101 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. 5

      Five? Seriously? Because I see 10 in the figure...

    2. The general consensus among Whyvillians (the citizens of the virtual community ofWhyville) is that earning a good salary and, thus, procuring a large number of clamsto spend on face parts or other goods is essential for fully participating in the socialworld of Whyville

      You are not participating in full if you don't have high economic status... not the best learning outcome in terms of morality and education

    1. The public and commercial spaces that I grew up with are now often seen as off-limits by both parents and teens.

      Sounds like some of the readings we've had

    2. education.

      Any comments on how "the zone" works in education?

    3. in dark bedrooms with only the glow of the screen illuminat-ing their faces

      Like me right now

    1. Vignette 6—How Young People Customize the Same Game Differently Dependingon What They Bring to Playing It From the Rest of Their Lives

      There are only two situations in the whole paper describing in-world-without-game moments, this and the next one, and the outcomes are almost opposite. Don't see any argument here for in-world-without-game, taking out a lot of the meaning of the paper for me

    2. From Holly’s reaction, it seems also that less shame is attachable to not knowing how toplay the game than not knowing how to do the homework, or at least that is secondary tohelping her brother accomplish something. This is striking because game play, like school,is competitively structured as a social practice, but it seems perhaps gaming might be a moreproductively motivating competitive environment than school (except, of course, for somepeople).

      What about not knowing when you are supposed to be knowledgeable in contrast to not knowing when you are not supposed to be knowledgeable? A math professor failing to guide the student about updating his computer in comparison with the same math professor failing to guide the same student about setting up an equation from a word problem?

    3. Confronted with identical game packages, the girls had very different goals and expectationsof what it meant to playZoo Tycoon

      I don't see this happening. I mean, Rachel is clear about using the cheat codes too, and using the by-the-book play only for the scenario mode. She is even open in saying that in the other modes budget is a limitation for zoo aesthetics and then she is fine with cheating for aesthetic purpose

    4. He is both an unabashed user of cheats, sporting a somewhat transgressive personalreputation he values at times, and, at the same time, someone who does not want his playwith friends interpreted as unfair—thus the overt display of his hands during the openingsequence to show his competitors that he is not entering cheat codes

      I feel that some interviewing with the kid could have helped here. My own experiencee with this tells me that the use of codes and other cheating techniques has diverse meanings, mediated by both the relation with the other players and by the game being played

    5. In this section, we move outward from in-game, beyond in-room, to connections we havefound in our ethnographic data between in-game play and young people’s wider fields ofexperience “in-world.”

      Almost the definition of multisited ethnography

    6. her own learning

      What is she supposed to be learning here?

    7. our

      own?

    8. (a) like video game play, homework is something kids doat home in shared family spaces and their rooms (i.e., the same spaces games were played in),(b) homework, like games, is—in varying degrees—strategic, repetitive, scored, and designedto challenge, and (c) there are different moral stances about how homework, like games,oughtto be played (i.e., should they be pursued collaboratively, should you cheat, etc.). Homework,therefore, provided us with a strategic context to compare with video game play

      But then, there is the missing part of the HUGE difference in the rewards and punishments related to the level of success in games contrasted with homework, who requires each of those to be completed, and the social status each one of those gives in front of different groups (friends, family, teachers)

    9. depending on the answer to the transfer question

      Independent of the answer of this question, playing more games is still an option. I think the authors are trying to use this as an argument to increase the importance of the research, and... no

    1. Another casual science game includes the Spin Labwhere a player manipulates the position and center of rotation of a variety of objectsto make each spin faster to learn about momentum, rotational velocity, and inertia

      Don't know the game, so this is just based on the picture below and experience with other learning situations (italics intended). Are they learning about all of these, or just getting used to take their consequences into account? You don't need to learn about gravity and gravitational forces to get used to take into account that things fall...

    2. to be published by MIT Press in early 2008

      This feels weird, given that the article has references to 2009 and 2010 publications

    3. Finally, we need to acknowledge the time lag between data collection (2005) andanalysis that stretched well into 2009 due to the size and complexity of the data set

      This acknowledgement means a lot more than what is explicitly said. It means that data collection happened in a pre-smartphone world and results are released to the smartphone world, for example

    4. why

      So... why? K-12 is under heavy scrutiny all time, some facets of it being even over-studied. And researchers usually are not exactly college freshmen...

    5. 12.3 years median

      Thought it was 12.3 average, not median. That may constitute a not-so-small difference

    6. New players can go to Grandma’s for donations of free face parts or purchasethem at Akbar’s Mall that lists and sells thousands of different hair parts, lips, eyes,mouths, accessories, and even animated parts (see Figure 5). All these parts are cre-ated by other Whyvillians who rent design tools and then post their creations at themall or exchange them at the trading post to cover their costs and to generate addi-tional income

      They need an editor that sees the repetition of the paragraphs (figure number is the only difference)

    7. Designing, selling, and buying face parts are not simply leisure activ-ities; they are core activities driven by Whyvillians’ interest in their online represen-tation of who they are and who they possibly could become

      Is this a known/researched fact, or more of an assumption driving the commercial side of the game?

    8. Toyota Scion

      Any idea on why this particular car? Sponsorship from Toyota?

    9. A typical day in Why-ville.net sees about 14,000 players log in

      I think this answers my question on active players and takes a lot of credibility out for the numbers presented in the paper. If there are 14,000-ish players daily and 4.2 million registered, you need 300 days for all of them to log in, not taking into account that regulars are going to log in a lot more than once over a 300-day period

    10. registered

      ... and active?

    11. in 2005

      Think about the importance of this particular information given the rate of change virtual worlds/spaces experience in comparison with physical counterparts

    1. Thescale-making project has also created new forms of expertise in the neighbor-hood exemplified in the practices of thepromotoras,who have developed a newlyvalued skill set, including how to design and grow gardens, communicate with amultilingual group of residents with a range of experiences with gardening, listenand respond to resident concerns, and organize for collective action

      It happened! Multisited ethnography providing evidence for multisited learning! Good for the promotoras, adding on top of the aforementioned grant!

    2. This expansion, fueled by the cofoundersof the nonprofit’s desire to improve food access for a broader population in theneighborhood, has been met with some frustration on the part of thepromotoras,who value the focus on the Mexican community

      This was the opportunity for a real multi-sited learning as the different practices accros cultures are to be shared, but then the researchers leave the place. Missed opportunity, sure.

    3. FreshRoots has also developed partnerships with local foundations to pay highschool and college students from the neighborhood to apprentice with them in thetechnical aspects of maintaining the hydrofarm

      This is just schooling with a tangible/narrow goal. One of the downsides of the learning in action is the situation-specific content and learning (Resnick), and this is now being attached to schooling. And they are also being trained to run equipment that, according to the description, is extremely expensive and delicate and is probably beyond the economic capital of most of the members of the community, even if grouped. Not that much social justice to me

    4. people who can payfor locally grown and organic food

      So, in the end, are community members able to pay for this or not? Because this phrase has the implication that the price is higher than for regular produce, so there is no transportation required but still is out of reach for the community. Like Chinese factory workers assembling iPhones... and there is no further development of the issue

    5. We use scale making as an analytic lens to studyhowpeople are thinking across

      This may be just my weak English, but why the use of 'scale' then?

    1. The data I gather each time I visit includes informal interviews, photos, videos, and field notes

      If you plan to pursue the "resources for newcomers" idea, I hink you can try to add some kind of interview with the management of the gym on top of these, as the business model or the mission/vision may include some thoughts about appeal to newcomers and the resources available to them

    2. informal interviews,

      This interviews include (or may include in the future) the trainer, or is just about the students? Because if you are taking the line of building identity and spoke before about the instructor/trainer to have responsibility for the building of commitment, then his/her point of view is relevant

    3. what speeds they are running

      How "clearly outlined" is this? I mean, for sure it is possible to distinguish fast from slow, but how close to the actual speeds and speed differences can you go?

    4. How is identity shaped by participation in the class?

      Isn't this related to commitment, and then the lack of commitment you mentioned above something that stands on the way?

    1. At the same time, we believe that engaging with a small group of learn-ers across settings, or studying the learning experiences and encounters of one student across the lifespan, can afford its own kind of interpretive depth.

      Don't you miss any real, open-minded account of the learning in the field trips piece? I mean, a positive view on the 'ups' students could have learned, not just the 'downs'

    2. In coordinating with each other, people show themselves, to those who would look carefully, to be orderly, knowledgeable, and precise.

      Funds of Knowledge all over the place. I mean, you always look "carefully" to the ones around you...

    3. (Erickson, as cited in Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993, p. ix)” (Gutiérrez & Vossoughi, 2010, p. 101)

      Quote inception

    4. the opportunities for learning that emerge as people, tools, practices, and interests move across settings and across the social contexts or activity systems that constitute any given setting

      This resonates to me as a missing piece of the Arizona border communities/FoK piece, as it was clearly stated that they changed jobs frequently but no indication of the learning and the transfer of information associated was made.

    5. A view of learning as a cultural process, located in time and space, helps us to understand that people and their cultural practices both develop and transform through participation in the routine activi-ties of relevant communities of practice

      "LPP is the sea surrounding us" or something like that, citing Ma (2015, comment on the concept map developed last class)

    6. intellectual work involved in navigating modern borders and their myriad macro- and micro-political manifestations

      This sounds almost as speaking to the mathmoves and the field trips pieces, the navigation of borders in terms of the norms (remember the enforced "ideal participants" in the field trips piece or the instruction to behave like already being in the exhibit in the matmoves piece?)

    7. In this way, researchers can substantively trouble the common dichotomies of home/school and academic/everyday by studying, rather than presuming, points of continu-ity or rupture across social settings.

      This is like music to me. Learning happens everyday, everywhere, and sometimes it is more pleasant, seems more useful, is easier to remember, or any other advantages. But understanding the learning beyond/without those dichotomies, mostly the academic/everyday, could be really helpful to understand in a deeper way pieces as the field trips, mathmoves, or the countermapping.

  2. Oct 2015
    1. As the 5th-graders walk handsalong the edges of textbooksor thesmart board, pop off shoes to size up the teacher’s desk, and liedown on the floor to measure the room’s width in units of body length, the body-based design of Math Moves!again mixes with and transforms the classroom space

      Spatial features learned and understood through the use of body parts and related elements to measure. This is particularly relevant for students to understand the need for "standardized" measurement tools and units, as they will probably be able to experience the differences of measuring with A's feet or B's feet.

    2. the exhibit invites visitors to use body parts to measure and compare different dimensions of its three chairs

      An opportunity to understand the meaning of foot/feet in the imperial measure system

    3. While the hand version of “Whole and Half” initially drives the students out of their assigned desksand into the classroom’s edges, it is the game’s whole-body variation that most clearly impinges on the micro-geography of the classroom

      The realization of space to move and limitations/features of different movements (hands vs walking) are also intertwined with the practicing of fractions and ratios

    4. deviating from the boy-girl-boy-girl seating pattern typically assigned to prevent chitchat between same-gender peers

      Bodies and distance as barriers

    1. the use of dance and music to revive European imm grant cultures and to alleviate social fragmentation of such groups

      In this particular case they are using dance as a way to learn and somehow revitalize old traditions from their countries of origin (or their ancestors' countries of origin)

    2. Now, youth .were drawn to dance, drama, and other forms of art as a means to form strong, safe group affiliations

      This is more about "art and identity", but for sure the argument of bodies-(1)->arts-(2)->identity-(3)->learning can be made. I mean, for the mentioned forms of art (1) is kind of obvious, (2) is their argument, and (3) came strong in previous readings.

    1. using gears to climb hills

      Physics, mechanics, landmarks...

    2. William’s more contemplative comparison ofstreets that were relatively safe and quiet, but slow for cycling because of ‘‘weaving in andout,’’ with streets that were straighter and faster for riding but more dangerous because oftraffic

      Learning about limitations and affordances of the path as a resource for rides

    3. Ahead was an intersection with a green light and separated turn lanes

      This experience probably helped on the learning of traffic signals. Not the best way.

    4. a Workshop in which youth learned tobuild bicycles out of discarded or donated materials

      Learning mechanics, reusing-recycling, and alternative economic structures

    5. Weeks 1 & 2:Youth told stories of their neighborhood activities, alternating betweenhand-drawn and computer maps (Google MapsTM) of the surrounding area;•Weeks 3 & 5:Youth used GarminTMhandheld GPS devices both to draw on thesurface of the city (e.g., Carissa and Leah drew the word ‘‘LOVE’’ over a 5-block areathat included their homes; see Lauriault and Wood2009) and to complete aneighborhood geo-cache concerning the spatial history of buildings and parks in theWoodbridge neighborhood;•Week 4:Youth compared commercial maps of the neighborhood with their experienceswhile biking from Woodbridge to a downtown park (a safety ride, described below),while adults recorded the activity using GoProTMhead cameras;•Weeks 3 & 4:Youth kept a written time-diary while carrying a GPS data logger(TrackstickTM) to record personal mobility over two five-day periods, before and afterbuilding a bicycle, and they then analyzed personal time geography visible in thesetracks (described below); and•Week 5:Youth used internet mapping tools in Google MapsTMand Google EarthTMtobuild and present map layers of desired attributes (e.g., Carissa’s desire layers, used toillustrate counter-mapping earlier in this paper).

      Learning to use five different tech products/services

    6. not accessibleon foot

      I find hard to think of stuff not accessible on foot but still available in the proximal community. Perhaps the meaning of "proximal" is stretched here

    1. Changingschoolsmeansinpartchangingtheirrelationswith,andtheirroleinproducing,theseexteriorized`outsides’

      producing as the balance between owned -for each individual- and public

    2. Onceinside,allofthemexcepttwoAfricanAmericankids,BruceandAlice,whoIthinkwerebroke,begangrabbingstuÄtobuy:coins,fakecivilwarmoney,post-cards,little ̄ags(NorthandSouth).Somespendmorethan$10(theyweretoldtobringnomorethan$5)

      And the teacher's argument chases us again

    3. participant

      I find it hard to deal with the meaning of 'participant' here

    4. itstillremainstoteachpeopletoreaditthatway,oratleasttoteachthemthatthereisaparticularwaytolookatthingswhendowntown

      In terms of Ma & Munter (2014), is this to provide the arena and to try for people to create the expected setting?

    5. legitimateparticipation

      Welcome back LPP

    6. Wecouldhaveboughtthings

      This shows that money is an important part of the field trip experience for the kids, and may go close to the argument given by the teacher a few lines before

    7. settings

      Is the word 'settings' here used for what Ma & Munter (2014) call 'arena' and not 'setting'?

    8. institutionslikethe`Y’,thatallowedforunexpectedsightsandencounters,socialandaestheticdiversity,publicsolitude,people-watching,publicsociabilityandunprogrammedspacesofplayandfantasy

      However, the 'Y' is shown as an example of the new ways to discourage the construction of public space. Same institution, same space, diverted relation to the concept of public space

    1. However, the spatialarrangement of the park was such that it was conceived of and experienced as a particular kindof setting for other skaters

      Same arena, different setting. The context in play changing the interaction with the surrounding space

    2. To gather enough speed tocomplete the trick, the two had to skate to the other end of the park, giving them both enough timeto watch the other

      Turning the arena into a setting for the trick. Context?

    3. These skateparks still contained pools, bowls, and half-pipes, but also includedimitations of urban street elements like stairs, rails, and planter boxes

      Artificial settings mimicking previously used structures. That is intended placement of the contextual environment I think

      Edit: ... that is creating an arena to elicit reproduction of context

    4. Because these videos, still image sequences, and even pri-vate skateboarding lessons from experienced skateboarders are readily available, such resourcesare not entirely rejected.

      I don't see the logical connection of the "because". I mean, those could be available from sources outside the community and rejected by the community

    5. opens up questions and possibilities for expansive theories of learningthat better capture social life

      Just inspiring, something good about classroom learning...

    1. itseemsthat/r/learnprogrammingcandeliversomeofthesamebenefitsthatan“instructor”can,similartothe“guidedparticipation”contextwestudied,butalsoprovidethebreadthofadviceandopportunitythatwesawwhenthinkingaboutfundsofknowledge

      I think this is a great point, and it really depends on what is the user looking for or trying to take out of it

    2. relativelycohesive(guided?)learningpaths?

      Ain't the strength of the platform to push people into finding their own way? I mean, you said that the proposed paths have been built by the users as a community and not by a single mentor or teacher or whatever you want to name it, but then what does it mean to not have that? I think it means that everybody is welcome to contribute but also that everybody should find own ways to do it.

    3. Otherresourcesincludethemuseumguidethatvisitorscantakeuponpayingtheiradmissionfee.Thereisawebsiteaswell

      I think some explanation on the kind of information/knowledge available in this resources, as you did a great explanation of the previous ones.

    4. Isawmanyresourcesforlearningandinquiredaboutmanyofthem

      I like the inquiry, using funds of knowledge to get to know about funds of knowledge, just different levels

    1. A great deal of research has focused on describing the con-tents and structure of children's theories at different ages. One of the com-mon ways that researchers have assessed children's theories is to present children with a novel instance and to describe the way that children come to identify, understand, and connect that knowledge to their existing theo-ries.

      Is this way to do it also blind to agency issues? Because, according to this description and the introduction, there is a huge difference if the kid develops the interest and looks for answers -aided by parents and surrounding community. This depction is more on the "ready-made" side, with no particular care about kid's interest on the topic

    2. The parents would probably make many more through explanations, descriptions, and questions intended to help the boy interpret the visit through the lens of their shared prior knowledge about trains

      This is FoK in action, as parents provide their knowledge to help the boy navigate the basic concepts and ideas of trains.

    3. To illustrate what we mean, consider a child who, on his second birth-\ 4~-r day, is given a Thomas the Tank Engine picture book. In turns out that he J~ ~~~,...... iP'''\._ likes the book, which is about the adventures of a small steam locomotive ,----on an island railway. In fact, in turns out that he likes the book a lot and asks his parents to read it to him over and over. While waiting for a flight a few weeks later, perhaps the boy's father bu!f a Thomas the Tank Engine toy at the airport store. Maybe his parents piclfp a few Thomas the Tank Engine videos next time they are at the video store. Maybe the mother decides that the boy could be Thomas for Halloween. When planning a Sunday outing, .. ~-\.. t'"~ "Af the parents mig~t.\decide the boy would enjoy visiting a nearby train mu-. O,; 1 seum. As the bo)!Sjknowledge about trains deepens, the family checks out ll ;,~ ·fk e. L"•'ff~· ;J more advanced train books from the library. The family starts planning side-trips to other train museums when they travel. If they visit Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, Pennsylvania, maybe the boy spends a lot of time looking at "Big Boy"-a gargantuan 4-8-8-4 Union Pacific steam locomotive-and maybe, having noticed his interest, the parents stop at the gift shop to buy the boy aT-shirt with a picture of Big Boy on the front and a list of its vital statistics on the back. When he wears the shirt later, it serves as a converSational prompt for the boy, his parents, and others

      This paragraph sounds a lot like Amy Schumer's parody of One Night Stands... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YU2L5AUKtyc

    4. wealth of informal knowledge

      This is probably just my remedial-level English, but "wealth of informal knowledge" sounds a lot like "Funds of Knowledge", like the children were withdrawing somehow from the Funds account to amass the wealth of knowledge.

    1. hundreds of members, a strong online presence, and a full yearly calendar ofvaried events (e.g., lectures, business meetings, outreach efforts, field trips, and,of course, regular observing practice)

      Are these resources (as Jasmine said, not in Azevedo's words) for the practice, understanding the practice not as one night but as the long term commitment to astronomy?

    1. youngsters who play Little League baseball know that is not the way "real" baseball players talk to each other.

      A first reference to identity as there is a shared language that they will see to be missing in the cartoon

    1. Although researchers have begun to document the political accomplishments ofyouth activism groups, as well as developmental outcomes associated with partici-pation, few have systematically studied their teaching practices.

      I think this author misses the full concept of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and what is called Youth PAR. Is a trend, and not that recent actually, about activism projects, some guided by the communities and with almost exclusive participation of the communities (researcher is little more than an observer), some heavily guided by researchers

    1. to extend their schooling, and to remove them from economic competitionwith adults

      This sentence made my day! School is a way to delay entering the "real" economic world. First elementary, after that high school was required, in the las half a century a B.Sc. orsomething similar became a must have, then the Masters, now the Ph.D. (and for some of us the hope of never entering the real world)

    2. Third-party observation is especially understudied, although the research onlanguage learning and learning from the media makes it clear that it is power-ful. Third-party observation appears to be especially important in some culturalcommunities. For example, learning through eavesdropping was emphasized inan African-American community where toddlers participated in daily communityevents and spent hours sitting still and listening to adults converse (Ward 1971).Similarly, in Kaluli language learning in Polynesia, little speech is directed to tod-dlers, but they are surrounded by people talking to each other and commentingon the toddlers’ activities within earshot (Schieffelin 1991). Inuit men of ArcticQuebec reported that as boys they learned to hunt from just watching the menand learned vocabulary and many other things by listening to stories that were notintended for them, staying as inconspicuous as possible (Crago 1992). Maori (NewZealand) adults reported that they were “sure that their parents and grandparentsdeliberately turned a blind eye to them hovering on the fringe of adult conversationsas adolescents, allowing them to pick up information” (Metge 1984, p. 10)

      This just came to my attention as a follow-up of a conversation on drugs, but... aren't teenagers third party observers of porn?

    3. differs dramatically

      Announcing this and the the "our review does not distinguish between them" is at the same time candid and disappointing

    4. Some research has compared children’s learning from observing with learning fromhands-on participation. When U.S. children observed others performing an activity,

      (Looks like Hypothesis has issues with annotations that lay in more than one page). A study kike this one in adults could be really useful.

    5. Some research has compared children’s learning from observing with learning fromhands-on participation. When U.S. children observed others performing an activity,

      ... and the following two lines, but it looks like Hypothesis has issues with cross-page annotations. Anyway, a study like this one on adults could be really useful

    6. Learning in European-descent NewZealand children who had participated directly in an event did not differ fromlearning in those who only observed, when children showed their learning byenacting the event (Murachver et al. 1996).

      I wonder if there is any comparison with explicit account of the initially-involved kids performing roles different than the ones they did when they were involved the first time

  3. Sep 2015
    1. “people appreciate being given information that will help them makeintelligent choices”

      Is that true when they are not aware of receiving the information? Reasing implies it is, but I still think it is not so clear

    2. While some of our research supports thefield’s generalconclusions that interactivity enhances visitor engagement, understanding, and recall, wehave also discovered that it is not always essential to a powerful and sustaining experience,and that too many interactive features may even hinder visitors’engagement and learning.

      Paraphrasing Jasmine, this makes my heart hurt, in an awesome nerdy way

    3. Perry and Tisdal suggest that one factor in accounting for the long holding times at APEexhibits is that, unlike the traditional exhibits studied, the APE exhibits were designed tosupport the use of exhibits by more than one member of a social group. This is compatiblewithfindings by Borun and Dritsas (1997) that exhibits that allow for multiple simultaneoususers facilitate family learning, at least in the absence of the kinds of interference problemsthat Allen and Gutwill (2004) describe

      Is this a kind of FoK?

    4. This suggests that, while recognizing the power of interactive experiences,we should be skeptical about sweeping claims that interactivity is essential to learning, oreven that it necessarily creates the most powerful, memorable, or attractive experiences inour museums

      Finally, finally one of my long-time expected caution signs!

    5. However, we have also discovered that“more is not necessarily better”when it comesto interactive features

      This reminds me of a comment made by Formula 1 driver Sebastian Vettel about the number of buttons on the steering wheel of the car, comparing it to driving and texting at the same time. Silly comment, but it came to mind

    6. It de-emphasized many other aspects of science, including anything requiring mem-orization (e.g., detailed vocabulary, quantitative relationships), or anything requiringlong chains of inference or effortful thinking (e.g., designing experiments to discrim-inate among competing models, arguing the relative merits of two explanations).

      And then the question is on the importance of those facts or inferences, in order to decide if and how to teach/show/facilitate them

    7. Weexpect these institutions to provide a hugely diverse visiting public with entertainment, thefreedom to choose their own path, follow their personal interests, do their own inquiry, andcreate their own meanings. Yet at the same time, we want our museums to be respectededucational institutions where people can spend an hour and come away having learned somecanonical science.

      Much like the negotiation of curriculum in the FoK reading, but with the additional constraint of not having access to the counterpart in the negotiation

    1. In this article, we examine how people in and through interactionwith others, explore, examine and experience a mixed-media installation

      Distributed thinking, distributed cognition, as in FoK

    1. There is a box stuffed to overflowing with books pub-lished by individual children and collaborative small groups

      Publishing as a way to "save" for the FoK

    2. Consequently, they are willingto invest considerable energy and resources in maintaining good so-cial relations with its members by participating in family rituals –birthdays, baptisms,quinceaneras(adolescent girls' "debutante"par-ties), showers, weddings, Christmas dinners, outings, and so on (fordetails, see Tapia, 1991)

      Part of their identities as Mexicans living around the border too

    3. she has three brothers and two sisters living nearbythat she can turn to

      I heard once about a study of why low-income families grow large in numbers and one of the reasons was this kind of group-strength. Has somebody else heard abut that kind of studies?

    4. but to jump from one sector of the labormarket to another

      I think this shows flexibility and ability to keep learning, mostly situation-specific job training (Resnick) but some transferable pieces of information too.

    5. "unemployed,"

      Why the quotation marks? Is it because of the band gigs in Mexico? If so, the author's understanding of the whole issue of the band is very limited

    1. These are (1) material resources, (2) relational resources, and (3) ideationalresources.

      Are there other kinds of resources? And, if so, any of those apply to this situation?

    2. We consider learning to be shifts in use of artifacts (both cultural and cogni-tive) for problem solving, sense making, or performance. We consider identity to beone viewing participation in the practice as an integral part of who one is; what we call"practice-linked identities" (Nasir and Hand 2005,2008)

      Is therefore learning somehow a subset of identity?

    1. Unlike Starbucks or other popular coffee chains, it appeared that patrons needed a high level of beverage knowledge before they walked in. The menu (in the blurry photo shown here) was not descriptive at all, and the rapid-fire exchange between customers and staff was different than a more “casual” beverage establishment

      Learning about how to 'use' the shop is required then, not so much novice-friendly. Out-of-school situation-specific?

    2. Unlike Starbucks or other popular coffee chains, it appeared that patrons needed a high level of beverage knowledge before they walked in. The menu (in the blurry photo shown here) was not descriptive at all, and the rapid-fire exchange between customers and staff was different than a more “casual” beverage establishment

      Learning about how to 'use' the shop is required then, not so much novice-friendly. Out-of-school situation-specific?

    1. Institutions create myths to explain to their participants and the public generally what they do, how they do it, why society needs it done, and how successful they are

      I was just thinking about Colin's comment on the word 'myths'. After reading a few times the sentence there is another word calling my attention, 'explain'. For this particular context I hink it may be clearer (and more provoking probably) to say 'justify' instead