64 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2022
    1. XERXES. Alas, the triple banks of oars and those who died thereby! CHORUS. Pass! I will lead you, bring you home, with many a broken sigh!

      Xerxes sees the impact of his hubris, religion and fate are used as aids to feel better about mortal actions.

  2. Mar 2022
    1. Nay, thy friends are whelmed beneath the tide!

      Highlights Athenian might

    2. Ah woe to us, ah joy to them who stood against our pride!

      Fate as a tool to describe hubris' consequences

    3. For all have perished, all!

      Truth bending

    4. Right resolute they are! I saw disaster unforeseen. CHORUS. Ah, speakest thou of wreck, of flight, of carnage that hath been?

      Highlights the impact of Xerxes' hubris.

    5. Yea verily—in mighty wreck hath sunk the Persian world!

      Truth bending

    6. Woe falls on Persia’s race, yea, woe again, again!

      Truth bending

    7. Alas, ye heavenly powers! Ye wrought a sorrow past belief, A woe, of woes the chief!

      Demonstrating huge losses of empire to great Athenians

    8. Alas, the woe and cost!

      Truth bending

    9. Alack, and is Pharnuchus slain, And Ariomardus, brave in vain? Where is Seualces’ heart of fire? Lilaeus, child of noble sire? Are Tharubis and Memphis sped? Hystaechmas, Artembáres dead? And where is brave Masistes, where?

      Individual attributes described

    10. Cry out, and learn the tale of woe! Where are thy comrades? where the band Who stood beside thee, hand in hand, A little while ago? Where now hath Pharandákes gone, Where Psammis, and where Pelagon? Where now is brave Agdabatas, And Susas too, and Datamas? Hath Susiscanes past away, The chieftain of Ecbatana?

      Using personal narratives to strengthen story, some truth bending

    11. With plashing tears our sorrow’s tale, Lamenting for the loved and lost!

      truth bending, expanding on fate

    12. O king and lord! thine Asian land Down, down upon its knee is bent!

      Truth bending

    13. For Persia’s honour, pass’d away, For glory and heroic sway Mown down by Fortune’s hand to-day! Hark, how the kingdom makes its moan,

      Bending the truth, fate as a tool

    14. On Persia’s land what power of Fate Descends, what louring gloom of hate?

      Political consequences, using fate as a tool instead an end in itself.

    15. But now there are none to gainsay that the gods are against us; we lie Subdued in the havoc of wreck, and whelmed by the wrath of the sky!

      Punished by gods because of political reasons

    16. For dead men have no profit of their gold!

      Shame not from gods, but foolishness

    17. Zeus lours in wrath, exacting the account.

      Zeus equated more toward idea of power than directly.

    18. Defaced and dashed from sight the altars fell, And each god’s image, from its pedestal Thrust and flung down, in dim confusion lies! Therefore, for outrage vile, a doom as dark They suffer, and yet more shall undergo—

      The Persians deserve it for violating Athenian principles.

    19. There is it fated for them to endure The very crown of misery and doom, Requital for their god-forgetting pride! For why? they raided Hellas, had the heart To wrong the images of holy gods, And give the shrines and temples to the flame!

      Shame for evil punished, like flood in EoG, except here, the consequences are directed at political defeat instead of death.

    20. f man may trust the oracles of Heaven

      Highlights divide between gods and man not seen in EoG

    21. Over the folk a Mede, Astyages, Did grasp the power: then Cyaxares ruled In his sire’s place, and held the sway aright, Steering his state with watchful wariness. Third in succession, Cyrus, blest of Heaven, Held rule and ’stablished peace for all his clan: Lydian and Phrygian won he to his sway, And wide Ionia to his yoke constrained, For the god favoured his discretion sage. Fourth in the dynasty was Cyrus’ son, And fifth was Mardus, scandal of his land And ancient lineage. Him Artaphrenes,

      Description of series of absolute rulers' ultimate defeat may strengthen the case for democracy.

    22. Trusting random counsellors and hare-brained men of nought,

      The Persian reason for fighting is stupidity and foolishness, another Greek virtue (modesty) broken.

      EoG-no one is really punished for stupidity, but only concretely evil acts.

    23. by will of Zeus!

      Greek belief system covering Persians

      Zeus' power only used to describe Athenian army's strength


      The only acting immortal here is the voice of a ghost and description of gods as more ideas than main characters (EoG-main characters were part gods themselves)

    25. With awe on thee I gaze, And, standing face to face, I tremble as I did in olden days!

      May use reverence of absolute ruler to show impact of defeat.

    26. The land is wasted of its men, And down to death are rolled Wreckage of sail and oar, Ships that are ships no more, And bodies of the slain!

      Visual depiction of Persian defeat, like a war movie.

    27. O Earth, and Hermes, and the king Of Hades, our Darius bring!

      Greek gods used by Persians?

      Also, gods seem to represent ideas rather than play a central role in the story. In EoG, the supernatural is directly addressed, such as when Gilgamesh crosses the lake of death to save Enkidu.

    28. To summon up Darius from the shades, Himself a shade; and I will pour these draughts, Which earth shall drink, unto the gods of hell.

      The description of Darius as well as Atossa lends credence to the idea that Persia was well respected by Athenians, but possibly antiquated in its politics, supporting democracy.

    29. Of Persia’s fallen power, that none can lift nor save!

      Bending the truth to make point.

    30. Land of the East, thou mournest for the host, Bereft of all thy sons, alas the day! For them whom Xerxes led hath Xerxes lost— Xerxes who wrecked the fleet, and flung our hopes away!

      Rule of one foolish leader can cause downfall of an entire empire (might rally more support for democracy).

    31. Spirit of Fate, too heavy were thy feet,

      EoG-concept of fate introduced; shows Aeschylus building on it to prove a seperate point.

    32. Who heretofore held lightly of the gods, Now crouched and proffered prayer to Earth and Heaven!

      Appealing to deities as a result of mortal actions. While EoG characters also try to appeal to gods, it's in more a a fantastic realm than here. This signifies more of a differentiation between humans and gods than before.

    33. My son went forth to wreak his great revenge On famous Athens! all too few they seemed, Our men who died upon the Fennel-field!

      Changing history to fit point

    34. by aid of Heaven,

      Mortals with the help of gods, not necessarily gods themselves

    35. Dead, sayest thou? by what fate overthrown?

      Builds on description of death's inevitability seen in EoG, but expanded to illustrate a point rather than using the story itself to make it. Also, Aeschylus uses the idea of fate to mark the effects of a more culturally relevant sin (hubris) than to show fate itself.

    36. Woe on us, woe! disaster’s mighty sea Hath burst on us and all the Persian realm!

      False description of total devastation of Persia

    37. Once let the gloom of night have gathered in, The Greeks will tarry not, but swiftly spring Each to his galley-bench, in furtive flight, Softly contriving safety for their life. Thy son believed the word and missed the craft Of that Greek foeman, and the spite of Heaven, And straight to all his captains gave this charge— As soon as sunlight warms the ground no more, And gloom enwraps the sanctuary of sky, Range we our fleet in triple serried lines To bar the passage from the seething strait, This way and that: let other ships surround The isle of Ajax, with this warning word— That if the Greeks their jeopardy should scape By wary craft, and win their ships a road. Each Persian captain shall his failure pay By forfeit of his head. So spake the king,

      The Athenians tricked Xerxes; similar to Ishtar in EoG trying to fool Gilgamesh into sleeping with her, but here it seems to have been meant more to display Athenian cleverness instead of a power grab. Here, Aeschylus describes the Athenians as really winning through intellectual superiority instead of general good.

    38. There Magian Arabus and Artames Of Bactra perished—taking up, alike, In yonder stony land their long sojourn. Amistris too, and he whose strenuous spear Was foremost in the fight, Amphistreus fell, And gallant Ariomardus, by whose death Broods sorrow upon Sardis: Mysia mourns For Seisames

      Greek names for Persian people; although this may have been done make the story more relatable to an Athenian audience, the Persian royals also reference Greek gods rather than Persian ones.

      Like Aeschylus, EoG may have also made the names of characters like Humbaba more culturally digestive to its readers, but the belief system never really seems to have been intentionally changed by the storytellers.

    39. Hath lightly leaped to death; and Tenagon, In true descent a Bactrian nobly born, Drifts by the sea-lashed reefs of Salamis, The isle of Ajax. Gone Lilaeus too, Gone are Arsames and Argestes! all,

      Although the messenger is talking about Persian soldiers, this might be similar to how Aeschylus as a soldier-poet might have viewed his comrades. Here the writer himself plays more of a role in the story than EoG.

    40. Thou, Athens, art our murderess

      Depicts Athens as 'murdering' the Persian empire.

    41. Yet must I all the tale of death unroll! Hark to me, Persians! Persia’s host lies low.

      Although the Persian empire actually flourished in other ways after the attempted invasion of Athens, Aeschylus bends the truth in order to strengthen his point and make the play more 'marketable', like a modern day war movie. EoG, on the other hand, is based more in general historical beliefs at the time that were commonly accepted (eg: the flood).

    42. To no man do they bow as slaves, nor own a master’s hand.

      Superiority of individuals and democracy versus absolute rule.

      Doesn't necessarily cast Persians in a negative light, but suggests that an army with strongminded individuals will outperform one without.

    43. Yet one more word—say, in what realm do the Athenians dwell?

      "Are Athenians just better than us?"

      Questioning general superiority of this group

    44. And by thee let Darius’ soul be wistfully implored—

      In EoG, sin is described more concretely to do evil, but in TP, this idea evolves into the central issue becoming a certain kind of sin (hubris), more ideological

    45. And one, the Ionian, proud in this array, Paced in high quietude, and lent her mouth, Obedient, to the guidance of the rein.

      Attitude of Athenians might be one of quiet superiority in knowing that their intellectual superiority outwitted Persians in defeat (EoG-doesn't necessarily highlight superiority as much as thriving and survival of a kingdom).

    46. As in the night now passed.—Attend my tale!— A dream I had: two women nobly clad Came to my sight, one robed in Persian dress, The other vested in the Dorian garb, And both right stately and more tall by far Than women of to-day, and beautiful

      Used to glorify Athenians in their appearance and the way they act and dress.

    47. Darius, in the old time, by aid of some Immortal,

      Darius not immortal himself

    48. See, yonder comes the mother-queen, Light of our eyes, in godlike sheen, The royal mother of the king!— Fall we before her! well it were That, all as one, we sue to her, And round her footsteps cling!

      Also possibly emphasized the Persian importance on an absolute ruler (which may have been established in EoG) contrasted with an army of strong, democratically-backed individuals.

    49. How fareth he, Darius’ child,

      Absolute rulers backed Persian soldiers, but no single great Athenian ruler is really depicted in defeating them (highlighted by individual descriptions of how Aeschylus saw soldiers and superiority of the Greek gods

    50. Masistes, Artembáres passed: Imaeus too, the bowman brave, Sosthánes, Pharandákes, drave— And others the all-nursing wave Of Nilus to the battle gave; Came Susiskánes, warrior wild, And Pegastágon, Egypt’s child:

      Emphasis on mortal characters' strengths as Athens or those supporting Athens build support for democracy. Aeschylus may have known and fought alongside people with similar personalities, strength of individual mortals also emphasized (unlike one divine, absolute ruler in EoG).

      Further, while EoG represents the rise of good to conquer evil, The Persians shows how one bad ruler (out of hubris and greed) of an otherwise good kingdom can become an antagonist -more complex setup than EoG

    51. The Shepherd and Lord of the East hath bidden a roadway to be! From the land to the land they pass over, a herd at the high king’s best; Some by the way of the waves, and some o’er the planking have pressed. For the king is a lord and a god: he was born of the golden seed That erst upon Danae fell—his captains are strong at the need! And dark is the glare of his eyes, as eyes of a serpent blood-fed, And with manifold troops in his train and with manifold ships hath he sped—

      Possibly Aeschylus' view of the Persian version of absolute rule; the greatness of one ruler there is similar to EoG, but here, the might of each individual Athenian soldier towards the defeat of such a great army may help persuade reader into more of a favorable view of democracy. Also, because Aeschylus viewed the Persian empire in general as great, it may also be a way to emphasize many enlightened Greeks' reaction under one foolish person.

    52. From Babylon enriched with gold— Captains of ships and archers skilled To speed the shaft, and those who wield The scimitar;—the eastern band Who, by the great king’s high command, Swept to subdue the western land!

      Shows an already existing land trying to expand its power, in contrast with smaller kingdoms of ancient Persia defending land as a means of protagonism (eg: Humbaba). The story highlights human greed and hubris, rather than simply good and evil

    53. Marshals who serve the great king’s word Chieftains of all the mighty horde! Horsemen and bowmen streamed away, Grim in their aspect, fixed to slay, And resolute to face the fray! With troops of horse, careering fast, Masistes, Artembáres passed: Imaeus too, the bowman brave, Sosthánes, Pharandákes, drave— And others the all-nursing wave Of Nilus to the battle gave; Came Susiskánes, warrior wild, And Pegastágon, Egypt’s child: Thee, brave Arsámes! from afar

      More realist description than EoG; great army, uses individual names of soldiers and paints mortals against mortals, such as a large army returning in defeat, compared to EoG (deity consequences for godlike actions)

  3. Feb 2022
  4. inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net
    1. The Epic Of Gilgamesh 24 7 THE DEATH OF GILGAMESH T HE destiny was fulfilled which the father of the gods, Enlil of the mountain, had decreed for Gilgamesh: ‘In nether-earth the darkness will show him a light: of mankind, all that are known, none will leave a monument for generations to come to compare with his. The heroes, the wise men, like the n e w moon have their waxing and waning. Men will say, "Who has ever ruled with might and with power like him?" As in the dark month, the month of shadows, so without him there is no light. O Gilgamesh, this was the meaning of your dream. Y o u were given the kingship, such was your destiny, everlasting life was not your destiny. Because of this do not be sad at heart, do not be grieved o r oppressed; he has given y o u power to bind and to loose, to be the darkness and the light of mankind. He has given unexampled supremacy over the people, victory in battle from which no fugitive returns, in forays and assaults from which there is no going back. But d o not abuse this power, deal justly with your servants in the palace, deal justly before the face of the Sun.'

      My partner and I decided that the story showed that while death is inevitable, free will is not. As well as illustrating Catholic principles, it also shows what you can do when you put your mind to using free will and all that comes with it.

    2. The uproar of mankind is intolerable and sleep is no longer possible by reason of the babel." So the gods agreed to exterminate mankind. Enlil did this, but Ea because of his oath warned me in a dream. He whispered their words to my house of reeds, "Reed-house, reed-house! Wall, O wall, hearken reed-house, wall reflect; O man of Shurrupak, son of Ubara-Tutu; tear down your house and build a boat, abandon possessions and look for life, despise worldly goods and save your soul alive. Tear down your house, I say, and build a boat. These are the measurements of the barque as you shall build her: let hex beam equal her length, let her deck be roofed like the vault that covers the abyss; then take up into the boat the seed of all living creatures."

      God (s) punishing people for evil deeds through flood, Noah's Ark; also makes me wonder about a body of water representing the afterlife?

    3. The Epic Of Gilgamesh 16 4 THE SEARCH FOR EVERLASTING LIFE BITTERLY Gilgamesh wept for his friend Enkidu; he wandered over the wilderness as a hunter, he roamed over the plains; in his bitterness he cried, ‘How can I rest, how can I be at peace? Despair is in my heart. What my brother is now, that shall I be when I am dead. Because I am afraid of death I will go as best I can to find Utnapishtim whom they call the Faraway, for he has entered the assembly of the gods.' So Gilgamesh travelled over the wilderness, he wandered over the grasslands, a long journey, in search of Utnapishtim, whom the gods took after the deluge; and they set him to live in the land of Dilmun, in the garden of the sun; and to him alone of men they gave everlasting life. At night when he came to the mountain passes Gilgamesh prayed: ‘In these mountain passes long ago I saw lions, I was afraid and I lifted my eyes to the moon; I prayed and my prayers went up to the gods, so now, O moon god Sin, protect me.' When he had prayed he lay down to sleep, until he was woken from out of a dream. He saw the lions round him glorying in life; then he took his axe in his hand, he drew his sword from his belt, and he fell upon them like an arrow from the string, and struck and destroyed and scattered them. So at length Gilgamesh came to Mashu, the great mountains about which he had heard many things, which guard the rising and the setting sun. Its twin peaks are as high as the wall of heaven and its paps reach down to the underworld. At its gate the Scorpions stand guard, half man and half dragon; their glory is terrifying, their stare strikes death into men, their shimmering halo sweeps the mountains that guard the rising sun. When Gilgamesh saw them he shielded his eyes for the length of a moment only; then he took courage and approached. When they saw him so undismayed the Man-Scorpion called to his mate, ‘This one who comes to us now is flesh of the gods.' The mate of the Man-Scorpion answered, ‘Two thirds is god but one third is man.' Then he called to the man Gilgamesh, he called to the child of the gods: ‘ Why have you come so great a journey; for what have you travelled so far, crossing the dangerous waters; tell me the reason for your coming?' Gilgamesh answered, ‘For Enkidu; I loved him dearly, together we endured all kinds of hardships; on his account I have come, for the common lot of man has taken him. I have wept for him day and night, I would not give up his body for burial, I thought my friend would come back because of my weeping. Since he went, my life is nothing; that is why I have travelled here in search of Utnapishtim my father; for men say he has entered the assembly of the gods, and has found everlasting life: I have a desire to question him, concerning the living and the dead.' The Man-Scorpion opened his mouth and said, speaking to Gilgamesh, ‘No man born of woman has done what you have asked, no mortal man has gone into the mountain; the length of it is twelve leagues of darkness; in it there is no light, but the heart is oppressed with darkness. From the rising of the sun to the setting of the sun there is no light.' Gilgamesh said, ‘Although I should go in sorrow and in pain, with sighing and with weeping, still I must go. Open the gate ' of the mountain:' And the Man-Scorpion said, ‘Go, Gilgamesh, I permit you to pass through the mountain of Mashu and through the high ranges; may your feet carry you safely home. The gate of the mountain is open.' When Gilgamesh heard this he did as the Man-Scorpion had said, he followed the sun's road to his rising, through the mountain. When he had gone one league the darkness became thick around him, for there was no light, he could see nothing ahead and nothing behind him. After two leagues the darkness was thick and there was no light, he could see nothing ahead and nothing behind him. After three leagues the darkness was thick, and there was no w light, he could see nothing ahead and nothing behind him. After four leagues the darkness was thick and there was no light, he could see nothing ahead and nothing behind him. At the end of five leagues the darkness was thick and there was no light, he could see nothing ahead and nothing behind him. At the end of six leagues the darkness was thick and there was no light, he could see nothing ahead and nothing behind him. When he had gone seven leagues the darkness was thick and there was no light, he could see nothing ahead and nothing behind him.

      Very similar to the Orpheus myth (the afterlife like a body of water (Styx), dark, and difficult to get to).

    4. This day on which Enkidu dreamed came to an end and be lay stricken with sickness. One whole day he lay on his bed and his suffering increased. He said to Gilgamesh, the friend on whose account he had left the wilderness, 'Once I ran for you, for the water of life, and I now have nothing:' A second day he lay on his bed and Gilgamesh watched over him but the sickness increased. A third day he lay on his bed, he called out to Gilgamesh, rousing him up. Now he was weak and his eyes were blind with weeping. Ten days he lay and his suffering increased, eleven and twelve days he lay on his bed of pain. Then he called to Gilgamesh, 'My friend, the great goddess cursed me and I must die in shame. I shall not die like a man fallen in battle; I feared to fall, but happy is the man who falls in the battle, for I must die in shame.' And Gilgamesh wept over Enkidu. With the first light of dawn he raised his voice and said to the counsellors of Uruk

      The numbered days of death and 3 (Jesus was on the cross for three days) and the innocence of Enkidu by being betrayed are quite a bit like the crucifixion.

    5. vampire

      They had vampires then?

    6. Ishtar opened her mouth and said again, ‘My father, give me the Bull of Heaven to destroy Gilgamesh. Fill Gilgamesh, I say, with arrogance to his destruction; but if you refuse to give me the Bull of Heaven I will break in the doors of hell and smash the bolts; there will be confusion of people, those above with those from the lower depths. I shall bring up the dead to eat food like the living; and the hosts of dead will outnumber the living.' Anusa d to great Ishtar, ‘If I do what you desire there will be seven years of drought throughout Uruk when corn will be seedless husks. Have you saved grain enough for the people and grass for the cattle? Ishtar replied. ‘I have saved grain for the people, grass for the cattle; for seven years o£ seedless husks, there is grain and there is grass enough.'

      The scale of this might be something that was of the times when people thought nature was the work of gods, but the scale of it is very Old Testament like, especially when it comes to the seven years of drought and the plagues in Egypt.

    7. umbaba said, 'Enkidu, what you have spoken is evil: you, a hireling, dependent for your bread! In envy and for fear of a rival you have spoken evil words.' Enkidu said, ‘Do not listen, Gilgamesh: this Humbaba must die. Kill Humbaba first and his servants after

      Humbaba reminds me a lot of Goliath, and since he tried to trick Enkidu, maybe cunning like the devil.

    8. The great winds he appointed: the north wind, the whirlwind, the stone and the i c y wind, the tempest and the scorching win

      What's up with the numbers 3, 6, 7, and 12 through this text? I'm pretty sure there are also 12 zodiac signs (also from the ancient Middle East), but what about the others? I'm thinking they might just appear in nature a lot, which, like someone else mentioned, seems to have played a pretty big role in the gods, but I'm not sure if there was any other significance.

    9. he heavens roared and the earth roared again, daylight failed and darkness fell, lightnings flashed, fire blazed out, the clouds lowered, they rained down death. Then the brightness departed, the fire went out, and all was turned to ashes fallen about us. Let us go down from the mountain and talk this over, and consider what we should do

      I thought this might be an early representation of the devil or evil, with horns and fire. Although it could have contributed to later representations of the devil or hell, it might have just showed how great a deed the two did in killing Humbaba. The scale of what they did might have made an impact in how greatly they were seen though in the descriptions of Uruk at the beginning of the story, so maybe it starts to show the impact of one or two people, like some kind of savior?

    10. ough, he had long hair like a woman's; it waved like the hair of Nisaba, the goddess of corn. His body was covered with matted hair like Samugan's, the god of cattle. He was innocent of mankind; he knew nothing of the cultivated land. Enkidu ate grass in the hills with the gazelle and lurked with wild beasts at the water-holes; he had joy of the water with the herds of wild game. But there was a trapper who met him one day face to face at the drinking-hole,

      This reminded us of the backgrounds between Jesus and John the Baptist. Although the relationship is different, the two are also very close and one is god-like and the other is rough and feral. The fact that Enkidu's hair was described in so much detail also reminded me a little of Samson in that it was so important.