119 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2022
    1. Heteronormativity operates the ‘regime of the normal’, throughwhich heterosexuality is privileged and dominates as the natural, obligatory and normal basisof all social relations and in which sexualities are valued and devalued (Adams 2002)

      Can be used for a definition

    2. ‘queered’: a ‘radical process of disruption’(Ruffolo 2009, p.3) which seeks to destabilise the heterosexual/ homosexual binary andchallenge heteronormativity




  2. Jul 2022
    1. Conflicts between national identity and sexual orientation played a factor for some, suchas Zelda, who explained that while she wanted to participate in GSA, she feared that she might beseen by other students from her home country

      Conflict mention

    2. promote safe sex, stating “they areknown for giving free condoms and free kind of like sex ed and training for LGBT.”

      Student wellness services

    3. onlineresources are resources that are publicly available on the internet and accessed through a computer orsmart phone;

      Online resources that are not provided by HEIs

    4. need to avoid engaging in any activities in the United Statesthat could out them and lead to individuals in their home country learning about their sexual orienta-tion due to being required to return to their home country upon graduation.

      Visa policy mention

    5. Additional call for participant announcements were emailed to internationalcenter directors at all public institutions in the state of Texas and through the national research emaillistserv with the Consortium of Higher Education LGBT Resource Professionals.

      Other potential recruitment methods

    6. The research team shared a weekly call for participants through their institution’sannouncement listserv.

      Potential recruitment method

    7. discussing some of the current policies within the United States that may hinder protectionof members of the LGBTQIA community,

      Should mention in relevance to research - may not necessarily focus on visa policies but policies nonetheless

    8. examine the experiences of international LGB studentsand the resources they utilize on campuses to ease their transition to college.

      Foci: during abroad experience, potentially with additions of motivations to go abroad

    9. Garvey, Taylor, & Rankin, 2015).

      Someone to cite from for definition



    1. It has beenfound that “female [international] students are more likely than their male counterpartsto experience discrimination (even within the international student community), phys-ical abuse, sexual harassment and social exclusion during their stay in Australia”

      Reason to pay attention to role of gender in past students' time abroad

      Add to additional significance to research

    2. incorporate vulnerabilities associated with international student status.These vulnerabilities include being in a foreign environment, often without adequatehost country language and cultural skills, being separated from family and friends, andfrequently having inadequate financial resources

      Move to "issues" for student section - being in a foreign environment, without adequate host country language skills and cultural skills, separation from family and friends, inadequate financial resources, not having the knowledge and comfortableness to navigate legal systems ---> more vulnerable to violence

    3. Poststructuralist approaches insist that different categorizations are pervasivelyinterrelated without the possibility of separate analysis

      Take note - one of traditions identified in another paper

    4. True(2010) described “gender-based violence” as violence directed against a womanbecause of her gender or as forms of violence in which women are overrepresented asvictims.

      Another defintion

    5. “gendered violence.” Morley used the term “gendered vio-lence” to incorporate crime and sexual exploitation and harassment.

      Potential definition of gendered violence to use

    6. Being safe from crime and violence is important to international students

      Safety important - something to pay attention to during interviews and coding

    7. education and support programs

      Practitioner focused

    8. We argue that intersecting inequalities relating togender, race, and class are often compounded by the status of “international student.”

      I feel that the term "international student" has the possibility of only situating national origin as the only facet of int'l student's identity -- at the expense of their other identities and how those identities interact with new external environments (race, class, gender, sexuality, disability, etc.)



    1. UKperspectives

      Meaning...based in UK literature? UK theorists and authors?



    1. constrained by citizenship andmigration policies that directly or indirectly place sexual minorities at a disadvantage

      Policy focus

    2. class shapes the aspirations, decisions andmigration destinations of sexual minorities.

      ...and whether they're able to achieve those aspirations?

    3. trajectories of their migration andthe factors that propelled their decision to change destinations globally.

      Focus - where men moved and why



    1. perceived public stigmais a critical and stable correlate of internalized homophobia.

      Perceived public stigma is tied to internalized homophobia

    2. nstead of internalizing par-ents’ negative response, children who endorse high reciprocalfilial piety are more likely to protect their sexual orientationfrom being stigmatized.

      Reciprocal filial piety "protects" children from internalized homophobia to some extent - children don't feel forced and obligated to meet all of their parent's expectations, especially when it conflicts with their personal happiness

    3. being a sexual minority mem-ber in many Asian countries is viewed as a violation ofheteronormative values and a betrayal of filial piety

      Being LGBTQ+ is a betrayal of filial piety - children expected to continue the family line

      Children from authoritarian filial piety families may express more remorse at not being able to meet their parent's expectations and blame their gender/sexual identity as the reason why

    4. AsianAmerican LGBQ persons with higher adherence to Asianvalues (e.g., collectivism and valuing family traditions) tendto have lower internalized homophobia,

      Why? Difference in value of culture in Asian-Americans compared to Chinese LGBTQ+ people?

    5. Confucian culture plays a more im-portant role in Chinese people’s worldview

      This is separated from religion

    6. non-affirmingreligions is associated with higher internalized homophobia

      What are some affirming religions?

    7. religionis an important predictor of internalized homophobia.

      Any religion or certain religions?

    8. social learning theory

      Could be useful to add...how int'l LGBTQ+ students learn/absorb social/environmental (society, family, school) perceptions about their identity?

    9. Internalized homophobia is described as LGB individuals’direction of negative social attitude regarding sexual orienta-tion toward the self

      Definition - need to breakdown, what does "social attitude" mean?

    10. distal stressors, which refer toobjective stressors (e.g., prejudiced events) independent ofone’s sexual identity, and proximal personal processes, whichrefer to subjective experiences connected with one’s sexualidentity, such as the expectation of rejection, concealment ofsexual identity, and internalized homophobia

      Add terms to glossary

    11. investigate the variables that could amplify ormitigate the impact of social homophobia on internalized ho-mophobia.

      i.e. filial piety

    12. hatred of personal sexual identity

      Could use this as a definition for internalized _phobia

    13. social homophobia

      Could use for glossary

    14. perceived public stigma and internalized homophobia

      Participants felt more public stigma and internalized homophobia when they experienced high authoritarian filial piety than high reciprocal filial piety?

    15. Reciprocal filial piety was negatively asso-ciated with internalized homophobia.

      Reciprocal filial piety...with perceived public stigma?

    16. perceived public stigma and authoritarianfilial piety had comparable and positive association with internalized homophobia.

      Public stigma and authoritarian (not reciprocal) filial piety was associated with higher likelihood of internalized homophobia

    17. nternalized homophobia

      Is there a catch-all term for internalized homophobia, biphobia, transphobia? Need to look into the latter two

    18. reciprocal and authoritarian

      What are the differences between the two?



  3. Jun 2022
    1. high school students realized their sex-ual orientation or gender identity and came out to others earlier than allthe other three groups of students within various educational levels—thatis, vocational students, college/university students, and graduate students.

      High school students more likely to come out than undergraduate, graduate, and vocational students

    2. male students’ initial awarenesswas earlier than females’, at an average of 14.9 vs. 15.4, but female studentscame out earlier than male at an average of 17.5 vs. 18.2.

      Males more likely to be aware of identity early on, but females more likely to come out earlier

    3. more supportive schoolenvironments for LGBTQ students were associated with fewer depressivesymptoms and fewer suicidality

      School environment on its own...but what about school environment compared to home environment? More time spent at school, so maybe its possible that a supportive school environment and non-supportive home environment would be enough to positively impact depression and suicidality rates?

    4. Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological framework suggests, the immediate envi-ronments in which growing adolescents live are crucial to understandinghealthy development for that individual

      Looks at environment and impact on development of individual

    5. most LGBTQ students felt comfortable abouttheir sexual orientation and had come out to someone; how-ever, the majority remained closeted with their siblings,parents, or teachers.

      Students are comfortable with their identities, don't come out to relatives (parents, siblings) and authority figures (teachers) - friends, most likely

    6. The findings revealed that mostChinese schools were not inclusive for LGBTQ students.Despite the lack of support of very few LGBTQ-specific schoolpolicy, teacher training, and curriculum reported by students,the majority of LGBTQ youth felt safe living and learning atschool.

      Chinese schools are not LGBTQ+ inclusive, but most students feel comfortable at school, why?



    1. ar-right parties and movements differentiatebetween LGBTQ people who abide by Serbian norms by keepingtheir sexual and gender identities private and those who publiclyexpress their identities and seek reforms to advance their rights andequality

      Seeking reforms to advance LGBTQ+ rights and equality makes you a bad LBGTQ+ person

    2. This theme contrasts “bad” LGBTQ rights activistswith “good” LGBTQ people who conform to social standards bykeeping their sexual and gender identities private

      i.e. Only considered good when they stay in the closet

    3. unite the LGBTQ rights movement with foreign threats to Kosovo’sstatus.

      Tying LGBTQ+ community to already negatively perceived groups -- individuals suffer because of national politics, nationalism, and nationalist myths

    4. Inductive codes werecreated throughout the analysis for text that did not match the deductivecodes.

      Reminder: refresh on inductive vs. deductive reasoning and inductive vs. deductive codes

    5. ymbolicboundaries are conceptual forms of intergroup differentiation basedon norms, values, and beliefs (Lamont et al., 2015). Moral boundariesrefer to claimed or attributed intergroup differences in virtues

      Words to add to glossary: symbolic and moral boundaries

    6. Social boundaries are institutionalized forms of group differ-ence, such as citizenship

      Add social boundary to the glossary list?

    7. RWA, which is characterized by socialconformity, adherence to traditions, and the attribution of threats topeople seen as social deviants

      Shares traits with collectivism

    8. Threat perception is a predictor of support for human rights.

      Reminder: Add term threat perception to glossary draft, make note of connections to threat perception, social identity theory (and name authors), and conflict/human rights

    9. ocial identity theory, which posits that people seek positivedistinctiveness for their social groups (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

      Theory to think about when thinking about domestic and local contexts for int'l LGBTQ+ students - LGBTQ+ perceived to cause negative distinctiveness for social groups - therefore considered a threat to the social group

    10. realistic threats to the existence, power,and well-being of the ingroup

      Types of perceived threats to in-groups

    11. These groups portray the movement as a Westerncultural threat, stressing the need to defend their country from aWestern conspiracy to “destroy” Serbia

      LGBTQ+ community positioned as an outgroup and outside/external threat, Western cultural imperialism..is this also a view in historically colonized countries as well?



    1. The duty of care extends to ensuring that all necessary steps have beentaken to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of employees and students and forthe latter this includes providing pastoral care.

      Ethics framework

    2. using open social networks ledto concerns, with McPhail and Fisher reporting one research participant speaking of agay colleague being discouraged from joining an LGBTQ+ Facebook support network,for ‘fear that career progression may be impeded

      Conflict between identity and career prospects

    3. GBTQ+ travellers used ‘closed’ social media networks, availableonly following approval by an administrator, in a positive matter to aid ‘acculturation’

      May want to consider role of technology and social media in LGBTQ+ int'l student experiences while abroad and after returning home

    4. barriers to international academic mobility warrant close examination. The literatureon this point remains heteronormative in nature – often omitting the challenges facingLGBTQ+ travellers, discussed below

      Barriers to international academic mobility do not include LGBTQ+ students



    1. what it means to “live at the crux ofstructural inequality based on intersections”

      Also includes a focus on individual experiences when impacted by structural and institutionalized inequality?

    2. First, intersectionality rejects the postpositivist assumptions of an additiveapproach to social inequality, in which oppression is measured by addingtogether the effects of identifying with more than one marginalized group

      Postpositivist approach implies the separation of identities rather than looking at them holistically when combined

    3. used to deconstruct or “work the ruins” of everydaycircumstances in social life. Whereas scholars use the critical tradition toilluminate inequitable conditions, the poststructural tradition deconstructsthese inequities, often at the level of discourse (a term that refers to howlanguage and social practices regulate power and knowledge).

      Differences between poststructuralist and critical:

      Critical - highlighting inequitable conditions -- just identification?

      Poststructural - discusses those inequities, identifies implications of discussion findings

    4. Critical Trans Politics

      Look into what this is

    5. knowledge is coconstructed by socialactors, including participants and researchers

      Knowledge created by information from both researchers and participants, information gained through experience

    6. Student Development Task and Lifestyle Inventory to ex-plore gender (biological sex) differences in students’ degree of development.

      Need to look up - what is this inventory?

    7. dichotomous,independent variable.

      Issue with approach - can lead to upholding binaries and implies an underlying assumption that biology is the deciding factor in sexual and gender identity (common form of thought in the West/U.S.)

    8. although observationis a subjective process, researchers should strive for neutrality and comeas close to objectivity as possible

      Ways to approach conducting research and communicating findings

    9. https://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/sexuality-definitions.pdf).

      Additional source to look at for terms - APA

    10. (a) gender cannot be understood in isolation from other so-cial identities; (b) gender is inextricable from sexism, genderism, and theirintersections with other social structural conditions; and (c) gender isa socially constructed, interactive process.

      Pay attention to (c) specifically -not sure what it means



    1. ack of LGBTQ+ people of colour being represented within theLGBTQ+ community and in media.

      In the higher ed space, could be improved by LGBTQ+ student involvement in leadership roles and in academia-esque roles (ex. in research)

    2. Goltz (2014) found that LGBTQ+ emerging adults from the millennial generationdid not find the LGBTQ+ community to be an important element in their sexual or genderidentity

      Age could be a factor in perceptions on identity development in relation to the students' level of engagement and access to the LGBTQ+ community. Could maybe influence motivations for going abroad (seeking out LGBTQ+-affirming communities, spaces, and countries may not be a huge priority, if at all?)?

    3. expressing that by avoiding the LGBTQ+ community they were also avoidingexperiences of harassment or alienation from other members of the community

      Wondering if there's any influence on intersections of minority identities and increase or decrease of reports of isolation within the community?



    1. Amala expressed that being a part of the LGBTQA program at the university madeher want to bring change and be more visible about her identity to allow other internationalstudents to see that it is okay to be open and that there are programs and resources for them.

      Students in leadership positions and relationship to visibility

    2. involvement with programs at the university provided heropportunities to develop friendships with people who were supportive and accepting of heridentity.

      Developing social network

    3. visible with his identity at the university

      Student involvement and ties to visibility of their identity?

    4. My teacher thought I was gay or something so he had told my parents.

      Possibility of educators disclosing identities of students without consent? Something tied to educational policy in that country? Or cultural influence? Where to capture something like this in the research?

    5. Triangulation is a method used in qualitative studies to contribute to validation andverification throughout the qualitative analysis

      Will validifying and verifying research results be a part of the research process?

    6. The analysis of this study was conducted in accordance with the principles of IPA(Smith et al., 2009).

      Standard practice to describe data analysis process

    7. Atlas.ti version

      Qualitative data analysis software

    8. snowball and purposive sampling technique.

      Recruitment techniques

    9. (Beaty, 1999; Cass, 1979; Coleman, 1982; Harperet al., 2004; Kahn, 1991; Kuper, Coleman, & Mustanski, 2013; Troiden, 1989).

      May help to look into these theories for research

    10. a coming out model

      There are theories and models specific to the LGBTQ+ community

    11. When discussingidentity and its influence on the coming out experience, it is important to recognize theinfluences of culture, social constructs, and social roles on identity.

      Wonder if these factors should be made into interview questions?

    12. rural community

      May be a factor to think about in perceptions and experiences of LGBTQ+ int'l students

    13. significant factor in their decisions to reveal their identity.

      May be something to pay attention to in research

    14. reveal the psychological meaning ofparticipants’ coming out experiences


    15. institutional support programs,policies, practices, and resources provided in U.S. higher education for LGBTQinternational students.

      Might also be something to look for in research project during interviews - role of institutional support programs, policies, and resources in experiences abroad

    16. or example, undergraduate students were 45%less likely to come out to family compared to 70% of graduate students

      Undergraduate students less likely to be out to their families than graduate students, why? More reliant upon familial support? May be important to capture this demographic information in research interview participants

    17. changes in self-identification and labeling as the students change what words andterms they use to define their sexualities; changes in self-acceptance as their opinions onsexuality and their own homosexual identities shift; changes in self-understanding as theyadjust the degree to which they are open to expressing their sexuality in a reexamination oftheir own identities; and changes in their perceptions of their own potential professionaland romantic future as queer individuals

      Thinking about identity development as something to ask about in the research?

    18. marriage due to cultural and religious norms to be substantially important based on thesignificance of procreation to assist with family status and the economic growth withinthese communities

      Reasons why LGBTQ+ discrimination may be worse in African and Middle Eastern countries

    19. cultural values regarding sexual orientation, access to healthcare, discrimination and coping

      Additional issues of concern for LGBTQ+ int'l students that int'l students may not be as concerned about

    20. Glossary of Terms

      Add to journal -- should we have a glossary of terms? Is the need for this dependent on interview responses and questions?

    21. Journey to Community; Journey to aDestination of Diversity; Journey to Visibility; and Journey to Interiority

      How participants found/felt: community, diversity, visibility, and inferiority

    22. four major themes that emerged from the study that captured thecoming out experiences of the participants

      Thematic analysis?

    23. theoretical framework focused on identity was also utilized to develop a betterunderstanding of the participants’ coming out experiences and identity development.

      Take note -- see how author uses theoretical framework in their research

    24. interpretative phenomenological analytic approach

      Potential research methodology to use in research project

    25. limited research that addresses the coming outexperiences or identities of these students while they are studying in the U.S.

      Focus of paper and scope of research on focus of paper

    26. there is little to no research focused on international LGBTQ students’experiences in the U.S.

      Scope of research field



    1. "LGBT students canonly access the support they need if they feel comfortable to disclose their sexualorientation and gender identity"(Pasterny,2017).

      HEIs need to find ways to make LGBTQ+ students feel comfortable on campus, and off campus when possible



    1. Many students require some form of individual support from their university before and during their studies abroad.

      Not after as well?

    2. Consult LGBT student societies when developing and marketing study abroad opportunities

      Important. I don't think LGBTQ+ support groups are factored into decision-making in equity and DEI initiatives often enough

    3. Homophobia, biphobia and transphobiaare often state sponsored

      External context on LGBTQ+ discrimination

    4. concerns about personal well-being can deter students from doing so

      Push factor for studying abroad

    5. xperience they gain from studying abroad increases theiremployability.4

      Pull factor for studying abroad



    1. Helping LGBT international students establish a social network is impor-tant to maintaining their psychological well-being

      For international LGBTQ+ students with (strong) social networks, did they rely on those networks when they returned home? Did those networks impact their experiences upon returning home?

    2. (ESL) instructors and international student office staff, about the experiencesof these students that might be otherwise overlooked. It is important thatsuch faculty and staff show openness to discuss LGBT issues and also tohelp them smoothly refer students to counseling services as needed

      More referrals could mean more students having access to LGBTQ+ inclusive and affirming mental health and counseling services that can impact their experiences upon returning home

    3. Reviewing coping skills or strategies that clients learned from ther-apy sessions focused on managing family conflicts, managing their identitiesin LGBT unwelcoming environments, and demonstrating such skills in emer-gency situations are necessary before termination.

      Pre-departure preparation needed for LGBTQ+ students...how many students are actually receiving this preparation?

    4. LGBT international students go back to theirhome countries for various reasons including for their families, for betterjobs, and because of their felt calling to contribute to their home and peo-ple.

      Reasons why LGBTQ+ students may choose to return to their home country: family, better job prospects, contributing to their home and country

    5. Most LGBT support groups and resourcesare designed for people who are Americans, and international students mighthave a hard time understanding what is going on because of language andcultural issues as well as how to socialize with strangers.

      LGBTQ+ international students can feel isolated even in LGBTQ+ support groups in the U.S.

    6. International students in general may not know what counseling servicesmeans, and some may believe it is a form of “mind control”

      Wondering where this idea came from and which countries create that kind of opinion?

    7. gay internationalstudents face much fear in disclosing their identities to their families. Theirenvironment will not allow coming out in their sexual identity, and thereare social and familial expectations that they marry someone of the oppositegender.

      Note: general fears when returning to home country from abroad: social and familial stigma, expectations of being forced into partnerships with opposite sex (gay, lesbian). death in some countries

    8. Many LGBT international students do not go through the process ofsexual identity development in their home countries because they have beenexposed to homophobia there

      Considerations - How can this factor into LGBTQ+ student experiences when they go home? Is their development halted/stalled or does it continue?

    9. returning to their home countries.

      Focus for purpose of research project

    10. they feelmore isolated and marginalized by their social network

      Social network in home country or in host country? Both?

    11. When using counselingservices, international students report a high dropout rate more often thandomestic students because of their negative view of seeking professionalhelp and a lack of understanding in using counseling services

      Considerations -- which countries are these students coming from and what is their home country's view on mental health and seeking mental health services (ex. counseling)?

    12. When using counselingservices, international students report a high dropout rate more often thandomestic students because of their negative view of seeking professionalhelp and a lack of understanding in using counseling services

      International students are more likely to dropout than domestic students