66 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
  2. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. Telegraphic speech is defined as the child's use of two or three content words in an utterance, with no function words, such as conjunctions, articles, prepositions, and inflections
    2. This is further evi-dence of mothers' sensitivity to their children's linguistic competencies and zones of proximal development.


    3. Although children may be at the one-word stage in their productive language, research suggests that they are perceiving and processing language in five-to six-word segments.
    4. Research suggests that children's sensitivity lo the way in which words are ordered in language (i.e., syntax) also affects semantic development (Gleitman & Gilelte, 1999). For example, verbs occupy a systematic or set place in English phrases and sentences. Children appear to perceive this "special place" as indicating that words used in this manner indicate actions and not o
    5. Al times, children appear to learn some words quickly with only a few expo-sures and without specific feedback reinforcement. This is known as fast map-ping

      quick learning of words

    6. ccording to Reich (1986), idiomorphs develop from four different sources: (a) straining sounds that accom-pany gestures of need; (b) imitation of environmental sounds such as those made by keys, motors, and animals; (c) self-imitation sounds that occur naturally and then are repeated when a certain outcome is desired, such as "Achoo" meaning "I need a handkerchief"; and (d) imitation of adult speech.

      invented words

    7. Somnntic development, then, first occurs in an infant's understanding of others' words and actions and object associations.
    8. This pairing between a word and its referent has also been described as a mapping of the language onto the object or specific meaning

      words and referent

    9. Direct experiences occur from birth on, as infants experience objects and events in their world as a direct participant-touching, tasting, smelling, seeing, and hearing.


    10. When meaning is attached to words or sequences of speech sounds, young children begin to develop semantic knowledge. Semantic development is closely tied to con-cept development.

      semantic development and concept development

    11. Early childhood teachers and caregivers need to be aware of the characteristics and significance of this illness so that they may assist parents in safeguarding the health and development of young children.


    12. Early picture book experiences appear to stimulate a child's awareness of the sounds of language and to develop an association between the sounds of language and illustrations in books. This association is the beginning of a child's emergent literacy,


    13. peech requires coordination of the vocal tracl, including the larynx, glottis, hard and soft palate, jaw. lips, and tongue.

      biological parts

    14. As early as 4 days after birth, infants seem "to prefer to listen to their mother tongue over certain other languages," though they do not respond differently to other unfamiliar languages (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smith, 2001, p. 44). This indicates a biological readiness to perceive and process the sounds of language

      After birth

    15. In utero.

      perception in utero

    16. lfocoptivc> language knowledge of tho sounds of a language begins to develop as lho infant hoars lho :;pooch of others around him (
    17. For phonological knowl-edge, the time from birth up to about age 10 is the optimum time for development.
    18. These include verbal mapping, child-directed speech, linguistic scaffolding, and questioning.
    19. When adult responses to children were contingent and focused on tho meaningful content of the interaction, there was a positive relationship with infants' use of vocabulary as toddlers
    20. This assumption initiates and sustains communicative interaction between infants and their families and other car· egivers. Tho ways in which parents and caregivers direct young children's allention to ongoing events and the moaning of those events also has an important role in lan-guage development
    21. interaction pallerns that enhance language dovolopmenl: eyo conlact/shared reference and communication loops.
  3. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. The acquisition of linguistic competencies and linguistic flexibility among chil-dren with language or dialect differences can be enhanced by modeling positive teacher perspectives, creating a positive learning environment, building on first language com-petencies, and developing a community of learners.
    2. Teachers who have exam-ined and reflected on their own attitudes toward linguistic and cultural diversity and acquired information about the respective cultures and languages represented in their classrooms are better able to create classroom environments that enhance the learning opportunities of all children.
    3. Successful ESL programs provide frequent opportunities for peer interactions (Fassler, 2003)
    4. language prolicicncy (CALP). As described in an oarlior section of this chaptPr. this involves using language to ongago in academic tasks whern lho learner musl rel)· on linguistic cues lo develop moaning. such as in reading a textbook or listening to a teacher's direct inslruclion of a particular concept.
    5. Additional individual learner variables that affect second language acquisition include the learner's cognitive abilities, personality, motivation, self-confidence, and home language competencies
    6. Thrne major fac:.lors have a significant inlluonce on second language acquisition: loarnN characlmistics. social selling, and linguistic inpul.
    7. I hi:; hoch ol n•11ml H'!;Parc h :;upporli; lhc• 1 011c.]w;irlll that c hildrnn ac q11in• Ian. μua~n k1tc>\\ IPdgu 1101 onl\' al thl' li11g11h,1ic lovnl hut al lhn 111olaling11i:;lil' k11mvl1•clg11 1 .. , ('I a11cl llw (P\-1d of nwlali11g11ii,li1 k11owlmlgl' vorhaliza1io11 as wnll
    8. Successive bilingualism refers to instances in which children acquire their second language after age 3.
    9. Children acquiring two languages prior lo age 3 is termed simultaneous bilin-gualism
    10. This distinction between formal and informal English acknowledges that children come into classrooms speaking different forms of language that are linguistically valid and authentic.
    11. a more technical, precise vocabulary; and specific "grammatical constructions and devices, rhetorical con-ventions, and discourse markers"
    12. Encouraging children to become linguistically flexible is critical for teachers in the development and implementation of curricula that will provide children with opti-mal learning opportunities.
    13. By recognizing .and including those creative discourse structures in class-room activities, linguistic diversity is encouraged and vnlidatod
    14. Morphemic differences are found in the way verb endings or other inflectional endings are used, such as gonna or goin' compared with going to and going.
    15. Syntactic differences involve differences in the way sentences are structured,
    16. anguage diversity. This is the variation and number of nouns and modifiers used by the parents. 2. Feedback tone. This is the positive feedback given to children's participation in an interaction. 3. Symbolic emphasis. This is the emphasis placed on focusing on names and associated relations of the concepts and the recall of those symbols. 4. Guidance style. This is parental interaction that uses asking rather than demanding in eliciting specific behavior from the child. 5. Responsiveness. This is parental responsiveness to requests or questions initiated by children.
    17. most importanl difference was in the amount of talking
    18. Findings from their longitudinal study docu· monl the significance of "talkativeness" in families in influencing languago development rather than the family's socioeconomic status or ethnic group iden-tity.
    19. verbal-deficit perspective. This perspective contended that anyone who did not use standard English did not have a valid language and thus was verbally deficient.
    20. sociolinguistics studies the "relationship between linguistic behav-ior and social situations, roles, and functions"
    21. Tho Sapir-Whorf hypothesis staled that lho way wn think and viow tho world is dotorminnd by our languago
  4. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. The result is that children at school have less opportunity for conversations with adults.
    2. he verbal mapping pattern occurs when an adult verbally describes (not just names) an object or nction in o level of detail appropriate to the developmental level of the child wilh whom the interaction is occurring.
    3. com-munication loop, a circular or cycle-like sharing and exchanging of tho roles of speaker and listener (see Figure 2.6).
    4. his is n busic interaction pattern
    5. the behaviorist perspective does not explain bow children learn lo express novel utterances (Harris, 1992), such as their own invented words or phrases that have nol boon used by the other speakers in their environment.
    6. The behaviorist perspective emphasizes the role of "nurture" and considers learn-ing to occur based on the stimuli, responses, nnd reinforcements that occur in the
    7. This means that concepts and schemata develop from interpersonal interaction and communication.
    8. The cognitive developmental perspective is based on the work of Jean Pingel (1955). The emphasis of this perspective is that language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop.
    9. n summary, the nalivist perspective describes language development as an innate, instinctual process where children develop language by discovering the structure of their language (Cairns, 1996). This discovery process is thought to be aided by an inborn mechanism that is specific for language learning
    10. onlended that language is an instinct, not simply a cultural invention: "Language is a biological adaptation lo communicate information ... language is the product of a well-engineered biologi-cal instinct" (p. 19).
    11. universal grammar, as "the system of principles, conditions, and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages"
    12. The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities (i.e., "nature") as being responsible for language development.
    13. The nativist and the cognitive dovelopmentalisl perspectives emphasize the contributions of "nature," whereas tho behaviorist and interaclionist perspectives focus more on the contributions of "nurture."
    14. Several different perspectives have been proposed as theoretical bases for more fully understanding language development. These perspectives have varied in the ways they believe nature and nurture influence language developmonl.
  5. Aug 2017
  6. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. Language is acquirod through knowledgo and awareness of the phonologico semantic, syntaclic, morphemic, and pragmatic aspects of both oral and written Jar guage.
    2. Listening and reading nre receptive in nature-receiving and comprehending a message createc:ruy anolller orally (i.e., listening) or in written language (i.e., reading). On the other hand, s.peak-0,g and writin~expressive in nature.
    3. Pmgmnlic knowledge involves the .. kno~g~ ,?£~~~re~s~a\~t of_the communication and how language is used to achieve that intent.
    4. Morphemic know]cdge refers lo knowledge of word structure. In acquiring syntactic lulO'wledge, children learn that some words have related meanings but are used in dif-ferent ways in speech and in written language and have different word structure.


    5. ltlss}•ntactic knowledge is crucial becnusolHcqfnffiunaficnl"""orsynlnclrcstruclures carry implied meaning. Word ardor affects the meaning of what is said


    6. Semantic knowledge refers to tho word labels that specify concepts and also Lo the semantic networks, or schemata, that represent the interrelations between concepts.


    7. Storybook sharing is a very effective way to encourage children to begin to perceive pros~TIMsiTiunderstancling language because the range of language used in slor_ybooks-,ma the range of dramatic expression in story sharing are much greater than in day-to-day conversations.


    8. Children's communicative competencies involve both receptive and expressive language. Receptive language refers lo a child's comprehension of wore!§ (oral or written): when a specific word is used, the child knows what it refers to or represents. Expressive language refers lo a child's production of language lo communicate. This develops orally first during social interactions and as a child's speech mechanisms mature allowing the child to gain control over producing specific speech
  7. Jul 2017
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