328 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2019
    1. .

      A very funky story. This seems to me to be the only fiction or fantasy piece we have read and it does not disappoint on the crazy factor. Honestly, I would not be surprised to find out the author wrote this based on a crazy dream or drug induced hallucination. However, the story was plain enough to enjoy and understand. The creativity was praiseworthy. I find the lack of desire to be with his family (compared to the desire to adventure, sail, and make money) saddening. But, at least the ending satisfied this.

    2. Undoubtedly philosophers are in the right when they tell us that nothing is great or little otherwise than by comparison

      Yes, we form our ideas of qualities based on relativity. What is large to an ant is small to a human, what is large to a human wight be tiny to a giant. What is hot to a Londoner might be cold to a Texan (just to throw in some current events).

    3. shift

      I find it interesting that the author chooses to use "shift" in stead of "turn" or "took at turn."

    4. reaping-hooks

      also known as a sickle.

    5. Whereupon seven monsters, like himself,

      He is showing his terror of the giants with verbiage such as "monster." He is not necessarily meaning an evil, vicious creature, but something deformed or abnormal, scary.

    6. but that which first surprised me was the length of the grass, which, in those grounds that seemed to be kept for hay, was about twenty feet high.

      Sounds like someone should really invest in a good lawn mower or a landscaping service.

    7. I saw our men already got into the boat, and rowing for life to the ship.

      Was he abandoned

    8. league

      about 3 miles

    9. Molucca Islands

      Maluku islands (spice islands). A group of islands of eastern Indonesia between Sulawesi and New Guinea. Inhabited by various Malay and Papuan peoples, the islands were colonized first by the Portuguese in the 1500s and later fell to the Dutch in the 1600s. The Moluccas, long known as the "Spice Islands," have historically provided much of the world's cloves, nutmeg, and mace.

    10. ague

      malaria or some other illness involving fever and shivering.

    11. wintered

      spend the winter in a particular place.

    12. Cape of Good Hope,

      This is located on the coast of southern Africa, though not the southern tip of Africa.

    13. gale

      Strong wind, probably carrying the sail and in turn the boat, speeding travel.

    14. Captain John Nicholas, a Cornish man, commander,

      Again, is he a captain or commander? Or maybe both?

    15. .

      All I can say thus far is it is very strange. It started quite tame with a description of a normal life but that quickly departed. Interested to see where this goes.

    16. I again left my native country

      I find this way of saying he left his him interesting and clear in showing his priorities. He did not leave his family or his home, rather he left his native country. Obviously his focus is on travel, not on comfort or family.

    17. I perceived it to be a human creature, not six inches high, with a bow and arrow in his hands, and a quiver at his back.

      This is reminding me of the tiny Roman figurines in The Night at the Museum.

    18. the light offended my eyes

      A little personification here, giving the eyes the ability to be offended.

    19. abated

      (of something perceived as hostile, threatening, or negative) become less intense or widespread. https://www.google.com/search?q=abated&oq=abated&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.1567j0j9&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

    20. three leagues

      Three nautical leagues is about ten miles.

    21. On the fifth of November, which was the beginning of summer in those parts,

      The seasons are flipped on the southern hemisphere. December is mid-summer and August mid-winter.

    22. Van Diemen’s Land

      A common European name for Tasmania (a part of Australia) before 1856.

    23. Wapping

      A district of Eastern London This is an image of Wapping, though it probably did not look like this at the time of publication.

    24. The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the sea

      Though smart, obviously a man driven and motivated by money and little else.

    25. My hours of leisure I spent in reading the best authors, ancient and modern, being always provided with a good number of books; and, when I was ashore, in observing the manners and dispositions of the people, as well as learning their language, wherein I had a great facility, by the strength of my memory.

      Obviously a smart man. A surgeon, reader, and easily understands or learns new languages.

    26. for six years

      How hard it must be to spend six years away from your husband or wife.

    27. But my good master, Bates, dying in two years after, and I having few friends, my business began to fail;

      It is not what you know, it is who you know.

    28. Leyden

      This is either a county in Illinois (probably not) or Leiden, a city in Holland (more likely). Or, of course, this could be another fictional location.

    29. Captain Abraham Pannell, commander

      So is he a Captain or Commander?


      A fictional place.

    1. .

      Wow. Great read. Our first real novel type story with many twists. I never saw selling Imoinda coming or the violent ending. Who smokes a pipe while their nose is removed from their face? Anyway, very interesting, engaging, and easy to read.

    2. That,” replied Imoinda, “by all our powers I do; for I am not yet known to my husband.

      Their marriage had not yet been consummated.

    3. mantle

      a loose sleeveless cloak or shawl, worn especially by women

    4. chagrin:

      distress or embarrassment at having failed or been humiliated.

      In this case, I believe this to mean unease or hesitation, even shame.

    5. that no age or wrinkles should incline him to change; for her soul would be always fine, and always young; and he should have an eternal idea in his mind of the charms she now bore; and should look into his heart for that idea, when he could find it no longer in her face.

      Interesting vows, much more explicit in its idea of beauty. It also presents the idea that beauty (and the beauty of youth) does not only reside in the body or tightness of skin, rather it is a soul or heart that is beautiful and remains "young."

    6. Moor

      a tract of open uncultivated upland.

    7. the field of Mars

      The battle field, again referring to the Roman god of war, Mars.

    8. we find it absolutely necessary to caress ’em as friends, and not to treat ’em as slaves

      Yeah, don't offend or mistreat those that can do serious harm to you. Common sense

    9. ’Tis she alone, if she were permitted, that better instructs the world than all the inventions of man.

      Nature is always more clever, inventive, dangerous, and powerful than man.

    10. before the Fall,

      Referring to the Fall of Man, when Adam and Eve defied God and ate the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. The shame brought upon Adam and Eve after this defiance is what brought them to cover their bodies.

    11. threescore


    12. Majesty’s Antiquary’s

      Like a museum for antiques; a collection.

    13. amity

      Peace or friendly nature.

    1. Thus let me take the right, or left hand way; Go forward, or stand still, or back retire; I must these doubts endure without allay Or help, but travail* find for my best hire;

      At a crossroads. There are many paths to chose and the right or best might not be clear, but the choice must be made.

    2. .

      This was beautiful and easy to read and understand. The author is definitely skilled in imagery. I felt as though I could see and hear and feel what Urania saw, heard, and felt. The poems were also beautiful and seamless. I felt as though it wasn't squished into poem form, rather the poem was a happy accident, as Bob Ross would say, that just made the writing that much better. Also, the story itself was excellent, though you should never leave your sheep alone!

    3. Wilt thou (unblessed creature) lie here complaining for her death, and know she died for thee?

      Does one complain about a sacrifice when they made the sacrifice willingly?

    4. on it a man lying, deprived of outward sense,

      Does this mean his senses were damaged, such as blind and deaf, or does it simply mean he was unconscious? Because of the next bit, I am inclined to presume the latter, but the wording seems strange still.

    5. and of life, as she at first did fear,

      She feared he was dead.

    6. she perceived a little light, and such a one as a chink doth oft discover to our sight. She, curious to see what this was, with her delicate hands put the natural ornament aside, discovering a little door, which she putting from her, passed through it into another room,

      A secret door leading to a secret room!!

    7. My ambition then went no higher than this estate ; now flies it to a knowledge ; then was I contented, now perplexed. O Ig norance, can thy dullness yet procure so sharp a pain > And that, such a thought as makes me now aspire to knowledge ? How did I joy in this poor life, being quiet ? Blest in the love of those I took for parents ; but now by them I know the con trary, and by that knowledge, not to know myself. Miserable Urania, worse art thou now than these thy lambs : for they know their dams, whilst thou dost live, unknown of any.” By this were others come into that mead with their flocks : ,but she, esteeming her sorrowing thoughts her best and choicest company, left that place, taking a little path, which brought her to the further side of the plain, to the foot of the rocks, speaking as she went, these lines, her eyes fixed upon the ground, her very soul turn’d into mourning.

      It sounds to me like she is mourning her potential, her choices, and her lack of freedom.

    8. beech

      a type of tree

    9. made her soon leave them

      Abandoning her sheep, her responsibility to their safety... Not the smartest thing to do.

    10. Shepherdess

      A woman in charge of taking care of a flock of sheep.

    1. .

      There are many bits of philosophy and wisdom in many different contexts here so it was very enjoyable to me, a philosophy buff. Many of his points still ring true today while others like remaining single and childless to contribute to society would not sit well with many people.

      It was very clear English, easy to understand and enjoy.

    2. to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar:

      In order to progress knowledge, you first have to assume there is something you don't know yet. Thus, playing by the rules you do know doesn't let you find the ones you don't.

    3. to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar:

      In order to progress knowledge, you first have to assume there is something you don't know yet. Thus, playing by the rules you do know doesn't let you find the ones you don't.

    4. deal by speech than by letter

      Face-to-face always pays off. Most people find it easier to turn someone down when they don't have to look them in the eye as they do it.

    5. Certainly the best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men; which, both in affection and means, have married and endowed the public.

      Only or especially those without the distraction of family, a wife or child, can contribute greatly to society and knowledge. This is because these single, childless men have chosen the service of the public instead of the service of his family.

      This is a common thought of the 1500-1600s, especially in religious groups as we have seen in previous readings. Many religious leaders advocate for solitude and abstinence as a way of freeing the mind from earthly distractions, allowing him to focus on the Lord.

    6. “It is a pleasure to stand upon the shore, and to see ships tossed upon the sea: a pleasure to stand in the window of a castle, and to see a battle, and the adventures thereof below: but no pleasure is comparable to the standing upon the vantage ground of truth, (a hill not to be commanded, and where the air is always clear and serene,) and to see the errors, and wanderings, and mists, and tempests in the vale below:”

      Truth is only found when looking from afar as a bird sees or one sees from Heaven.

    7. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure.

      The truth can be dull without a lie to compliment it.

    8. Truth may perhaps come to the price of a pearl, that showeth best by day, but it will not rise to the price of a diamond or carbuncle, that showeth best in varied lights.

      The truth is beautiful in certain lights or situations but not all. The truth is not a versatile or flexible as a lie which is why lies are so easy to find and so hard to expose as false.

    9. One of the later schools of the Grecians examineth the matter,

      Referring to the Greek schools of philosophy where philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle studied and taught.

    10. And though the sects of philosophers of that kind be gone,

      Where did we go?

    11. And though the sects of philosophers of that kind be gone, yet there remain certain discoursive wits, which are of the same veins, though there be not so much blood in them as was in those of the ancients.

      Though the people that focused their lives on answering these questions, philosophers, are gone, we still desire to know the answers, though not as strongly.

    1. F I N I S.

      This is the first obviously feminist reading so far in this course. But, the feminist view shared her is a bit different than the modern feminist view. The feminist here is basically advocating for the same human rights rather than smaller things like equal pay and abortion rights. Again, I find the Biblical focus and references very intriguing. It is not something common in the modern day and not something I assumed to be quite as common as it was. The reading itself was probably midway between easy and hard to understand compared to our past readings. I found a few lines, paragraphs, and spellings a bit hard to read/understand, but over all, the story was clear enough.

    2. Maiestie


    3. That mightie Monarch both of heau’n and earth,

      This is an interesting way to refer to God. We often refer to him as King or King of kings, but never as a monarch. I think monarch implies a sort of birth-right and lineage of the throne which is not part of God's Kingness. An interesting thought provoker though.

    4. Chariot

    5. giue


    6. .

      Does anyone have any insight as to why there is random capitalization throughout this? I have been trying but can't find a reason to justify it other than personal preference.

    7. Passion of Christ,

      The Passion of the Christ (or Christ's Passion) was a poem written by Aemilia Lanyar and is considered one of the first feminist writings as it is written from a primarily female view.


    1. .

      I enjoyed the philosophical ideas brought into this poetry, specifically in The Flea. It brings up some metaphysical questions as to our innate match or soul mate as our blood is held and mixed together within a flea. This wasn't the easiest poetry to understand though. There were several poems that I did not understand at all and some that I thought to be contradictory of a prior poem. However, it is totally possible that I just misunderstood one or the other. I do have a great respect for poets though. Making the syllable count match and rhyming the ending word is very difficult.

    2. Alas ! alas ! who’s injured by my love? What merchant’s ships have my sighs drown’d? Who says my tears have overflow’d his ground? When did my colds a forward spring remove? When did the heats which my veins fill Add one more to the plaguy bill? Soldiers find wars, and lawyers find out still Litigious men, which quarrels move, Though she and I do love.

      What harm is done by my love? None are injured, ships don't sink, tears don't flood grounds, (something that makes me think of groundhog day), blood is not blocked (no heart attacks or strokes), wars are still fought, men still become criminals even though we love.

    3. Her who still weeps with spongy eyes, And her who is dry cork, and never cries. I can love her, and her, and you, and you ; I can love any, so she be not true

      He can love all types of women: emotional, cold, any and all.

    4. pedantic

      like a pedant: a person who is excessively concerned with minor details and rules or with displaying academic learning.


    5. If, as I have, you also do Virtue in woman see, And dare love that, and say so too, And forget the He and She ; And if this love, though placèd so, From profane men you hide, Which will no faith on this bestow, Or, if they do, deride ; Then you have done a braver thing Than all the Worthies did ; And a braver thence will spring, Which is, to keep that hid.

      To paraphrase: if you see good in a woman and chose to lover her, you are both brave and probably a fool. Good luck!

    6. If thou find’st one, let me know, Such a pilgrimage were sweet; Yet do not, I would not go, Though at next door we might meet, Though she were true, when you met her, And last, till you write your letter, Yet she Will be False, ere I come, to two, or three.

      to paraphrase: if you find a good and honest woman, let me know. But, by the time you tell me, she will be untrue.

      The author obviously does not have a high opinion of women. I am curious if he was wronged in his personal life.

    7. Till age snow white hairs on thee,

      That is a beautiful way of saying "to go grey."

    1. The fruitful plot of scholarism grac’d, That shortly he was grac’d with doctor’s name,

      I am assuming this means that he had the equivalent of a Ph. D. Doctor like professor, not medical doctor.

      Upon further reading, this last statement appears to be false: he is in fact a physician.

      Being my second time to edit this post, I am no longer sure what doctor he is.

    2. Exit.

      I really enjoyed this story. It reminded me of Everyman in its character list and content, but is almost the complete opposite in plot until the final hour. I like that this story brings up the question of predestination. Was Faustus tempted to do wrong because he was destined to hell or was he destined to hell because he did wrong? According to the old man, it was the latter, but Faustus was not beyond saving if only her repented. But, not all Christian faiths or denominations agree with this. Calvinists, for example, believe that everyone is either born predestined to hell or heaven and nothing they do can change that. So, great philosophy questions, great religion questions.

    3. “Abjure this magic, turn to God again!” Ay, and Faustus will turn to God again.

      Repent of your sin and return to God.

    4. An Old Man.

      A wise old man.

    5. FROM THE QUARTO OF 1604.

      There are two versions of this text. The "A" version, which is this, that came out in 1604, and the "B" version that came out in 1616. The main difference between the two versions has to do with Faustus's decision to sell his soul or if he was tricked into it.

    6. belike

      Perhaps, probably. 'Why, then, do we so commonly sin or is it so probable that we sin, and consequently die.'

    7. Stipendium

      Scholarship, as in study not the money.

    8. Stipendium peccati mors est

      "The wages of sin is death"

    9. servile

      Having or showing an excessive willingness to serve or please others.

    10. Whereby whole cities have escap’d the plague, And thousand desperate maladies been eas’d? Yet art thou still but Faustus, and a man. Couldst[12] thou make men[13] to live eternally, Or, being dead, raise them to life again, Then this profession were to be esteem’d. Physic, farewell! Where is Justinian?

      A fair question about medicine and its capabilities. Can medicine ever be advanced enough to achieve immortality? We now have the knowledge of how to "raise people from the dead" if you count CPR, so how far can this go?

    11. Aristotle’s works.

      Is this referring to Aristotle's list of virtues?

    12. His waxen wings did mount above his reach, And, melting, heavens conspir’d his overthrow; For, falling to a devilish exercise, And glutted now[6] with learning’s golden gifts, He surfeits upon cursed necromancy; Nothing so sweet as magic is to him,

      Faustus put too much value in the pursuit of knowledge, even meddling in necromancy. As a result of this, his "wings melted" like Icarus, the "heavens conspired to overthrow" him.

    13. surfeits

      Cause someone to desire no more of something as a result of having consumed or done it to excess. Like fed-up.

    14. base of stock

      Low rank or class.

    15. plaud,


    16. Horse-courser.

      A strong, fast horse often used as a war horse.

    17. BELZEBUB

      Satan or the Devil.

    18. Paramour

      A lover. Most commonly a lover outside of a marriage.


      Main Characters:

    1. .

      I am rather disappointed with this. From what I understand through outside resources, the story is amazing and full of deeper meanings, allegories. However, in reading it myself, I really could not understand it due to the spellings, strange syntax, and incredibly obscure, at times, allegories. I was hoping to enjoy reading this as much as some of the other readings, but it was just impossible.

    2. auenging

      I tried Googling this word for a definition and all I could find was a word unscrambler...

    3. benumbd

      Benumbed: deprive of physical or emotional feeling.

    4. Styx

      I am assuming this is referring to the rive Styx. If so, how does a river fly?

    5. Aegyptian

      Egyptian? It would make sense. I just dont know why the spelling is so strange.

    6. Her vomit full of bookes and papers was, With loathly frogs and toades, which eyes did lacke,

      ... What? I have never heard of this diet before... Do you have to remove the eyes from the frogs and toads or are you supposed to find ones already missing eyes? Honestly, I am so lost. I have no idea what is going on, and finally a line I do understand and it makes no sense.

    7. vncouth

      Uncouth. It means something along the lines of unkept, unclean, or disorganized.

      I am noticing that a lot of the "u"'s in this are replaced with "v"'s and I am not sure why.

    8. rue

      like a regret.

    9. vndeserued

      Is this understood?

    10. blazon

      To display proudly and prominently.

    11. the twelve private morall vertues, as Aristotle hath devised

      Courage, Temperance, Liberality, Magnificence, Pride, Honor, Good Temper, Friendliness, Truthfulness, Wit, Friendship, and Justice

    12. Allegories

      An allegory is a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.

  2. Jun 2019
    1. .

      I want him as my teacher. It is not only brilliant that he is thinking, philosophizing about teaching styles, but he does so with the goal of how to help students best learn, not how to make the job the easiest or most efficient for the teacher. I also really like some of his ideas and teaching methods, letting the student take an active role in his or her learning, not asking him or her to sit for hours listening to what the teacher thinks is important or how s/he best understands it.

    2. canons

      A standardized or common gathering or collection of books. Typically referring to Biblical or religious texts.

    3. bawdy

      Humorously coarse; lewd or risqué

    4. wanton

      Unrestrainedly excessive, extravagant, luxuriant, overabundant.

    5. goodness to vanity

      Vanity is the opposite of goodness... Interesting. Goodness on the inside vs beauty on the outside.

    6. For ill doings breed ill thinkings

      You are what you eat, but in stead, you think what you do?

    7. where the common way used in common scholes, to read the grammar alone by itself, is tedious for the master, hard for the scholar, cold and uncomfortable for them both.

      Learn through practice and application, not through memorization of rules.

    8. truantship

      truancy: The neglect of work or duty

    9. After this, the child must take a paper book, and sitting in some place, where no man shall prompt him, by himself) let him translate into English his former lesson. Then shewing it to his master, let the master take from him his Latin book, and pausing an hour at the least, then let the child translate his own English into Latin again in another paper book. When the child bringeth it turned into Latin, the master must compare it with Tully’s book, and lay them both together

      This is actually an excellent way to learn language. Also a great method to check google translate is to make it translate from English then back into English. You catch a lot of mistakes with this.

    10. whetstone

      This is what is used to sharpen knives.

    11. Cicero de Oratore
  3. earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com
    1. .

      This is definitely my favorite read, perhaps of all time. It made me emotional and made me really reflect on myself. I find it terrifying to think that people, even myself, might be caught by death and are not ready to face him. Then being sure that others will come with him, for him to rely on and be supported by, but be left alone, except for Good-Deeds, at the end. On a literary note, this author was very easy to understand and used some excellent analogies and examples to illustrate his words. Really well done. Well thought out and well executed.

    2. commendo spiritum meum

      commend my spirit

    3. In manus tuas

      Into your hands

    4. I thank God, now I can walk and go; And am delivered of my sickness and woe.

      Everyman not only did not give Good-Deeds anything to grow upon, but left her in sickness, deprived of her basic necessities.

    5. Everyman. Why, is there anything on you fall? Good-Deeds. Yea, sir, I may thank you of all; If ye had perfectly cheered me, Your book of account now full ready had be. Look, the books of your works and deeds eke; Oh, see how they lie under the feet, To your soul’s heaviness. Everyman. Our Lord Jesus, help me! For one letter here I can not see. Good-Deeds. There is a blind reckoning in time of distress!

      I am literally tearing up.

    6. dolour

      A state of sadness or distress.

    7. I have the cramp in my toe

      Best excuse ever.

    8. liefer

      Is this German? If so, it means deliver.

    9. For Adam’s sin must die of nature.

      This is interesting. Eve was the first to sin and coerced Adam to do the same. I mean, they bought brought about the fall of man though.

    10. the tide abideth no man

      Wonderful analogy here. There are just somethings that man cannot control.

    11. Everyman, it may not be by no way; I set not by gold, silver, nor riches, Ne by pope, emperor, king, duke, ne princes. For and I would receive gifts great, All the world I might get; But my custom is clean contrary. I give thee no respite: come hence, and not tarry.

      Death is a faithful servant because he takes part in no worldly riches to be distracted by.

    12. O Death, thou comest when I had thee least in mind; In thy power it lieth me to save, Yet of my good will I give thee, if ye will be kind, Yea, a thousand pound shalt thou have, And defer this matter till another day.

      What is ironic about this is that he is asking Death to defy God because he will no longer do so himself.

    13. I see the more that I them forbear The worse they be from year to year;

      I can understand this, for a creator, to be the worst disappointment. Giving your creation the ability to chose to do what is right and seeing them not only chose wrong, but to chose wrong consistently.

    14. My law that I shewed, when I for them died, They forget clean, and shedding of my blood red; I hanged between two, it cannot be denied; To get them life I suffered to be dead; I healed their feet, with thorns hurt was my head:

      This is describing the crucifixion of Christ, which is both the son of God and God himself.

    15. How that all creatures be to me unkind, Living without dread in worldly prosperity: Of ghostly sight the people be so blind, Drowned in sin, they know me not for their God; In worldly riches is all their mind

      Here God is expressing his disappointment with his creation and their decisions to pursue worldly pleasures rather than secure infinite riches in Heaven.

    16. For ye shall hear, how our heaven king Calleth Everyman to a general reckoning:

      Everyman must be judged by God and answer for his sins.

    17. Here shall you see how Fellowship and Jollity, Both Strength, Pleasure, and Beauty, Will fade from thee as flower in May.

      Earthly riches and pleasures have no real meaning after death.

    18. When the body lieth in clay.

      I believe this is referring to burial, clay being a type of dirt... maybe?


      You must answer for your worldly actions upon your death.

    1. .

      As a philosophy student, I loved this reading. Government, religion, and ethics are commonly explored topics in philosophy, and the example of Utopia is often referred to, so it was great to get to read the text for myself. I think there is great wisdom in much of Utopia's society, along with some naive ideas that work well in theory, but collapse in practice. Communal property is one of these ideas that simply has been shown in many different situations to not work after time, though excellent in its intentions. However, I think it is always good to bring up these ideas to challenge the mind.

    2. mattock

      A digging and grubbing tool with features of an adze and an ax or pick.

    3. mattock

    4. insolent

      Insultingly contemptuous in speech or conduct.

    5. to make such good provisions by which every man might be put in a method how to live, and so be preserved from the fatal necessity of stealing and of dying for it

      See above lol

    6. no punishment, how severe soever, being able to restrain those from robbing who can find out no other way of livelihood. 

      This line of thought is leading towards trying to fix the reason people are led to steal as a way of preventing them from stealing. Helping provide them with necessities like shelter, food, and clothing to keep them from trying to take it from others. This way of thinking is making theft a symptom, not an illness.

    7. simple theft not being so great a crime that it ought to cost a man his life

      No kidding.

    8. gibbet


    9. morose

      Having a sullen and gloomy disposition.

    10. “Happier?” answered Raphael, “is that to be compassed in a way so abhorrent to my genius?  Now I live as I will, to which I believe, few courtiers can pretend; and there are so many that court the favour of great men, that there will be no great loss if they are not troubled either with me or with others of my temper.”

      He is happy with the freedom to think as he wishes and to think of whatever he wishes, not tied to, or enslaved by, the needs of another.

    11. none to whom you would not

      I am noticing a pattern of double negatives. I am actually having trouble reading it because my brain just skips over the second.

    12. imprudence

      The quality or state of being imprudent: not prudent : lacking discretion, wisdom, or good judgment.

    13. loadstone

      A piece of magnetite or other naturally and permanently magnetized mineral, able to be used as a magnet.

    14. I thanked him for his kindness in intending to give me the acquaintance of a man whose conversation he knew would be so acceptable; and upon that Raphael and I embraced each other.

      Immediate friendship.

    15. Americus Vesputius

      More commonly known to us as Amerigo Vespucci, the man for which the Americas were named.

    16. Americus Vesputius

      More commonly known to us as Amerigo Vespucci, the man for which the Americas were named.

    17. particularly to that than to the former, because he had given himself much to philosophy, in which he knew that the Romans have left us nothing that is valuable, except what is to be found in Seneca and Cicero.

      The philosophy that we learn and often refer to came from Greek philosophers. Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, and Pythagorus were all influential Greek philosophers.

    18. eminently

      Very or particularly.

    19. for he has not sailed as a seaman, but as a traveller, or rather a philosopher

      A traveller, not motivated by exploring lands, but exploring thier philosophies, religion, and government.

    20. artifice

      Clever or cunning devices, especially as used to deceive others. In this case, he is not a deceitful or manipulative man.

    1. And all this shall we see in God, without end.

      From what I understand, this is the visions of Julian of Norwich while she was deathly ill. Throughout the description of the vision(s), it seems to me that the main focus was on defining God and His many characteristics (with a strong focus on the maternal characteristics) and the sides of the Trinity. Based on both my understanding and the chapter numbers, this skipped quite a bit of material and, with that, left me a bit confused as to what the whole picture is. However, the descriptions were incredibly vivid and thorough; they honestly didn't leave a lot of room for annotations! This vivacity would also be questionable if she were not able to recall with incredibly accurate detail the extent of her illness, proving that she was still mentally capable, not hallucinating. Lastly, I think this last line really shows the purpose of this writing: showing who God is and what He is like.

    2. anent

      concerning or about

    3. He is our Mother, Brother

      He is our superior and equal.

    4. the property of the Fatherhood, the property of the Motherhood

      Given the traditional view of parental role, this means that God is both the discipliner and the teacher as well as the nurturer and caretaker.

    5. n this Little Thing I saw three properties. The first is that God made it, the second is that God loveth it, the third, that God keepeth it.

      This reminds me of a little kid keeping rocks or marbles in his/her pockets. To the child, that's his/her most important thing in the world.

    6. Also in this He shewed me a little thing, the quantity of an hazel-nut, in the palm of my hand; and it was as round as a ball. I looked thereupon with eye of my understanding, and thought: What may this be? And it was answered generally thus: it is all that is made.

      All of creation, the entire universe sits in His hand as the size of a hazelnut. Incredible to think about.

    7. shortness of breath

      Very medically accurate here. Good observation on her part.

    8. After this my sight began to fail, and it was all dark about me in the chamber, as if it had been night, save in the Image of the Cross whereon I beheld a common light; and I wist not how. All that was away from the Cross was of horror to me, as if it had been greatly occupied by the fiends.

      This is so sad to me. I have a very strong connection with many blind kids, and I know what it's like to lose your sight. It's very scary and isolating. I find it so beautiful that she was able to see the Cross again (as the last thing).

    9. my body was dead from the middle downwards, as to my feeling.

      I believe this is saying that the illness paralyzed her from the waist down.

    1. .

      I really enjoyed the content of this story, though it seemed eerily familiar to me at parts through some of my own readings. However, the language was probably one of the most difficult to understand; much of it sounded and read like Master Yoda wrote it. I did really enjoy the characters, especially Conscience and Reason. It mirrored the duality yet twin-likeness of the devil and angel on your shoulders. They weren't polar opposites, but they contested one another. I think this story was very creative, so for that I enjoyed it.

    2. Non de solo

      Roughly translates to "you/none are alone."

    3. Do not render evil for evil

      Be better than your enemy. "An eye for an eye and the whole world goes blind."

    4. He shall reward every man according to his works

      "God helps those who help themselves."

    5. sickle

    6. accosted

      to approach and speak to (someone) in an often challenging or aggressive way

    7. Signs of Sinai

      Mount. Sinai is where Moses received the Ten Commandments, carved into two stone tablets, from God.

    8. `Whoso is true of his tongue · and telleth none other, And doth works therewith · and willeth no man ill: He is a god, says the Gospel · on earth and in heaven.

      What I like a lot about these readings is that they can be centuries, even millennia old, yet they are still so true and relatable in their dilemmas. This one struck me especially. Often, Christians are criticized by not "acting Christian," but this is no new problem. It is easy to hold grudges or to wish ill of another person, but Christians are asked to do the opposite. Just seeing this here really added value to this reading for me.

    9. Holy Writ

      Just another way of saying "Bible."

    10. Adam and Eve · he egged on to ill; Counselled Cain · to kill his brother; Judas he jockeyed · with Jewish silver,

      All these examples are of people who were tempted and gave into the temptations of worldly riches: knowledge, power, and money.

    11. Saint James

      James and John, two brothers, were fisherman before becoming two of Jesus's 12 disciples. James was also the first disciple to be martyred for his faith and affiliation with Jesus.

    12. knaves

      a tricky deceitful fellow

    13. I fell into a sleep · for it sounded so merry.Then began I to dream

      This is reminding me a bit of Alice in Wonderland. I wonder if there was any inspiration from this for Alice's story.

    14. May

      These stories all seem to happen in the month of May. It makes me think that there might be some cultural significance to the month: either it was a time of vacation, traveling, or holiday.

    1. It is certain that the easy and obvious philosophy will always, with the generality of mankind, have the preference above the accurate and abstruse; and by many will be recommended, not only as more agreeable, but more useful than the other.

      what is easy to understand is more likely to be thought right than what is more difficult to understand, though it is more right.

    1. !

      Alright, this was enjoyable, especially at the end. I'm not sure what the moral of the story was or if there was even supposed to be one. It seems to me that nothing too bad happened to any party. The carpenter was thought to be insane by the end, and Nicholas burned his butt, but in neither scenario am I able to draw a meaningful conclusion. Anyhow, this reading was more enjoyable than the last and quite hilarious.

    2. But with his mouth he kissed her naked arse Right greedily, before he knew of this. Aback he leapt- it seemed somehow amiss, For well he knew a woman has no beard; 630 He’d felt a thing all rough and longish haired,

      Never have I ever laughed so hard!

    3. Tomorrow night, when all men are asleep, Into our kneading-tubs will we three creep

      This also contradicts with Noah's story. God did not warn Noah off telling others of the impending doom. In fact, he found it his duty to tell, yet none believed. Here, they are creeping around, not telling a soul. I can see why Nicholas has set his story up this way, but I do not understand how everyone isn't seeing through his story.

    4. “Presently go, and fetch here to this inn 440 A kneading-tub, or brewing vat, and win

      A very discount ark.

    5. rue

      to feel penitence, remorse, or regret for

    6. Shall fall a rain so wildly mad as would 410 Have been, by half, greater than Noah’s flood.

      This is quite interesting to me that Nicholas is claiming God will flood the earth again, as he did in Noah's time, but with even more water. I think this is particularly odd and difficult to believe for the believer of God and Christ as after Noah's flood, God promised to never flood the earth again and symbolized this with a rainbow. So, Nicholas claiming there is another flood to come, as told to him by Christ, makes no sense.

    7. malady


    8. As weasel’s was her body slim and small

      I don't think many people, let alone women, would enjoy being compared to a weasel.

    1. !

      I did not enjoy this story as much passed the first few hundred lines. I really enjoyed how she called attention to possible hypocrisies, though I think they are quite weak and ill-informed, but it made me think for a second, which is something I always enjoy in a story. After all, isn't the point of a story to share knowledge. What better way to do that than to question what you think you know. However, after that, the story progressed very slowly and just didn't have much to it.

    2. wroth

      intensely angry

    3. odious

      arousing or deserving hatred or repugnance

    4. opine

      to express opinions

    5. gentility 

      the condition of belonging to the gentry: upper or ruling class

    6. fastidious

      showing or demanding excessive delicacy or care

    7. leman


    8. gad

      to be on the go without a specific aim or purpose

    9. eke