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  1. Jul 2017
    1. THE EDICT OF 1635 ORDERING THE CLOSING OF JAPAN: ADDRESSED TO THE JOINT BUGYO OF NAGASAKI

      A form of isolationism enforced in 1635 in Tokugawa Japan. Meant to protect Japanese interests and culture form what they believed to be a more primitive Western culture, or "Southern Barbarians"

    2. 5. Hereafter, anyone who does not hinder the teachings of Buddha, whether he be a merchant or not, may come and go freely from Christian countries to Japan.

      It can be observed how closely tied merchants and religion were at this time. As wherever trade commenced, the missionaries and religions of those trading soon followed suit.

    3. 4. The black [Portuguese and Spanish] ships come to Japan to engage in trade. Thus the matter is a separate one. They can continue to engage in trade.

      Trade and commerce valued over religion

    4. sciences and medicine

      This bracketed section shows how the missionaries were respected for their knowledge in these fields. Especially those technological skills like clockmaking, artistry, mapmaking, and astronomy. Going back to our text, this can be compared to the Jesuit failure at long-term conversion in China. This was due in part to the lack of religious interest by the Chinese; they valued the aforementioned technical skills more than the teachings.

    5. 2. If one receives a province, a d strict, or a village as his fief, and forces farmers in his domain who are properly registered under certain temples to become followers of the padre against their wishes, then he has committed a most unreasonable illegal act.

      This second limitations shows just how much Hideyoshi feared the use of Christianity as a subversive political tool. By publishing and enforcing this document Hideyoshi kept more control. In turn, by giving the farmers a choice to believe in what they had already been believing it sets up the farmers separately from the vassal or daimyo, thus dividing more power the vassal or daimyo would have in case they wanted to overthrow Hideyoshi. It is easy to see this anxiety in the 4th and 5th points where the larger fiefs (as they presumably have more power) must be approved to follow the "padre", as God is called.

    1. Why did the Mongols come, and why did they succeed in their conquest
      • Strategy/Tactics: Inspired fear and terror with massacres spread by word of mouth (see AD1224 & 1238 entries)--> submission early on with indirect rule (as seen w Prince A. Nevsky in mid-13thC, where indirect rule= taxation & visits to Khan/Mongol leaders by Prince)
      • Technology: Used fence systems and battering rams (see AD1238 entry)

      -->see pg345 in text for Mongol Military Success Reasons

    2. How has the chronicler interpreted this invasion in religious terms? Why?

      Interpreted in religious terms for the Chronicle was maintained by Orthodox monks. The monks gave the dates of attacks in relation to religious days. With the end of the attacks they attributed it to the Church of St. Sophia and prayers "of the faithful". To them, such a bloody, relentless invasion by foreign people was not comprehendible within their own religious and societal views. Their religious interpretation, and view of the Mongols as lawless, godless pagans, was a way to try and make sense of a completely new culture and invasion style they deeply feared.

    3. Mongols

      Modern Day Depiction of the Mongols in Marco Polo: One Hundred Eyes and W. Rubruck's Account:

      Marco Polo: One Hundred Eyes is a short special on Netflix loosely based off of the real Mongol General Bayan of the Baarin. In comparing Rubruck's primary account to this modern day portrayal of the Mongols in China under Kubilai Khan there are a few similarities and differences. Differences mainly arise from the time and geographic spaces; the special took place in 1262 in Kubilai Khan's China whereas Rubruck's was between 1253-1255 in the Mongol capital of Karakorum. Rubruck noted the nomadic lifestyle where the Mongols resided in non-fixed dwellings, but in the special this is not shown; the Khan is shown not in a tent, but in a permanent building. Both sources (and our textbook) depict the Mongols as fierce warriors, who used curved bows, horses, and fear (of being massacred) as a means of conquering people. In the special, the Khan states he takes conquered craftsmen, employing them to further his conquests. Our text repeatedly emphasized this unique aspect of the Mongols of using those they captured to create siege engines or help run their armies as the real Bayan of the Baarin did. Though Rubruck's account is a primary source unlike this Netflix special- which was most likely based off of a plethora of primary sources- they both provide different view of how Mongols functioned and lived in various areas within the same mammoth empire.