discussion of bullshit is necessary.

    10. pleonastic
    11. Max Black
    12. 7KH3UHYDOHQFHRI+XPEXJbyMax Black
    13. My aim issimply to give a rough account of what bullshit is and how it differs from what itis not, or (putting it somewhat differently) to articulate, more or less sketchily, thestructure of its concept.
    14. In other words

      Connecting words

    15. . In consequenc

      Connecting Words

    16. Most people are rather confident oftheir ability to recognize bullshit and to avoid being taken in by it. So thephenomenon has not aroused much deliberate concern, or attracted muchsustained inquir

      Is this still present today. Witness this essay

    17. ne of the most salient features of our culture is that there is so muchbullshit

      Standard View

    1. “These are unprecedented, brazen acts of censorship by a corporate monopoly that controls a primary channel of public communication,” said Nehlen, who’s running against Ryan in the GOP congressional primaries in Wisconsin. “It has severely compromised the integrity of our election processes, and Congress needs to hold public hearings and conduct a full investigation into these matters without delay.”

      This language is ripe for studying.

    1. "First, we need to know more about how graduates with humanities degrees are doing in the workplace. Second, we need to know more about how the skills the humanities seek to impart -- critical thinking and communication skills, for instance -- actually matter in the workplace. And third, we need to be willing to adjust our views about which humanities aptitudes are significant (or not) in the extraordinarily dynamic workplace of the coming decades. Along the way, we’re also going to have to get a better grip on just how well we’re doing in fostering the capabilities we deem most relevant to work readiness and success."

      This is an argument the Humanities will always lose.

  9. Jan 2018
    1. Our fellow citizens, too, who in proportion to their love of liberty keep a steady eye upon the means of sustaining it, do not require to be reminded of the duty they owe to themselves to remedy all essential defects in so vital a part of their system. While they are sensible that every evil attendant upon its operation is not necessarily indicative of a bad organization, but may proceed from temporary causes, yet the habitual presence, or even a single instance, of evils which can be clearly traced to an organic defect will not, I trust, be over-looked through a too scrupulous veneration for the work of their ancestors. The Constitution was an experiment committed to the virtue and intelligence of the great mass of our country-men, in whose ranks the framers of it themselves were to perform the part of patriotic observation and scrutiny, and if they have passed from the stage of existence with an increased confidence in its general adaptation to our condition we should learn from authority so high the duty of fortifying the points in it which time proves to be exposed rather than be deterred from approaching them by the suggestions of fear or the dictates of misplaced reverence.

      Jackson's argument for amending the Constitution. What's important to him (or anyone): the end goal (in this case, changing the VP election law) or the supporting logic (the Founders understood their imperfection and so provided ways to rectify structural problems).

  10. Nov 2017
  11. Oct 2017
    1. For more than 150 years, his body has been kept on public display in a glass case at University College London, however after a mummification mistake, his head was deemed too distasteful to show, and is now kept in safe where it is removed just once a year to check that skin and hair are not falling off.

      Comma Splice.

  12. Sep 2017
  13. Aug 2017
    1. Design gives us the room to rethink the semiotic activity with which we engage in our classrooms. Rhetoric and composition has been theorizing multimodality for over a half of century (see Jason Palmeri’s work on the history of multimodality in composition studies).

      The concept of designers = wonderful concept.

    2. Further, as the faculty who developed the Revisions course explained in our curricular materials, “an underlying strategy of the class is NOT to separate oral, written and visual communication, but rather to help students come to an understanding” that purposeful selection of mode and medium “always involves making rhetorical decisions” and requires “thoughtful and aware modification for particular audiences and circumstances”. In other words, our job was not to teach the discrete conventions of each mode, but to help students consider which modes were most appropriate in a given circumstance, how they might be integrated, and how they might be leveraged to achieve the desired impact on a target audience.

      This is great.

  14. Jul 2017
    1. to prove that the fact in question is or is not so

      1) Fact: True or false? 2) Event: Happened or not?

      Dicast 3) Decides relevance.

    2. dicast
    3. in the court of Areopagus

      More here and here are John Milton's "Areopagetica" & Isocrates' "Areopagiticus"

    1. It might be possible, but there is, as yet, no solid evidence to support that belief.

      On cancer / Cannabis



  15. May 2017
    1. of annotated bibliographies, digital archives, commonplaces, rhetorical analysis, and most importantly worked on a mapping commonplace assignment.

      No links or explanation of the project?

    1. Mecca

      Mecca as topos is a great idea. You should foreground that concept. And work it through all the modes as clearly as possible

    1. “Our Communities.” CPDC, Edgewater Terrace Apartments, www.cpdc.org/communities/edgewood-terrace-the-vantage-and-the-parke/. Accessed 19 Feb. 2017.
    1. The author claims that Howard University is known for its homecoming even before the quality education. This highlights the behavior of the audience at the annual Yardfest hip hop show. The article goes on to

      Not using the template?

  16. Apr 2017
    1. This article can be utilized as an argument piece wherein I can help build on my argument.

      Empty rhetoric here. Can cut it. It doesn't say anything really, right?

    1. chomburg Center. “Shiloh Baptist Church Records.” The New York Public Library. Accessed               February 19, 2017. https://www.nypl.org/sites/default/files/archivalcollections/pdf/shilohbaptist.pdf.

      Formatting. Period instead of comma after date is incorrect.

    1. Thomas circle. Williams outlines the birth of the area as a prestigious center for the city’s wealthy and carries it through until the 1980’s as the last of these homes was turned down and replaced with the hotels and office buildings that take up most of the space around the circle today. Williams also shows the change of the circle itself, whose traffic flow, shape and utility changed several times during the 1900’s.

      Note that you don't unpack his argument here or his aim. Strive to make a unified claim with this form. In short, your trying to make an argument about what the author is arguing, which culminates with something like "For Williams, then, these photos help him shape how . . ." or something like that. It's why it's so important to stick to that form: it forces us to make an argument.

    2. 1980’s


    3. March,who


    4. novel

      Not a novel:

    5. ” Copy 2001 vol 1. Book print, accessed 8 Apr. 2017.

      Incorrect citation

    6. Images of America: The neighborhoods of Logan, Scott, and Thomas Circles”

      Citation error.

    1. It so follows, Hegel explains, that labor is the work ofpossession, an act of the will to shape one’s surroundings: “to impose a form on a thing is the mode of taking possession” (Phil. Right, 47).

      labor brings consciousness.