106 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2017
    1. human monoclonal antibodies that target Nipah G glycoprotein

      Just like Marburg virus can cause fever and headaches

    2. To date, there are no known vaccines.

      Just like Marburg virus there are no vaccines for Nipah virus.

    3. typically fever and  a headache

      Both Nipah and Marbug viruses cause fever and headache.

    1. Currently, there is no vaccine for the Marburg viru

      Just like the Nipah Virus there is no vaccine but there are steps being taken to stop the sympotomology such as the use of small interfering RNA (Marburg) and human monoclonal antibodies that target G glycoprotein

    2. tissue, body fluids, and secretions

      The marburg and Nipah viruses exit adn enter the host through mucus membranes and eating foods which have eaten which was in contact with the animal.

    3. The Marburg virus is zoonotic,

      Both this virus and Nipah virus are zoonotic both found in fruit bats. Nipah can only be spread from animals which are alive while Marburg can spread even if the animal is dead.

  2. May 2017
    1. Deaths have occurred in neonates with bloodstream invasion by Ureaplasma species and meningitis caused by M hominis;

      mortality information

    1. Escherichia (E.) coli is responsible for most uncomplicated cystitis cases in women, especially in younger women. E. coli is generally a harmless microorganism originating in the intestines. If it spreads to the vaginal opening, it may invade and colonize the bladder, causing an infection. The spread of E. coli to the vaginal opening most commonly occurs when women or girls wipe themselves from back to front after urinating, or after sexual activity.Staphylococcus saprophyticus accounts for 5 - 15% of UTIs, mostly in younger women.Klebsiella, Enterococci, and Proteus mirabilis account for most of remaining bacterial organisms that cause UTIs. They are generally found in UTIs in older women.Rare bacterial causes of UTIs include Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis, which are typically harmless organisms.

      bacterial causes

    1. multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (mostly Escherichia coli) that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of UTIs.

      PH concern

    1. Enterobacter spp. are commonly found in intensive care units and are responsible for 8.6 % of nosocomial infections according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Possible PH concern

    1. Glucose fermentation and acid production Lactose and/or sucrose fermenta-tion and acid production GYellow with bubbles or cracksGas production from glucos

      TSI test results

  3. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
    1. CASE REPORTContact-lens-related corneal ulcer caused byklebsiella pneumoniae

      the case report with the information from this case

    1. are susceptible to cefepime(7), aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(8). Tigecycline has been shown effective in vitro


    2. Gram-negative bacilli, 0.6-1 μm in diameter and 1.2-3 μm long, motile by means of peritrichous flagella and have class 1 fimbriae


    3. Enterobacter spp. are resistant to ampicillin; first- and second- generation cephalosporins(7); and cephalothin


    4. Person to person transmission can occur through the fecal-oral route

      outbreak transmission

    5. Enterobacter spp. are commonly found in soil and water;

      naturally occuring

    1. Cephalosporins disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls, which causes the walls to break down and eventually the bacteria die.

      anitbiotics mechanism

    1. work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50s subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth


    1. The combination antibiotic TMP-SMZ inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid.

      mechanism for anitbiotics

    1. Yst, included on the genes ystA and ystB, is a membrane-acting virulence factor. It is a heat-stable enterotoxin that is important in causing diarrhea in the host


    2. These plasmids include an outer membrane protein, YadA, that is used for adhesion and can resist phagocytosis by host cell with the help of Yops proteins


    3. Although host gastric acid act as a substantial barrier to prevent infection from the pathogen, Y. enterocolitica utilizes plasmids


    1. Yersiniosis usually goes away on its own without antibiotic treatment. However, antibiotics may be used to treat more severe or complicated infections.


    1. Figure 1. . Klebsiella pneumoniae antimicrobial drug resistance, United States, 1998–2010. ATM, aztreonam; SXT, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; CAZ, ceftazidime; CIP, ciprofloxacin; TET, tetracycline; TOB, tobramycin; TZP, piperacillin/tazobactam; CPM, cefepime; AMK, amikacin; IPM, imipenem. Ceftriaxone and gentamicin were not included for better data presentation.


    1. Figure 2. . Prevalence of antimicrobial cross-resistance among imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, United States, 2010. TET, tetracycline; AMK, amikacin; GEN, gentamicin; CPM, cefepime; SXT, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; CRO, ceftriaxone; TOB, tobramycin; CIP, ciprofloxacin; TZP, piperacillin/tazobactam; CAZ, ceftazidime; ATM, aztreonam.


  4. www.iasj.net www.iasj.net
    1. specific for ferric iron and thus supply iron to the bacterial cells

      virulence factor

    2. 54Journal of Thi-Qar University No.4 Vol.3 Mar/2008K.pneumoniaehave many virulence factors that make it pathogenicity, these factors are :

      list of virulence factors !

    1. Infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is emerging as an important challenge in health-care settings.[11] One of many CREs is carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). Over the past 10 years, a progressive increase in CRKP has been seen worldwide; however, this new emerging nosocomial pathogen is probably best known for an outbreak in Israel that began around 2006 within the healthcare system there.

      public health

    2. are seen mostly in people with a weakened immune system


    3. It naturally occurs in the soil,


    4. Gram-negative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium


    1. ceftazidime (92-95%), ceftriaxone (96-98%), cefotaxime (96%), piperacillin-tazobactam (90-97%), imipeneum (98-100%), gentamicin (95-96%), amikacin (98-99%), triethoprimsulfamethoxazole (SXT) (88-90%).


    1. 7-14% of pneumonia,


    2. who have diabetes or who suffer from alcoholisms due to a weakened immune system


    3. Capsular Polysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide O Side Chain

      virulence factor - immune evasion

    4. Hospital-acquired infections rely on the urinary tract, lower respirator tract, biliary tract, and surgical wounds to set up colonization

      more transmission

    5. Klebsiella infections are most well-known in hospitals spread through person-to-person contact by contaminated hands of surrounded people in the hospitals, whether it be an employee or a patient. Klebsiella is spread very easily and rapidly, but not through the air. Healthcare settings are most vulnerable to Klebsiella infections due to the nature of procedures that allow easy access of bacteria into the body. Patients who are on ventilators, catheters, or surgery wounds are highly prone to catching this deadly infection

      transmission in hospital setting

    1. Klebsiellae are lactose-fermenting, urease-positive, and indole-negative organisms,


    2. They have no special culture requirements. Most species can use citrate and glucose as sole carbon sources; thus, they grow well on most ordinary media.

      culture growth

    1. Erythromycin interferes with aminoacyl translocation, preventing the transfer of the tRNA bound at the A site of the rRNA complex to the P site of the rRNA complex


    1. All the F. necrophorum strains were susceptible to penicillin and metronidazole. Susceptibility was usually read within 24 h.


    2. 7.4 ± 0.1.


    3. selective agar

      Vancomycin and nalidixin in the F. necrophorum selective agar and AVN agar inhibited the growth of most Gram-positive and many Gram-negative bacteria, which made it considerably easier to detect F. necrophorum colonies compared with the SSI anaerobe agar. Unlike the AVN agar and SSI anaerobe agar, β-haemolysis could be detected directly on the F. necrophorum selective agar, which assisted especially the inexperienced in the detection of F. necrophorum.

      Although not examined directly in this study, the detection of F. necrophorum using non-selective agar, such as the SSI anaerobe agar, took more time than on the F. necrophorum selective agar to arrive at a final result.

    4. 5% H2, 10% CO2 and 85% NO2

      growth conditions

    5. obligate anaerobe pleomorphic rod
    6. where it may account for more than 20% of acute pharyngitis


    1. quite a rare condition and modern-day clinicians of various medical disciplines are frequently unaware of this organism and the severity of symptoms that it can cause
  5. Apr 2017
    1. Stevens–Johnson syndrome

      A reaction to a medication or an infection. Often, it begins with flu-like symptoms, followed by a painful red or purplish rash that spreads and blisters.

    1. If the mixture produces bubbles or froth, the organism is said to be 'catalase-positive'

      catalase test

    1. The reagent is a dark-blue to maroon color when oxidized, and colorless when reduced.

      oxidase test

    1. Penicillins and other antibiotics in the beta-lactam family contain a characteristic four-membered beta-lactam ring. Penicillin kills bacteria through binding of the beta-lactam ring to DD-transpeptidase, inhibiting its cross-linking activity and preventing new cell wall formation.
    1. chronic conditions (diabetes, cancer), compromised immune systems (receiving chemotherapy, autoimmune disorders or HIV infection) or open wounds or sores that allow the bacteria to enter the tissue.

      factors that increase a persons risk of contracting the virus

    2. "Strep throat," – swollen tonsils possible covered with a grayish-white film, swollen lymph nodes, and fever with or without chills, painful swallowing and headache. Impetigo - mild skin infection accompanied by open, draining sores and other general symptoms of GAS infection such as fever, swollen lymph nodes and a sore throat. Scarlet fever - characterized by a fever, sore throat, red sandpaper-like rash and a red "strawberry" tongue. It is caused by several different strains of the streptococcal bacteria, all of which produce a toxin that cause the characteristic red rash.

      some of the signs and symptoms

    1. culture of a single throat swab on a blood agar plate yields a sensitivity of 90-95% for the detection of group A streptococci (GAS) in the pharynx

      throat culture swab

    2. Most laboratories inoculate throat swabs on 5% sheep blood agar containing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

      Possible swabs

    3. In patients with acute pharyngitis, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection should be ruled out.

      Clear distinction

    4. antibodies for the detection of group A carbohydrate antigen.
    5. frozen section biopsy
    1. typically appearing within 24 hours following a bite

      Ask about the onset of the symptoms from last contact with animal.

    2. humans is often associated with an animal bite, scratch, or lick

      Can ask about animal contact.

    3. gram-negative

      we can stain the bacteria with a swab of the infected area

    4. cellulitis, abscesses, tenosynovitis, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. [1] The latter two are particularly common following cat bites because of their small, sharp, penetrative teeth

      Ask if they have any of these signs/symptoms. This can narrow down if they recieved the agent via a cat.

    1. most of the time

      With further understanding of viruses and other biological agents comes the unfavorable risk of individuals mutating said agents with the intent to harm. We have the potential to see these future biochemical/ viral attacks which not only emphasizes the importance of the Medical Micro Bio field but the ethical judgements for today's scientists that come with the knowledge.

    2. SARS

      SARS: viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus. Begins with high fever, body aches, mild respiratory symptoms often concluding with pneumonia. It spreads mainly through person-to-person contact although there is thought it is airborne. (CDC)

    3. typhoid fever

      Typhoid Fever: although rare in industrial countries it continues to pose a threat for children in the developing world. Signs and symptoms include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and constipation or diarrhea. It spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with infected individuals. (Mayo Clinic)