592 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2020
    1. Summarize the text in your own words (note your impressions, reactions, and what you learned) in an outline or in a short paragraph Talk to someone, like a classmate, about the author’s ideas to check your comprehension Identify and reread difficult parts of the text Review your annotations Try to answer some of your own questions from your annotations that were raised while you were reading Define words on your vocabulary list and practice using them (to define words, try a learner’s dictionary, such as Merriam-Webster’s)

      Once more, see the Freire reading video for more on this critical reading approach.

    2. Annotating a text means that you actively engage with it by taking notes as you read, usually by marking the text in some way (underlining, highlighting, using symbols such as asterisks) as well as by writing down brief summaries, thoughts, or questions in the margins of the page.

      You have been reading MY annotations in the margins here using Hypothesis. You'll get to do this, too, starting next week!

    3. Popular articles. Reading headings and introductory paragraphs carefully is crucial. In magazine articles, these features–along with the closing paragraphs–present the main concepts. Hard news articles in newspapers present the gist of the news story in the lead paragraph, while subsequent paragraphs present increasingly general bits of information.

      FYI, the bulk of assigned reading in this course, outside of the textbooks, will be in the form of popular journal and magazine articles.

    4. Textbooks. These usually include summaries, glossaries, comprehension questions, and other study aids.

      This textbook is an excellent example. When you're assigned chapters that can seem overwhelming, it's helpful to skim through first and get a sense of the topics. This will allow you to focus in on the most important elements of the chapter.

    5. Questions to ask when previewing may include the following: What is the title of the text?  Does it give a clear indication of the text’s subject? Who is the author?  Is the author familiar to you?  Is any biographical information about the author included? If previewing a book, is there a summary on the back or inside the front of the book? What main idea emerges from the introductory paragraph?  From the concluding paragraph? Are there any organizational elements that stand out, such as section headings, numbering, bullet points, or other types of lists? Are there any editorial elements that stand out, such as words in italics, bold print, or in a large font size? Are there any visual elements that give a sense of the subject, such as photos or illustrations?

      Once again, see my Freire video for a concrete example of this approach.

    6. analyzing and understanding the overall composition of the writing as well as how the writing has achieved its effect on the audience. This level of understanding begins with thinking critically about the texts you are reading. In this case, “critically” does not mean that you are looking for what is wrong with a work (although during your critical process, you may well do that). Instead, thinking critically means approaching a work as if you were a critic or commentator whose job it is to analyze a text beyond its surface.

      This is a crucial distinction. When we talk about thinking, reading, or writing "critically," we mean something beyond reading for understanding or pleasure, but not "critical" in the sense of disparaging or picking apart an assigned text.

      You might have a favorite TV series and if someone asked you why you like it so much, you would probably discuss its off-the-wall humor or its gripping plot. But if you were asked to reflect on questions about the motivations of its characters or its historical setting, for example, you would already be approaching the work analytically.

    7. regardless of your field of study, honing your writing, reading, and critical-thinking skills will give you a more solid foundation for success, both academically and professionally.

      Can you think of some of the concrete ways that sharpening your writing abilities will help you as you advance in your education and/or profession?

    1. We are not here to prove the skills we already have; this course is about stepping up.

      This is a crucial point that I will return to all semester. There is no perfect or standard essay that I have in mind for all you that should be replicated by the entire class. Everyone has different backgrounds and experiences with academic writing, and everyone has room to work and grow.

    2. argument

      This might seem like a controversial statement in two ways:

      1. Why would I have to "argue" in a piece of writing? Not all writing is a debate, right? That's true! An "argument" here is being used a more subtle valence or meaning. To argue in writing is to make claims, provide evidence, and synthesize your evidence and claims so the reader takes something away from the information you have provided.
      2. Now you might say, well, okay, but does ALL good writing do that? What about a personal statement? a poem? an email? a technical report? These authors would answer: YES, every piece of good writing is making a contention and backing it up. Stick around, we'll discuss!
    3. the scaffolding approach

      Scaffolding for Tokyo Skytree construction

      "Scaffolding" might sound like a fancypants college teacher term, but it's really just another word for the process of accumulating and designing knowledge in an orderly manner. The concept is a metaphor taken from the concrete image of building scaffold. You can't build a structure in its totality before the foundation, just like you can't really absorb an abstract idea simply by repeating its definition, but only by working through a body of knowledge.

      Writing is a lifelong skill and practice. We're always improving, always learning of new moves, new language, new audiences. I think the idea of scaffolding is important because often in school, we're taught only to value the finished product of writing: a report, an essay, an exam, etc. It's like looking at an immense building once it's already been finished. That essay took a lot of work, a lot of forethought and invention, a lot of structuring and restructuring, a lot of labor, before it became an end product.

      We'll talk more about this when we discuss assessment!

    1. These high costs present barriers to many students who need assigned class materials and are already struggling to pay tuition. In response to this reality, authors, through the help of a community of educators and not-for-profit publishers, are beginning to freely share their work in order to lower or eliminate the cost of class materials

      This Open Educational Resource, or OER, textbook is created by a community of writing instructors and is made available on the web free-of-charge to teachers and students alike.

      One of the main reasons behind this movement is to help college students combat the soaring costs of college, and especially textbooks.

      All said, not everyone is always on board with using a free open resource from the internet.

      • Why might some professors be skeptical of using them?
      • What difficulties might arise from reading a digital textbook vs. a hardcopy?
    2. It is free to you and anyone else who would like to use it. The key to this ability to freely use and re-use this material is something called Creative Commons. It is a license that the author places on his or her work that waives some of the protections of copyright and allows for the work to be shared and used in certain ways.

      The author of this book's "Foreword," another word for a "preface" or a note before the beginning of the content of the actual book, displays a writing move here that's foundational to all explanatory writing, but especially textbooks: defining new terms.

      Here the phrase is "Creative Commons," a special publishing license that tells readers that they can share or reuse this material free of charge -- unlike the strict kinds of copyright we're used to with academic publishing.

  2. Apr 2020
    1. y family didn’t understand how dis-ruptive those calls could be. Neither did I, really. No one had ever left. We normally went through these events together. But I was no longer able to help fi gure out when the coast was clear, to investigate the fl ash-ing police lights. I always wondered, unnerved, just how close my family was to whatever prompted such a call. I was away. They were still there.

      Anthony Abram Jack recounts phone calls he would receive from home about crime and violence occurring in his family's neighborhood.

    2. This process is not random but the consequence of historical patterns of exclusion and racism. Life in privileged communities means that children traverse safer streets, have access to good schools and interact with neigh-bors who can supply more than the proverbial cup of sugar. Life in distressed communities can mean learning to distinguish between fi recrackers and gunshots

      In this paragraph, Jack makes another crucial move from personal anecdote to a theoretical claim.

    3. In his 2010 study of Chicago youth from adolescence to young adulthood, the sociologist Patrick Sharkey, then at New York University and now at Princeton, shows how such violence disrupts learning in ways equivalent to missing two years of schooling.

      This paragraph integrates secondary expert research to support points.

    4. We like to think that landing a coveted college spot

      After several opening paragraphs where Anthony Abraham Jack discusses his personal experiences as a low-income student adapting to life at an elite liberal arts college, he switches his narration from the first person singular pronoun “I” to the plural “We.”

      • Why does he do this?
      • What changes in his written description as a result of this switch or shift?
      • How does it change the tone of the work?
    5. vending machines were stocked with Cheetos and Yoo-hoos, wel-come complements to the ham-and-cheese and peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwiches I got from CVS; there are no corner stores or bodegas in Amherst.

      In the following paragraphs, Anthony Abraham Jack draws a contrast between his access to food back at home in Miami and during spring break at the closed down campus at Amherst College.

      • What are some of the distinctions between his ability to eat on a budget at home vs. Amherst?
      • What does the availability of "quick fix" meals in Miami like McDonald's and bodegas vs. their absence in Amherst say about each place? In other words, who is meant to live in these places and who is not?
    6. Amherst felt a little colder

      In the opening paragraph, Anthony Abraham Jack uses language and imagery of weather and atmosphere between his hometown of Miami and his adopted college town of Amherst, MA.

      • Why do you think he does this?
      • How does he use differences in weather to communicate differences in social class between he and his peers?
  3. Dec 2019
    1. With the poet he could truly say,                          "Star of the North! while blazing day                          Pours round me its full tide of light,                          And hides thy pale but faithful ray,                          I, too, lie hid, and long for night."
    2. The judge asked the slave if he had anything to say why sentence of death should not be passed on him. George stood for a moment in silence, and then said, "As I cannot speak as I should wish, I will say nothing." "You may say what you please," said the judge. "You had a good master," continued he, "and still you were dissatisfied; you left your master and joined the negroes who were burning our houses and killing our wives." "As you have given me permission to speak," remarked George, "I will tell you why I joined the revolted negroes. I have heard my master read in the Declaration of Independence 'that all men are created free and equal,' and this caused me to inquire of myself why I was a slave. I also heard him talking with some of his visitors about the war with England, and he said, all wars and fightings for freedom were just and right. If so, in what am I wrong? The grievances of which your fathers complained, and which caused the Revolutionary War, were trifling in comparison with the wrongs and sufferings of those who were engaged in the late revolt. Your fathers were never slaves, ours are; your fathers were never bought and sold like cattle, never shut out from the light of knowledge and religion, never subjected to the lash of brutal task-masters. For the crime of having a dark skin, my people suffer the pangs of hunger, the infliction of stripes, and the ignominy of brutal servitude. We are kept in heathenish darkness by laws expressly enacted to make our instruction a criminal offence. What right has one man to the bones, sinews, blood, and nerves of another? Did not one God make us all? You say your fathers fought for freedom--so did we. You tell me that I am to be put to death for violating Page 225 the laws of the land. Did not the American revolutionists violate the laws when they struck for liberty? They were revolters, but their success made them patriots--we were revolters, and our failure makes us rebels. Had we succeeded, we would have been patriots too. Success makes all the difference. You make merry on the 4th of July; the thunder of cannon and ringing of bells announce it as the birthday of American independence. Yet while these cannons are roaring and bells ringing, one-sixth of the people of this land are in chains and slavery. You boast that this is the 'Land of the Free;' but a traditionary freedom will not save you. It will not do to praise your fathers and build their sepulchres. Worse for you that you have such an inheritance, if you spend it foolishly and are unable to appreciate its worth. Sad if the genius of a true humanity, beholding you with tearful eyes from the mount of vision, shall fold his wings in sorrowing pity, and repeat the strain, 'O land of Washington, how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not; behold your house is left unto you desolate.' This is all I have to say; I have done." Nearly every one present was melted to tears; even the judge seemed taken by surprise at the intelligence of the young slave. But George was a slave, and an example must be made of him, and therefore he was sentenced. Being employed in the same house with Mary, the daughter of Clotel, George had become attached to her, and the young lovers fondly looked forward to the time when they should be husband and wife

      George adopts the rhetoric of Frederick Douglass in claiming his right to rebel.

    3. e, too, could boast that his father was an American statesman, His name was George. His mother had been employed as a servant in one of the principal hotels in Washington, where members of Congress usually put up. After George's birth his mother was sold to a slave trader, and he to an agent of Mr. Green, the father of Horatio. George was as white as most white persons. No one would suppose that any African blood coursed through his veins. His hair was straight, soft, fine, and light; his eyes blue, nose prominent, lips thin, his head well formed, forehead high and prominent; and he was often taken for a free white person by those who did know him. This made his condition still more intolerable; for one so white seldom ever receives fair treatment at the hands of his fellow slaves; and the whites usually regard such slaves as persons who, if not often flogged, and otherwise ill treated, to remind them of their condition, would soon "forget" that they were slaves, and "think themselves as good as white folks."

      The white slave, George.

    4.     Thus died Clotel, the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, a president of the United States; a man distinguished as the author of the Declaration of American Independence, and one of the first statesmen of that country.         Had Clotel escaped from oppression in any other land, in the disguise in which she fled from the Mississippi to Richmond, and reached the United States, no honour within the gift of the American people would have been too good to have been heaped upon the heroic woman. But she was a slave, and therefore out of the pale of their sympathy. They have tears to shed over Greece and Poland; they have an abundance of sympathy for "poor Ireland;" they can furnish a ship of war to convey the Hungarian refugees from a Turkish prison to the "land of the free and home of the brave." They boast that America is the "cradle of liberty;" if it is, I fear they have rocked the child to death. The body of Clotel was picked up from the bank of the river, where it had been washed by the strong current, a hole dug in the sand, and there deposited, without either inquest being held over it, or religious service being performed. Such was the life and such the death of a woman whose virtues and goodness of heart would have done honour to one in a higher station of life, and who, if she had been born in any other land but that of slavery, would have been honoured and Page 219 loved.

      Elegy to Clotel's death!

    5. Every day brought news of fresh outbreaks. Without scruple and without pity, the whites massacred all blacks found beyond their owners' plantations: the negroes, in return, set fire to houses, and put those to death who attempted to escape from the flames. Thus carnage was added to carnage, and the blood of the whites flowed to avenge the blood of the blacks. These were the ravages of slavery. No graves were dug for the negroes; their dead bodies became food for dogs and vultures, and their bones, partly calcined by the sun, remained scattered about, as if to mark the mournful fury of servitude and lust of power. When the slaves were subdued, except a few in the swamps, bloodhounds were put in this dismal place to hunt out the remaining revolters

      The bloody consequences of putting down the slave rebellion.

    6.  The evils consequent on slavery are not lessened by the incoming of one or two rays of light. If the slave only becomes aware of his condition, and conscious of the injustice under which he suffers, if he obtains but a faint idea of these things, he will seize the first opportunity to possess himself of what he conceives to belong to him. The infusion of Anglo-Saxon with African blood has created an insurrectionary feeling among the slaves of America hitherto unknown. Aware of their blood connection with their owners, these mulattoes labour under the sense of their personal and social injuries; and tolerate, if they do not encourage in themselves, low and vindictive passions. On the other hand, the slave owners are aware of their critical position, and are ever watchful, always fearing an outbreak among the slaves.         True, the Free States are equally bound with the Slave States to suppress any insurrectionary movement that may take place among the slaves. The Northern freemen are bound by their constitutional obligations to aid the slaveholder in keeping his slaves in their Page 212 chains. Yet there are, at the time we write, four millions of bond slaves in the United States. The insurrection to which we now refer was headed by a full-blooded negro, who had been born and brought up a slave. He had heard the twang of the driver's whip, and saw the warm blood streaming from the negro's body; he had witnessed the separation of parents and children, and was made aware, by too many proofs, that the slave could expect no justice at the hand of the slave owner. He went by the name of "Nat Turner."

      Discussion of Nat Turner's revolution.

    7. And during the fortnight that I was in Vermont, with my teetotal relations, I was kept about as well corned as if I had been among my hot water friends in Tennessee."

      Discussion of temperance and the hypocrisy of the north.

    8. But being assured that not a shadow of safety would attend her visit to a city in which she was well known, unless in some disguise, she again resumed men's apparel on leaving Cincinnati. This time she had more the appearance of an Italian or Spanish gentleman. In addition to the fine suit of black cloth, a splendid pair of dark false whiskers covered the sides of her face, while the curling moustache found its place upon the upper lip. From practice she had become accustomed to high-heeled boots, and could walk without creating any suspicion as regarded her sex.

      Clotel still suited as a man -- dark, but light enough to be taken for a southern European.

    9. If true greatness consists in doing good to mankind, then was Georgiana Carlton an ornament to human nature. Who can think of the broken hearts made whole, of sad and dejected countenances now beaming with contentment and joy, of the mother offering her free-born babe to heaven, and of the father whose cup of joy seems overflowing in the presence of his family, where none can molest or make him afraid.

      Georgianna dies.

    10. ON the last day of November, 1620, on the confines of the Grand Bank of Newfoundland, lo! we behold one little solitary tempest-tost and weatherbeaten ship; it is all that can be seen on the length and breadth of the vast intervening solitudes, from the melancholy wilds of Labrador and New England's iron-bound shores, to the western coasts of Ireland and the rock-defended Hebrides, but one lonely ship greets the eye of angels or of men, on this great thoroughfare of nations in our age. Next in moral grandeur, was this ship, to the great discoverer's: Columbus found a continent; the May-flower brought the seed-wheat of states and empire. That is the May-flower, with its servants of the living God, their wives and little ones, hastening to lay the foundations of nations in the occidental lands of the setting-sun. Hear the voice of prayer to God for his protection, and the glorious music of praise, as it breaks into the wild tempest of the mighty deep, upon the ear of God. Here in this ship are great and good men. Justice, mercy, humanity, respect for the rights of all; each man honoured, as he was useful to himself and others; labour respected, law-abiding men, constitution-making and respecting men; men, whom no tyrant could conquer, or hardship overcome, with the high commission sealed by a Spirit divine, to establish Page 184 religious and political liberty for all. This ship had the embryo elements of all that is useful, great, and grand in Northern institutions; it was the great type of goodness and wisdom, illustrated in two and a quarter centuries gone by; it was the good genius of America.         But look far in the South-east, and you behold on the same day, in 1620, a low rakish ship hastening from the tropics, solitary and alone, to the New World. What is she? She is freighted with the elements of unmixed evil. Hark! hear those rattling chains, hear that cry of despair and wail of anguish, as they die away in the unpitying distance. Listen to those shocking oaths, the crack of that fleshcutting whip. Ah! it is the first cargo of slaves on their way to Jamestown, Virginia. Behold the Mayflower anchored at Plymouth Rock, the slave-ship in James River. Each a parent, one of the prosperous, labour-honouring, law-sustaining institutions of the North; the other the mother of slavery, idleness, lynch-law, ignorance, unpaid labour, poverty, and duelling, despotism, the ceaseless swing of the whip, and the peculiar institutions of the South. These ships are the representation of good and evil in the New World, even to our day. When shall one of those parallel lines come to an end?

      Pits the landing of the Mayflower vis-a-vis the first slave ship: pp. 183-184. This is very obviously pitched to a certain British audience, right?

    11. We say much against European despotism; let us look to ourselves. That government is despotic where the rulers govern subjects by their own mere will--by decrees and laws emanating from their uncontrolled will, in the enactment and execution of which the ruled have no voice, and under which they have no right except at the will of the rulers. Despotism does not depend upon the number of the rulers, or the number of the subjects. It may have one ruler or many. Rome was a despotism under Nero; so she was under the triumvirate. Athens was a despotism under Thirty Tyrants; under her Four Hundred Tyrants; under her Three Thousand Tyrants. It has been generally observed that despotism increases in severity with the number of despots; the responsibility is more divided, and the claims more numerous. The triumvirs each demanded his victims. The smaller the number of subjects in proportion to the tyrants, the more cruel the oppression, because the less danger from rebellion. In this government, the free white citizens are the rulers--the sovereigns, as we delight to be called. All others are subjects. There are, perhaps, some sixteen or seventeen millions of sovereigns, and four millions of subjects.         "The rulers and the ruled are of all colours, from the clear white of the Caucasian tribes to the swarthy Ethiopian. The former, by courtesy, are all called white, the latter black. In this government the subject has no rights, social, political, or personal. He has no voice in the laws which govern him. He can hold no property. His very wife and children are not his. His labour is another's. He, and all that appertain to him, are the absolute property of his rulers. He is governed, bought, sold, punished, executed, by laws to which he never gave his assent, and by rulers whom he never chose. He is not a serf Page 180 merely, with half the rights of men like the subjects of despotic Russia; but a native slave, stripped of every right which God and nature gave him, and which the high spirit of our revolution declared inalienable--which he himself could not surrender, and which man could not take from him. Is he not then the subject of despotic sway?         "The slaves of Athens and Rome were free in comparison

      Henry Morton's tirade comparing European history with American history

    12. n account given by a correspondent of one of the Southern newspapers, who happened to be a passenger in the same steamer in which the slaves escaped, and which we here give:-

      Account of William and Clotel's trickery to get by on the train.

    13.   No country has produced so much heroism in so short a time, connected with escapes from peril and oppression, as has occurred in the United States among fugitive slaves, many of whom show great shrewdness in their endeavours to escape from this land of bondage

      The need to be deceitful.

    14. This, of course, would incur additional expense; and if they left the state, where had they better go? "Let's send them to Liberia," said Carlton. "Why should they go to Africa, any more than to the Free States or to Canada?" asked the wife. "They would be in their native land," he answered. "Is not this their native land? What right have we, more than the negro to the soil here, or to style ourselves native Americans? Indeed it is as much their homes as ours, and I have sometimes thought it was more theirs. The negro has cleared up the lands, built towns, and enriched the soil with his blood and tears; and in return, he is to be sent to a country of which he knows nothing. Who fought more bravely for American independence than the blacks? A Page 159 negro, by the name of Attucks, was the first that fell in Boston at the commencement of the revolutionary war; and, throughout the whole of the struggles for liberty in this country, the negroes have contributed their share.

      G is the voice of Brown against re-colonization of Liberia.

    15. They are happy, after all. The negro, situated as yours are, is not aware that he is deprived of any just rights." "Yes, yes," answered Georgiana: "you may place the slave where you please; you may dry up to your utmost the fountains of his feelings, the springs of his thought; you may yoke him to your labour, as an ox which liveth only to work, and worketh only to live; you may put him under any process which, without destroying his value as a slave, will debase and crush him as a rational being; you may do this, and the idea that he was born to be free will survive it all. It is allied to his hope of immortality; it is the ethereal part of his nature, which oppression cannot reach; it is a torch lit up in his soul by the hand of Deity, and never meant to be extinguished by the hand of man."         On reaching the drawing-room, they found Sam snuffing the candles, and looking as solemn and as dignified as if he had never sung a song or laughed in his life. "Will Miss Georgy have de supper got up now?" asked the negro. "Yes," she replied. "Well," remarked Carlton, "that beats anything I ever met with. Do you think that was Sam we heard singing?" "I am sure of it," was the answer. "I could not have believed that that fellow was capable of so much deception," continued Page 152 he. "Our system of slavery is one of deception; and Sam, you see, has only been a good scholar. However, he is as honest a fellow as you will find among the slave population here. If we would have them more honest, we should give them their liberty, and then the inducement to be dishonest would be gone. I have resolved that these creatures shall all be free." "Indeed!" exclaimed Carlton. "Yes, I shall let them all go free, and set an example to those about me." "I honour your judgment," said he. "But will the state permit them to remain?" "If not, they can go where they can live in freedom. I will not be unjust because the state is."

      G frees the enslaved.

    16. How prettily the negroes sing," remarked Carlton, as they were wending their way towards the place from whence the sound of the voices came. "Yes," replied Georgiana; "master Sam is there, I'll warrant you: he's always on hand when there's any singing or dancing. We must not let them see us, or they will stop singing." "Who makes their songs for them?" inquired the young man. "Oh, they make them up as they sing them; they are all impromptu songs." By this time they were near enough to hear distinctly every word; and, true enough, Sam's voice was heard above all others. At the conclusion of each song they all joined in a hearty laugh, with an expression of "Dats de song for me;" "Dems dems."

      Improvisation from existing culture is what Brown calls black art.

    17. Every married woman in the far South looks upon her husband as unfaithful, and regards every quadroon servant as a rival. Clotel had been with her new mistress but a few days, when she was ordered to cut off her long hair. The negro, constitutionally, is fond of dress and outward appearance. He that has short, woolly hair, combs it and oils it to death. He that has long hair, would sooner have his teeth drawn than lose it. However painful it was to the quadroon, she was soon seen with her hair cut as short as any of the full-blooded negroes in the dwelling.         Even with her short hair, Clotel was handsome. Her life had been a secluded one, and though now nearly thirty years of age, she was still beautiful. At her short hair, the other servants laughed, "Miss Clo needn't strut round so big, she got short nappy Page 145 har well as I," said Nell, with a broad grin that showed her teeth. "She tinks she white, when she come here wid dat long har of hers," replied Mill. "Yes," continued Nell; "missus make her take down her wool so she no put it up to-day."

      Clotel forced to cut her hair to appear more black....

      Slavery vs. capitalism in England.

    18. "Hear me, then," said the woman calming herself: "I will tell you why I sometimes weep. I was born in Germany, on the banks of the Rhine. Ten years ago my father came to this country, bringing with him my mother and myself. He was poor, and I, wishing to assist all I could, obtained a situation as nurse to a lady in this city. My father got employment as a labourer on the wharf, among the steamboats; but he was soon taken ill with the yellow fever, and died. My mother then got a situation for herself, while I remained with my first employer. When the hot season came on, my master, with his wife, left New Orleans until the hot season was over, and took me with them. They stopped at a town on the banks of the Mississippi river, and said they should remain there some weeks. One day they went out for a ride, and they had not been gone more than half an hour, when two men came into the room and told me that they had bought me, and that I was their slave. I was bound and taken to prison, and that night put on a steamboat and taken up the Yazoo river, and set to work on a farm. I was forced to take up with a negro, and by him had three children. A year since my master's daughter was married, and I was given to her. She came with her husband to this city, and I have ever since been hired out."         "Unhappy woman," whispered Althesa, "why did you not tell me this before?" "I was afraid," replied Salome, "for I was once severely flogged for telling a stranger that I was not born a slave." On Mr. Morton's return home, his wife communicated to him the story which the slave woman had told her an hour before, and begged that something might be done to rescue her from the situation she was then Page 141 in. In Louisiana as well as many others of the slave states, great obstacles are thrown in the way of persons who have been wrongfully reduced to slavery regaining their freedom. A person claiming to be free must prove his right to his liberty. This, it will be seen, throws the burden of proof upon the slave, who, in all probability, finds it out of his power to procure such evidence. And if any free person shall attempt to aid a freeman in regaining his freedom, he is compelled to enter into security in the sum of one thousand dollars, and if the person claiming to be free shall fail to establish such fact, the thousand dollars are forfeited to the state. This cruel and oppressive law has kept many a freeman from espousing the cause of persons unjustly held as slaves.

      Story of Salome, a white woman of German birth taken into slavery because of her poverty.

    19. hat he is a doctor, and has use for them in his lectures. The doctor is connected with a small college. Look at his prospectus, where he invites students to attend, and that will explain the matter to you." Carlton turned to another column, and read the following:         "Some advantages of a peculiar character are connected with this institution, which it may be proper to point out. No place in the United States offers as great opportunities for the acquisition of anatomical knowledge. Subjects being obtained from among the coloured population in sufficie

      Black bodies used for the purposes of teaching about anatomy -- think back to the article about the medical approaches to black lives from 1619 project, right?

    20. t commenced the practice of his profession in New Orleans, was boarding with Crawford when Althesa was brought home. The young physician had been in New Orleans but a few weeks, and had seen very little of slavery. In his own mountain home he had been taught that the slaves of the Southern states were negroes, if not from the coast of Africa, the descendants of those who had been imported. He was unprepared to behold with composure a beautiful young white girl of fifteen in the degraded position of a chattel slave. The blood chilled in his young heart as he heard Crawford tell how, by bantering with the trader, he had bought her for two hundred dollars less than he first asked. His very looks showed that the slave girl had the deepest sympathy of his heart.

      Panic when a slave looks just as white as white characters.

    21. e kissed the hand she offered, and with a countenance almost as sad as her own, led her to a window in the recess shadowed by a luxuriant passion flower. It was the same seat where they had spent the first evening in this beautiful cottage, consecrated to their first loves. The same calm, clear moonlight looked in through the trellis. The vine then planted had now a luxuriant growth; and many a time had Horatio fondly twined its sacred blossoms with the glossy ringlets of her raven hair.

      Is it odd to romanticize this relationship?

    22. Well, this is a bad state of affairs indeed, and especially the condition of the poor whites," said Carlton. "You see," replied Snyder, "no white man is respectable in Page 106 these slave states who works for a living. No community can be prosperous, where honest labour is not honoured. No society can be rightly constituted, where the intellect is not fed. Whatever institution reflects discredit on industry, whatever institution forbids the general culture of the understanding, is palpably hostile to individual rights, and to social well-being. Slavery is the incubus that hangs over the Southern States." "Yes," interrupted Huckelby; "them's just my sentiments now, and no mistake. I think that, for the honour of our country, this slavery business should stop. I don't own any, no how, and I would not be an overseer if I wern't paid for it."

      Huckleberry is an overseer, but is anti-slavery?

    23. "Are there many poor whites in this district?" "Not here, but about thirty miles from here, in the Sand Hill district; they are as ignorant as horses. Why it was no longer than last week I was up there, and really you would not believe it, that people were so poor off. In New England, and, I may say, in all the free states, they have free schools, and everybody gets educated. Not so here. In Connecticut there is only one out of every five hundred above twenty-one years that can neither read nor write. Here there is one out of every eight that can neither read nor write. There is not a single newspaper taken in five of the counties in this state.

      Deparativity of the "poor white"

    24.  "Well," said Joe, after the three white men were out of hearing, "Marser Snyder bin try hesef today." "Yes," replied Ned; "he want to show de strange gentman how good he can preach." "Dat's a new sermon he gib us to-day," said Sandy. "Dees white fokes is de very dibble," said Dick; "and all dey whole study is to try to fool de black people." "Didn't you like de sermon?" asked Uncle Simon. "No," answered four or five voices. "He rared and pitched enough," continued Uncle Simon.         Now Uncle Simon was himself a preacher, or at least he thought so, and was rather pleased than otherwise, when he heard others spoken of in a disparaging manner. "Uncle Simon can beat dat sermon all to

      enslaved peoples dissing Synder's sermon.

    25. hich counteracts it, wrong. Whatever, in its proper tendency and general effect, produces, secures, or extends human welfare, is according to the will of God, and is good; and our duty is to favour and promote, according to our power, that which God favours and promotes by the general law of his providence

      G's rational take on Bible's position on slavery.

    26. he society into which he was thrown on his arrival at Natchez was too brilliant for him not to be captivated by it; and, as might have been expected, he succeeded in captivating a plantation with seventy slaves, if not the heart of the lady to whom it belonged. Added to this, he became a popular preacher, had a large congregation with a snug salary.

      Peck moved to South and defended slavery.

    27. John Wesley
    28.   Nearly 4,000 slaves were collected from the plantations in the neighbourhood to witness this scene. Numerous speeches were made by the magistrates and ministers of religion to the large concourse of slaves, warning them, and telling them that the same fate awaited them, if they should prove rebellious to their owners. There are hundreds of negroes who run away and live in the woods. Some take refuge in the swamps, because they are less frequented by human beings.

      Gruesome burning of this rebellious enslaved man.

    29. WE shall now return to Natchez,

      Intrusive narration...

    30. "You have beat me," said Smith, as soon as he saw the cards. Jerry, who was standing on top of the table, with the bank notes and silver dollars round his feet, was now ordered to descend from the table. "You will not forget that you belong to me," said Johnson, as the young slave was stepping from the table to a chair. "No, sir," replied the chattel. "Now go back to your bed, and be up in time to-morrow morning to brush my clothes and clean my boots, do you hear?" "Yes, sir," responded Jerry, as he wiped the tears from his eyes.

      Young enslaved boy is bet on in a poker game and lost.

    31. Thousands of dollars change hand during a passage from Louisville or St. Louis to New Orleans on a Mississippi steamer, and many men, and even ladies, are completely ruined.

      Gambling aboard the ship as it heads South.

    32. e often bought some who were far advanced in years, and would always try to sell them for five or ten years younger than they actually were. Few persons can arrive at anything like the age of a negro, by mere observation, unless they are well acquainted with the race. Therefore the slavetrader very frequently carried out this deception with perfect impunity.

      Why there are native-born slaves for which the birth year is ????

    33. "The chastity of this girl is pure; she has never been from under her mother's care, she is a virtuous creature." "Thirteen." "Fourteen." "Fifteen." "Fifteen hundred dollars," cried the auctioneer, and the maiden was struck for that sum. This was a Southern auction, at which the bones, muscles, sinews, blood, and nerves of a young lady of sixteen were sold for five hundred dollars; her moral character for two hundred; her improved intellect for one hundred; her Page 64 Christianity for three hundred; and her chastity and virtue for four hundred dollars more. And this, too, in a city thronged with churches, whose tall spires look like so many signals pointing to heaven, and whose ministers preach that slavery is a God-ordained institution!
    34. Clotel was the last, and, as was expected, commanded a higher price than any that had been offered for sale that day. The appearance of Clotel on the auction block created a deep sensation amongst the crowd. There she stood, with a complexion as white as most of those who were waiting with a wish to become her purchasers; her features as finely defined as any of her sex of pure Anglo-Saxon; her long black wavy hair done up in the neatest manner; her form tall and graceful, and her whole appearance indicating one superior to her Page 63 position. The auctioneer commenced by saying, that "Miss Clotel had been reserved for the last, because she was the most valuable. How much gentlemen? Real Albino, fit for a fancy girl for any one. She enjoys good health, and has a sweet temper.
    35. Brothers and sisters were torn from each other; and mothers saw their children leave them for the last time on this earth

      This was the vile product that made the system operate.

    36. Farmers who make a business of raising slaves for the market were there; slave-traders and speculators were also numerously represented; and in the midst of this throng was one who felt a deeper interest in the result of the sale than any other of the bystanders; this was young Green

      A vision of white supremacist "democracy"

    37. He soon promised to purchase Clotel, as speedily as it could be effected, and make her mistress of her own dwelling; and Currer looked forward with pride to the time when she should see her daughter emancipated and free.

      What kind of definition of "free" is this?

    38. Although the term "negro ball" is applied to most of these gatherings, yet a majority of the attendants are often whites. Nearly all the negro Page 61 parties in the cities and towns of the Southern States are made up of quadroon and mulatto girls, and white men. These are democratic gatherings, where gentlemen, shopkeepers, and their clerks, all appear upon terms of perfect equality.
    39. Thirty-eight negroes will be offered for sale on Monday, November 10th, at twelve o'clock, being the entire stock of the late John Graves, Esq. The negroes are in good condition, some of them very prime; among them are several mechanics, able-bodied field hands, plough-boys, and women with children at the breast, and some of them very prolific in their generating qualities, affording a rare opportunity to any one who wishes to raise a strong and healthy lot of servants for their own use. Also several mulatto girls of rare personal qualities: two of them very superior. Any gentleman or lady Page 60 wishing to purchase, can take any of the above slaves on trial for a week, for which no charge will be made.

      For sale inventorying of human life.

    40. hat immorality and vice pervade the cities of the Southern States in a manner unknown in the cities and towns of the Northern States. Indeed most of the slave women have no higher aspiration than that of becoming the finely-dressed mistress of some white man. And at negro balls and parties, this class of women usually cut the greatest figure

      Market for bi-racial sexuality amongst women is a natural by-product of slavery.

    41. Marriage is, indeed, the first and most important institution of human existence--the foundation of all civilisation and culture--the root of church and state. It is the most intimate covenant of heart formed among mankind; and for many persons the only relation in which they feel the true sentiments of humanity. It gives scope for every human virtue, since each of these is developed from the love and Page 58 confidence which here predominate. It unites all which ennobles and beautifies, life,--sympathy, kindness of will and deed, gratitude, devotion, and every delicate, intimate feeling. As the only asylum for true education, it is the first and last sanctuary of human culture. As husband and wife through each other become conscious of complete humanity, and every human feeling, and every human virtue; so children, at their first awakening in the fond covenant of love between parents, both of whom are tenderly concerned for the same object, find an image of complete humanity leagued in free love. The spirit of love which prevails between them acts with creative power upon the young mind, and awakens every germ of goodness within it. This invisible and incalculable influence of parental life acts more upon the child than all the efforts of education, whether by means of instruction, percept, or exhortation. If this be a true picture of the vast influence for good of the institution of marriage, what must be the moral degradation of that people to whom marriage is denied?

      A celebration of marriage in Christian terms (also close to Hegel in Philosophy of Right.)

    42.  In all the slave states, the law says:--"Slaves shall be deemed, sold, taken, reputed, and adjudged in law to be chattels personal in the hands of their owners and possessors, and their executors, administrators and assigns, to all intents, constructions, and Page 56 purposes whatsoever." A slave is one who is in the power of a master to whom he belongs. The master may sell him, dispose of his person, his industry, and his labour. He can do nothing, possess nothing, nor acquire anything, but what must belong to his master. The slave is entirely subject to the will of his master, who may correct and chastise him, though not with unusual rigour, or so as to maim and mutilate him, or expose him to the danger of loss of life, or to cause his death. The slave, to remain a slave, must be sensible that there is no appeal from his master.

      Reprints the slave laws of South.

    43. WHY stands she near the auction stand,                          That girl so young and fair?
    44. But I will give him papers of emancipation, properly authenticated by our statutes, for the sum of five hundred dollars (or £100) that will make him as free as any white person.

      He ends the epistolary exchange on this dour note before shooting into Clotel. Why?

    45. irst I made some flourishes with no meaning, and called a boy up, and said, 'Do you see that? Can you beat that writing?' Said he, 'That's not writing.' Well, I wanted to get so as to write my own name. I had got out of slavery with only one name. While escaping, I received the hospitality of a very good man, who had spared part of his name to me, and finally my name got pretty long, and I wanted to be able to write it. 'Now, what do you call that?' said the boy, looking at my flourishes. I said, 'Is not that William Wells Brown?' 'Give me the chalk,' says he, and he wrote out in large letters 'William Wells Brown,' and I marked up the fence for nearly a quarter of a mile, trying to copy, till I got so that I could write my name.

      Has to trick white folks into teaching him to read and write!

    46. It was left there until between eight and nine o'clock, when a cart, which took up the trash from the streets, came along, and the body was thrown in, and in a few minutes more was covered over with dirt, which they were removing from the streets.

      His attempt to capture the little value bestowed upon black life.

    47. n their way down to New Orleans William had to prepare the old slaves for market. He was ordered to shave off the old men's whiskers, and to pluck out the grey hairs where they were not too numerous; where they were, he coloured them with a preparation of blacking with a blacking brush. After having gone through the blacking process, they looked ten or fifteen years younger.

      Practice of grooming to make enslaved appear younger.

    48.     "SHALL tongues be mute when deeds are wrought                          Which well might shame extremest Hell?                          Shall freemen lack th' indignant thought?                          Shall Mercy's bosom cease to swell?                          Shall Honour bleed?--shall Truth succumb?                          Shall pen, and press, and soul be dumb?"--Whittier.

      Whittier epigraph? Who is he?

    49. The great aim of the true friends of the slave should be to lay bare the institution, so that the gaze of the world may be upon it, and cause the wise, the prudent, and the pious to withdraw their support from it, and leave it to its own fate. It does the cause of emancipation but little good to cry out in tones of execration against the traders, the kidnappers, the hireling overseers, and brutal drivers, so long as nothing is said to fasten the guilt on those who move in a higher circle.

      Who is he criticizing now? It's easy to villainize the administers of slavery, but who's pulling the levers?

    50. Twenty-five millions of whites have banded themselves in solemn conclave to keep four millions of blacks in their chains. In all grades of society are to be found men who either hold, buy, or sell slaves, from the statesmen and doctors of divinity, who can own their hundreds, down to the person who can purchase but one.

      Numbers to the racial hierarchy.

    51. now there are nearly four million. In fifteen of the thirty-one States, Slavery is made lawful by the Constitution, which binds the several States into one confederacy.

      Not letting the North off the hook.

    52.         "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, and that among these are LIFE, LIBERTY, and the PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS."--Declaration of American Independence

      Why is this the epigraph? SHOTS FIRED!

    53. THE DEATH OF CLOTEL. Page 218. [Frontispiece Image]

      Why would you print a spoiler like this as the frontispiece?

    1. In his distinct style, Brown readily blends elements from this narrative as well as various anecdotes, poetry, folk songs and ditties, vignettes of slave life, and even newspaper accounts into the novel.

      Questions about "what makes a novel?" This still relatively "novel" form had its English-speaking origins in the 18th century w/ epistolary form via Richardson's Pamela.

  4. Oct 2019
    1. I also feel connected to the hopefulness Angela must have felt when she figured out ways to resist and survive.

      The most important takeaway from this article is that two histories co-exist, of racism and resistance to racism--of hopelessness and of hope.

    2. 1600, the year John translated into English and published A Geographical Historie of Africa, a book of racist ideas about Angela’s race. First written in 1526, and popular as late as the 19th century, its racist ideas apparently had to be true since they were written by an African Moor, Leo Africanus (who probably sought favor from the Italian court that had freed and converted him). “The Negroes likewise leade a beastly kinde of life, being utterly destitute of the use of reason, of dexteritie of wit, and of all artes,” Africanus wrote. “Yea they so behave themselves, as if they had continually lived in a forrest among wilde beasts.”

      See the ideological underpinnings of slavery in this early scholarship.

      In 2019, we're a little too confident that we've overcome such obvious "scientific" and geographic rationales for racism, and yet take the work of Critical Race Theorist Achille Mbembe on blackness and debt: https://truthout.org/articles/the-university-and-debt-thinking-about-neocolonialism-in-the-united-states/. The ways in which African debt are talked about in sober economic analyses reproduces the sentiment of hopeless backwardness about Africa that begins with Leo Africanus's treaty: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2019/04/10/is-a-debt-crisis-looming-in-africa/

    3. That that racism and anti-racism. That that America.

      The definition of anti-racism is important here. Angela's existence in itself if an example of anti-racism. How?

    4. It is hardly coincidental that this nation’s first experiment in (wealthy, white male) democracy emerged alongside the first experiment with black enslavement (and Native assimilation), that the history of African America and American democracy are both rooted in 1619. It is hardly coincidental that both 400-year anniversaries are being marked this year, that John’s freedom begot Angela’s enslavement, that John climbed his elevated whiteness onto the head of Angela’s lowered blackness.

      What do we do with these inseparable histories? When we learn about Jamestown, about the early colonial period, are these histories connected?

    5. There is history in regular African Americans behind the scenes surviving the regularity of racist policies, ideas, abuse, and violence for 400 years. Angela is the woman of today who works in a low-wage health-care gig, moving from crisis to crisis and joy to joy, all the while raising her hopes for a better day, or not. She is still surviving John, brewing our hope.

      These are the everyday folks not heralded in the history of resistance.

    6. So some folks chose a birthday, like African Americans choose a birthday—August 20, 1619—based on the first documented recognition of our arrival in Virginia. A different John, John Rolfe, married Pocahontas in 1614, and then produced African America’s birth certificate five years later, on this day.

      Same sentiment behind Malcolm Little's transformation to Malcolm X. You wrest agency from the trauma of rootedlessness.

    1. ome unique works were thought of as "art" and some as "craft"; with some notable exceptions, art was individualized as to maker but craft was not. This practice, which is now changing, made it possible to do research and mount shows of the work of particular artists in some, but not all, cultur

      What was considered "art" and "craft" either lifted great individuals or exemplified historical cultures. This obviously broke down along the lines of Europe/West vs. Colonized/East. This is true, in part, because of who got to organize museums.

    2. bjects from both categories, unique and example, were accessioned into the collections. Museums owned the objects and took on the re sponsibility of preserving, studying, and displaying them

      Objects were one of a kind or examples of a specific period. Museums owned both as "real."

    1. culture is the product of human activity, particularly those things that are socially transmitted, including beliefs, practices, objects, etc. (Appiah 1994: 111–112; Scheffler 2007: 107). Culture is thus generally taken to be a descriptive term that does not carry with it the evaluative and often elitist connotations of culture as implying a certain kind of “civilization” (Appiah 1994: 111–114).

      Definition of culture as open-ended and non-evaluative.

    2. cultural heritage is about the past, as suggested by the ubiquitous framing of heritage ethics topics in terms of the question “Who owns the past?” But on the other hand, cultural heritage is just as much about the present and the future: about how culture is embroiled in contemporary moral controversies, and about what our cultural legacy will be

      This is what we'll concern ourselves with: the tension between who owns the past and what forging a "cultural heritage" can produce in the future?

    1. hough mere opinions (cultural assumptions, normative attitudes, collective prejudices and values) seem to persist unchanged in their natural form as a kind of sediment of history, public opinion can by definition only come into existence when a reasoning public is presupposed

      Only when a reasoning public is pre-supposed can we have the concept of public opinion emerge.

    2. The public sphere as a sphere which mediates between society and state, in which the public organizes itself as the bearer or public opinion, accords with the principle of the public sphere3- that principle of public information which once had to be fought for against the arcane policies of monarchies and which since that time has made possible the democratic control of state activities

      It is this "public sphere" which created democracy -- the struggle for access to information and the material network of communication that made that struggle possible.

    3. The expression "public opinion" refers to the tasks of criticism and control which a public body of citizens informally-and, in periodic elections, formally as well- practices vis-a-vis the ruling structure organized in the form of a state.

      Public opinion isn't captured on polls, but a challenge to power structures.

    4. Although state authority is so to speak the executor of the political public sphere, it is not a part of it.2 To be sure, state authority is usually considered "public" authority, but it derives its task of caring for the well-being of all citizens primarily from this aspect of the public sphere. Only when the exercise of political control is effectively subordinated to the democratic demand that information be accessible to the public, does the political public sphere win an institutionalized influence over the government through the instrument of law-making bodies

      We might talk of the state as working in the political "public sphere," but actually the authority of the state derives from an organized sphere of public dialogue and will outside of it.

      When political control is subordinated to the demand that information is accessible to the public do we get something like the state working in the interest of the public. E.g., the civil rights movement forcing an end to redlining.

    5. A portion of the public sphere comes into being in every conversation in which private individuals assemble to form a public body.1 They then behave neither like business or professional people transacting private affairs, nor like members of a constitutional order subject to the legal constraints of a state bureaucracy. Citizens behave as a public body when they confer in an unrestricted fashion-that is, with the guarantee of freedom of assembly and association and the freedom to express and publish their opinions-about matters of general interest.

      When private individuals gather in a public body -- look to express or publish opinions of general interest outside the constraints of the market or formal governance structures, they are forming a "public sphere."

    6. By "the public sphere" we mean first of all a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed.

      First definition.

  5. Sep 2019
    1. The incomes of some members of the community mayincrease, but as crime rates increase, schools become overcrowded, housingprices soar, and neighborliness declines, the quality of life for the majority ofthe residents may deteriorate. This is particularly true when economicgrowth in the community is triggered by an absentee firm, whether it is anoil or coal company, a national meatpacker, a recreational conglomerate, ora transnational manufacturing company

      Economic development can be antithetical to community development.

    2. he idea that things happen to them and nothing can be done but toendure and resent them. There is a focus on deficit and what is not there.

      This is sort of what Krugman is outlining in his short article.

    3. ommunity developmentimplies that the quality ofinteraction among the people living in a locality improves over time. Such in-teraction both depends on and contributes to enhanced quality of life for eachmember of the community: better housing, better education, enhanced recre-ational and cultural opportunities, and so forth. Central to the concept ofcommunity development is the idea of collective agency, which is the ability ofa group of people—in this case, those living in the same community—to solvecommon problems together. For community development—and collectiveagency—to occur, people in a community must believe that working togethercan make a difference and organize to collectively address their shared needs.

      Community development is intimately tied to the notion of collective agency.

    1. We can’t help rural America without understanding that the role it used to play in our nation is being undermined by powerful economic forces that nobody knows how to stop.


      Our goal is what? Restore traditions of rurality not in a way that revives nostalgia for better days, but....?

    2. Not surprisingly, rural America is also pretty much the only place where Donald Trump remains popular;

      Mention that this is a liberal commentator

    3. Since then, however, while America’s population has doubled, the number of farmers has fallen by two-thirds. There are only around 50,000 coal miners. The incentives for business to locate far from the metropolitan action have greatly diminished. And the people still living in rural areas increasingly feel left behind.

      Transformation of economy has left specializations of rural america behind.

    4. What’s the matter with rural America? Major urban centers have always been magnets for economic growth. They offer large markets, ready availability of specialized suppliers, large pools of workers with specialized skills, and the invisible exchange of information that comes from face-to-face contact.

      Urban environments have built in benefits.

    1. victim mentality

      Yikes. Right-wing talking point?

    2. As this quote shows, leaders in Aurora recognize the importance of bothcommunityand economicdevelopment. The focus on making the commu-nity a good place to live—ensuring good health care, adequate housing, qual-ity schools, and recreational and cultural opportunities, and, yes, a low taxideology—is a better economic development tool than are tax abatements.

      drawing on what's already here rather than enticing corporations to come in an develop economically.

    1. cho-sen


    2. Railroads were key in settling many of the rural and remote communi-ties in the western United States in the 1860s.

      Follow this quick history of how rural US was settled.

    3. ways that rural communities havebuilt on their history and their increasing connectedness to creatively ad-dress those issues.

      This is one of our major concerns in this class!

    4. Family farms and small farming communities dominate pop-ular images of rural areas, in part because politicians, lobbyists, and themedia cultivate those icons, supporting the myth that agricultural policy isrural policy. In fact, rural areas embrace ski slopes, mines, manufacturing,farms, retirement communities, Native American reservations, bedroomcommunities, and much, much more. In the twenty-first century, ruralcommunities differ more from each other than they do, on average, fromurban areas.

      Why do you think there's a certain myth about what counts as "rural" in America?

    5. Irwin, Iowa,
    6. Wade’s children arenow growing up in poverty: substandard housing, water pollution frommine runoff, raw sewage in the streams, poor schools, and high illiteracyrates.

      An example of the downward mobility of rural US generations.

    1. But in financial matters, in common with many other schools of her class, Graceland came near being grounded. There were those who expected to see her able to make her own way in the world, and there were those in the church who began to feel the support of this child of their own adoption becoming a burden to them; so in the year 1904, in about the seventh year of her age, Graceland received what was at the time considered her deathblow, when at Kirtland, O., the church in conference assembled, passed, after a lengthy discussion, by a yea and nay vote of 851 for and 826 against, the following preambles and resolution: "Whereas, The maintenance of Graceland College is proving to be a serious burden in a financial way and is likely to so continue; and, "Whereas, There seems to be but a minority of the members of the church who favor its continuance; and, "Whereas, The operation of a college of its character does not lie within the direct line of our appointed work as a church; therefore, "Resolved, That we favor a discontinuance of Graceland College after the close of its present term, and recommend that the property be turned over to other uses such as may be agreed upon by the bishopric of the church and such other councils or persons as may be chosen by the general conference until such time as the general conference decides to reopen the college." On May 12th the bishopric and board of trustees took under advisement the carrying out of the resolution and decided upon the following action, which, whatever may be said about its legitimacy, we believe has proved a blessing to many of us, who had it not been for the open doors of Graceland College, would never have had the privilege of the little learning we have had. The report of the council was as follows: On May 12, 1904, the bishopric of the church and the Board of Trustees of Graceland College, to whom was referred the matter of the use and disposition of the property of Graceland College by resolution of the general conference at Kirtland, held a joint meeting in the rooms of the Herald Publishing House, Lamoni, Iowa, and after due and careful consideration of their powers and duties in the premises adopted the following as a basis of work: "First: That the Board of Trustees of Graceland College was by the general conference at its last session appointed a committee to act with the bishopric in caring for the property of Graceland College as shown by minutes of said conference, pages 705 and 706, and following the passage of a resolution of said conference, page 698 of minutes, to-wit: "Resolved, That we favor a discontinuance of Graceland College after the close of its present term, and recommend that the property be turned over to other uses such as may be agreed upon by the bishopric of the church and such other councils or persons as may be chosen by the general conference until such a time as the general conference decides to reopen the college.

      College nearly closed down in 1905.

    1. Sunday, 14 October. In the morning, I ordered the boats to be got ready, and coasted along the island toward the north- northeast to examine that part of it, we having landed first at the eastern part. Presently we discovered two or three villages, and the people all came down to the shore, calling out to us, and giving thanks to God. Some brought us water, and others victuals: others seeing that I was not disposed to land, plunged into the sea and swam out to us, and we perceived that they interrogated us if we had come from heaven. An old man came on board my boat; the others, both men and women cried with loud voices–“Come and see the men who have come from heavens. Bring them victuals and drink.” There came many of both sexes, every one bringing something, giving thanks to God, prostrating themselves on the earth, and lifting up their hands to heaven. They called out to us loudly to come to land, but I was apprehensive on account of a reef of rocks, which surrounds the whole island, although within there is depth of water and room sufficient for all the ships of Christendom, with a very narrow entrance. There are some shoals withinside, but the water is as smooth as a pond. It was to view these parts that I set out in the morning, for I wished to give a complete relation to your Highnesses, as also to find where a fort might be built. I discovered a tongue of land which appeared like an island though it was not, but might be cut through and made so in two days; it contained six houses. I do not, however, see the necessity of fortifying the place, as the people here are simple in war-like matters, as your Highnesses will see by those seven which I have ordered to be taken and carried to Spain in order to learn our language and return, unless your Highnesses should choose to have them all transported to Castile, or held captive in the island. I could conquer the whole of them with fifty men, and govern them as I pleased. Near the islet I have mentioned were groves of trees, the most beautiful I have ever seen, with their foliage as verdant as we see in Castile in April and May. There were also many streams. After having taken a survey of these parts, I returned to the ship, and setting sail, discovered such a number of islands that I knew not which first to visit; the natives whom I had taken on board informed me by signs that there were so many of them that they could not be numbered; they repeated the names of more than a hundred. I determined to steer for the largest, which is about five leagues from San Salvador; the others were some at a greater, and some at a less distance from that island. They are all very level, without mountains, exceedingly fertile and populous, the inhabitants living at war with one another, although a simple race, and with delicate bodies.

      Question #2

    2. on our arrival here we experienced the most sweet and delightful odor from the flowers or trees of the island. Tomorrow morning before we depart, I intend to land and see what can be found in the neighborhood. Here is no village, but farther within the island is one, where our Indians inform us we shall find the king, and that he has much gold. I shall penetrate so far as to reach the village and see or speak with the king, who, as they tell us, governs all these islands, and goes dressed, with a great deal of gold about him. I do not, however, give much credit to these accounts, as I understand the natives but imperfectly, and perceive them to be so poor that a trifling quantity of gold appears to them a great amount.

      Of course there is no king or gold. Why would this misinterpretation happen in the first place?

    1. For a while during the 1890's, a name change to “College City” for the town was seriously under consideration. During this time, Lamoni had a newspaper called College City Chronicle, a College City Barbershop, a College City Cafe and other businesses similarly named. Goehner, David. “The Graceland College Book of Knowledge: From A To Z.” p. 195. Herald House. Independence MO. 1997.


    2. classes were conducted in the France Building, downtown Lamoni located at 126 Linden Street (west side). Graceland rented six large rooms on the second floor – three rooms on each side of a central hallway. Room #1 was the science room; another room was for classics and English classes; one room for a library and study hall; two rooms used for commercial classes; and, the last room was used for fuel and supplies. The site of the France Building was platted in 1879. C. E. Perkins, acting as trustee for the Order of Enoch, sold the lot to Alice France in December of 1889. The France Building remained with the France family for 48 years. [During the 1970's Hy-Vee Food Store was located in the France Building.]

      France Building history.

    1. he hundred hills of Atlanta are not all crowned with factories. On one, toward the west, the setting sun throws three buildings in bold relief against the sky.

      Here he discusses, as if a refuge against the "mammonism" of industrial Atlanta, a college campus.

    2. he warning is needed lest the wily Hippomenes tempt Atalanta to thinking that golden apples are the goal of racing, and not mere incidents by the way

      Wonderful line.

    3. Atalanta is not the first or the last maiden whom greed of gold has led to defile the temple of Love; and not maids alone, but men in the race of life, sink from the high and generous ideals of youth to the gambler's code of the Bourse; and in all our Nation's striving is not the Gospel of Work befouled by the Gospel of Pay?

      In an essay that's set to take down the gospel of greed animating black Atlanta, Du Bois references Greek mythology, a kind of performance of his own liberal arts education.

    4. Atalanta
    5. So far as Mr. Washington preaches Thrift, Patience, and Industrial Training for the masses, we must hold up his hands and strive with him, rejoicing in his honors and glorying in the strength of this Joshua called of God and of man to lead the headless host. But so far as Mr. Washington apologizes for injustice, North or South, does not rightly value the privilege and duty of voting, belittles the emasculating effects of caste distinctions, and opposes the higher training and ambition of our brighter minds,—so far as he, the South, or the Nation, does this,—we must unceasingly and firmly oppose them.

      Connected to the right to vote and opposition to racism is the right to a higher education.

    6. if that reconciliation is to be marked by the industrial slavery and civic death of those same black men, with permanent legislation into a position of inferiority, then those black men, if they are really men, are called upon by every consideration of patriotism and loyalty to oppose such a course by all civilized methods

      Industrial slavery and civic death is no great compromise for reconciliation.

      We might point out today that the cost of higher education has risen in proportion with minority students entrance into that arena:




    7. They advocate, with Mr. Washington, a broad system of Negro common schools supplemented by thorough industrial training; but they are surprised that a man of Mr. Washington's insight cannot see that no such educational system ever has rested or can rest on any other basis than that of the well–equipped college and university, and they insist that there is a demand for a few such institutions throughout the South to train the best of the Negro youth as teachers, professional men, and leaders

      Colleges and universities are required for training alongside trade schools.

      Du Bois seems to be advocating only a "talented tenth" model of higher education, but what would he say to the idea that all are deserving?

    8. Is it possible, and probable, that nine millions of men can make effective progress in economic lines if they are deprived of political rights, made a servile caste, and allowed only the most meagre chance for developing their exceptional men? If history and reason give any distinct answer to these questions, it is an emphatic NO

      For Du Bois, these struggles can't be so neatly separated -- for without basic human dignity and equal rights, there will be no political or economic progress worth striving for.

    9. Mr. Washington distinctly asks that black people give up, at least for the present, three things,—First, political power,Second, insistence on civil rights,Third, higher education of Negro youth,—and concentrate all their energies on industrial education, and accumulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South.

      Washington asked to strategically place aside political power, civil rights, and higher education to accumulate wealth -- that eventually this will allow black people to wield more power in those other domains.

    10. his is an age of unusual economic development, and Mr. Washington's programme naturally takes an economic cast, becoming a gospel of Work and Money to such an extent as apparently almost completely to overshadow the higher aims of life.

      Can we draw parallels to our contemporary situation and the ways we discuss the tech economy as a kind of savior?

    11. ultimate assimilation through self–assertion, and on no other terms

      Frederick Douglass' political ambitions for black people.

      Note how Du Bois here is re-narrativizing black history since the 18th century according to its political and intellectual ambitions.

    12. the attitude of the imprisoned group may take three main forms,—a feeling of revolt and revenge; an attempt to adjust all thought and action to the will of the greater group; or, finally, a determined effort at self–realization and self–development despite environing opinion. The influence of all of these attitudes at various times can be traced in the history of the American Negro, and in the evolution of his successive leaders

      Now in the few decades of freedom since the CW, black people have been given a brief chance to develop leaders and an intellectual culture. Here Du Bois says that the oppressed, when afforded this opportunity, tend to respond in one of three ways: outright rebellion, imitation of the dominant class, or the desire to realize themselves.

    13. the prevailing public opinion of the land has been but too willing to deliver the solution of a wearisome problem into his hands, and say, "If that is all you and your race ask, take it."

      Suspicion that the powerful have been so willing to provide the solution of industrial education.

    14. he time is come when one may speak in all sincerity and utter courtesy of the mistakes and shortcomings of Mr. Washington's career

      Hesitant to criticize a black man who rose up from nothing -- a son of the enslaved -- but Du Bois sees it now as his duty.

    15. o thoroughly did he learn the speech and thought of triumphant commercialism, and the ideals of material prosperity, that the picture of a lone black boy poring over a French grammar amid the weeds and dirt of a neglected home soon seemed to him the acme of absurdities. One wonders what Socrates and St. Francis of Assisi would say to this.

      Washington was able to use the seeming absurdity of a community so impoverished and suppressed as southern Blacks learning foreign language before "industrial education" as a kind of propaganda for his cause.

      Socrates and St. Francis...the life of the mind is actually that thing which makes one most essentially human.

    16. In all things purely social we can be as separate as the five fingers, and yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress." This "Atlanta Compromise"

      Washington first won the day in the South with the promise that keeping the races separate socially -- but with an emphasis on industrial education and hard work -- could lead to "mutual progress" in the nation.

    17. Mr. Washington came, with a simple definite programme, at the psychological moment when the nation was a little ashamed of having bestowed so much sentiment on Negroes, and was concentrating its energies on Dollars. His programme of industrial education, conciliation of the South, and submission and silence as to civil and political rights,

      With compromise after compromise during Reconstruction, the celebrity of Booker T. Washington marks the true transition from any hope for equal rights for black people to the beginnings of the Gilded Age.

    1. We’re still suffering from the consequences of the culture war, where the humanities in particular and also the social sciences and now even the sciences are seen as ideologically driven,” Hoeckley said.

      Be sure to bring this up.

    2. Small private liberal arts colleges also continue to close, most recently St. Gregory’s University in Oklahoma, Atlantic Union College and Mount Ida College in Massachusetts and Trinity Lutheran in Washington. Marygrove College in Michigan is shuttering all of its undergraduate programs. Sweet Briar and Antioch colleges, both of which were famously rescued by alumni and donors after announcing they would shut down, remain disproportionately dependent on outside contributions to survive. Of nearly 500 small private colleges studied over the last 50 years, most of them focused on the liberal arts, 28 percent have closed, merged or changed their missions, according to a study released in December.

      Fate of private liberal arts college.

    1. Colleges in this situation have little choice but to start cutting, Michael Mitchell, a policy analyst at CBPP, told me. Many institutions have to consolidate programs, restrict course offerings, stop hiring, furlough staff, transition some faculty from tenure track to adjunct positions, and reduce campus services that students rely on, such as mental-health services or library hours, Mitchell said.

      Becomes a dangerous cycle, where cuts are likely to harm recruitment and retention, which is what these places need to sustain themselves.

    2. idea: that the university’s influence should not end at the campus’s borders, that professors—and the students they taught—should “search for truth” to help state legislators write laws, aid the community with technical skills, and generally improve the quality of life across the state.

      WI idea: search for truth in the service of the public.

  6. Jun 2019
    1. The proof was in her participation. I heard her pipe up repeatedly: about the meaning of liberty, about necessary checks on what she called our “innate thirst for total power.”

      The "canon" doesn't have to be a marker of class elitism and snobbery.

    2. which for poor kids is often the trickiest part of all.

      This engagement will help retention efforts.

    3. t it doesn’t focus on narrow disciplines, discrete skills, standardized tests. It doesn’t reduce learning to metrics or cast college as a bridge to a predetermined career.It assumes that these kids, like any others, are hungry for big ideas.

      Yes! Invite students to rise to intellectual challenges.

    1. When we get it right, it makes a difference. Research shows that when schools (and communities) are truly integrated, with real opportunities for students of different racial backgrounds to take the same classes, participate in clubs and sports together, and collaborate on projects, they make more friends across racial lines and express more positive views than other students do. As adults, they are more likely to live and work in diverse settings, more likely to be civically engaged, and more likely to vote.32 In my view, that is what “better” looks like.

      Liberal arts colleges because of our size are actually uniquely positioned to simulate this -- create a microcosm of this world.

    2. But what we say matters, and leadership matters. The expectations and values of leaders can change the nature of our conversation

      What we say MATTERS.

    3. hese students are petitioning institutions to consider expansive shifts to institutional culture rather than merely stand-alone programs or add-on policies.”


    4. we may be living in a color-silent society, where we have learned to avoid talking about racial difference
    5. affirmative action programs stand on unsteady ground.

      We need to address these issues in classrooms.

    6. least three setbacks have occurred: the anti-affirmative-action backlash of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, the economic collapse of 2008 known as the Great Recession, and the phenomenon known as mass incarceration.

      Opportunities has opened for individuals, but the underside of this neoliberal progress has come with backlash for the many.

    7. access to other important resources.

      Think "digital redlining" here.

    8. Both Black and Latino students are much more likely than White students to attend a school where 60 percent or more of their classmates are living in poverty. Separate remains unequal as schools with concentrated poverty and racial segregation are still likely to have less-experienced teachers, high levels of teacher turnover, inadequate facilities, and fewer classroom resources.

      Consequences of segregation in housing and schooling.

  7. May 2019
    1. Only much later did it dawn on me that the sports world was more compelling than school because it was more intellectual than school, not less. Sports after all was full of challenging arguments, debates, problems for analysis, and intricate statistics that you could care about, as school conspicuously was not. I believe that street smarts beat out book smarts in our culture not because street smarts are nonintellectual, as we generally suppose, but because they satisfy an intellectual thirst more thoroughly than school culture, which seems pale and unreal.

      In my (fake) response, I largely agree with Graff's claims. I think he is really on to something here. He suggests that topics of genuine interest animate our critical thinking faculties due not just to our inherent passion for the topic, but because they exist outside of the stifling structures of educational institutions. In other words, while “book smarts” is confined to the conventions of schooling—where mechanical repetition is rewarded with grades and credentials—the kinds of knowledge formed among communities of shared interests are more open to free and wide-ranging exploration and discussion, the traits of genuine intellectual engagement.

    2. Nor do we consider one of the major reasons why schools and colleges overlook the intellectual potential of street smarts: the fact that we associate those street smarts with anti-­intellectual concerns. We associate the educated life, the life of the mind, too narrowly and exclusively with subjects and texts that  we consider  inherently  weighty  and academic.

      In a version of Graff's thesis statement or controlling idea, he makes the claim that knowledge of the "content" of education -- be it science, philosophy, literature, etc. -- isn't as important as the "form" of critical engagement, i.e., in the ability to gather and evaluate evidence and to compose and respond to intellectual arguments.

      • Do you agree with Graff's claims? Why or why not?
      • Highlight another section of Graff's essay that you might use as evidence to support your response to question #1. Explain how you could use it.
      • Be ready to discuss what consequences Graff's essay (and your ideas about it) could have about the way we organize education: in terms of assignments, grades, courses, etc.
  8. Dec 2018
    1. If we assume that feminism presents a vision of knowledge as a social practice from which research is constructed as a balance between theory and praxis (Fulladosa-Leal, 2015), this work emerges from a case study for a deeper reflection, as proposed by Longino (1990). From the perspective of political action, the object of study is located in the area of cyber-activism, as part of the phenomenon of the new transnational social movements of the Internet era (Antentas & Vivas, 2012; Castells, 2012); and, more specifically, in memes as practices of action, participation and collective significanc

      Basically replace "feminism" with "white antiracism" in this passage and here's what I am doing with RnR.

    2. The term ‘meme’ was coined by Dawkins in The Selfish Gene, originally published in 1976, as opposed to the biological gene, to refer to minimal units of cultural information transferred between individuals and/or generations through processes of replication or transmission (Dawkins, 2006). Following this definition, certain songs, fashion trends, catchy phrases, images, etc., can be considered memes, all of them living structures likely to expand their reach.

      John Brown is a meme in this sense within the identity of white antiracist activism.

    3. hen talking about memes, it is often referred to certain visual contents of marked ironic or humorous nature with origin in the network. However –as Freire (2016) points out– memes are not limited to a ludic aspect, but, independently of their spontaneity, can be considered as collective and emerging actions, an issue that refers to a much more complex reality of the phenomenon

      The meme as a collective, always emerging action.

    4. tructures in favor of a distributed network, which implies a rupture with the conventional activism

      Same for white antiracist activism.

    5. The penetration of the Internet and information and communication technologies (ICTs) has favored the rapid expansion of local social movements and the adhesion to them, increasing their projection and turning them into global phenomena. This unprecedented capacity for mobilization has marked the beginning of a new era for social movements (Castells, 2012,

      Whereas the JBAKC had a few hundred members, were probably talking similar numbers with Redneck Revolt and yet they've immediately received media coverage due to their proliferation on Twitter, Reddit, Facebook. That's projected and resshaped the white antiracist version of John Brown with the forms of the web 2.0 -- memes, irony, etc.

    6. transformation is reflected in the emergence of new non-institutional forms of politics, the existence of a global network of users and the emergence of mass “self-communication” (Castells, 2009).

      Manuel Castells on internet changing social movements by facilitating non-institutional politics.



    1. Biography.com Editors. “John Smith Biography”, A&E Television Networks, April 2, 2014, https://www.biography.com/people/john-smith-9486928 Emerson, Everett H. Major Writers of Early American Literature, The University of Wisconsin Press, 1972. Print. Szaylay, Jessie. “John Smith of Jamestown: Facts and Biography”, Live Science, November 1, 2013, https://www.livescience.com/40898-captain-john-smith.html History.com, A&E Television Networks, www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/davy-crockett.

      Copied John Smith bio?

    1. meant to appease middle and lower-class Americans who felt as if Chinese laborers were taking jobs away from them

      Good qualification.

    2. insert comma.

    3. is


    1. ast forth with flaming sword, The children of the prophets of the Lord, Prince, priest, and people, spurned by zealot hate

      flaming sword of the prophets of the Lord.

    2. In looking at this poem, the one main critical takeaway is that Lazarus’ depiction of America as virginal, “a virgin world” is not entirely true – America was not prior an empty wasteland awaiting its turn to become colonized

      Good point, well put.

    3. 1492


    1. The New Colossus.” The famous lines, “Give me your tired, your poor/ your huddle masses yearning to breathe,” 

      Goes to show just how central Jewish identity is to American pluralism.

    2. In 1880, she was inspired to look more into her Jewish heritage after reading “Daniel Deronda” written by George Eliot, joining the fight against the persecution of Jews in America.

      Fascinating connection.

    3. “Admentus and other poems”

      Books and collections just take italics, not quotation marks.

    4. Emma

      Typically you would refer to the author by her last name.

    5. This caught the attention of well known writer and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson

      Just like Whitman and many others!

    6. printer


    1. nd ever since wee have had a friendly trade and commerce, as well with Powhatan himselfe, as all his subjects.

      Literal marriage secures economic arrangements. Pocohontas' body is used as a means to negotiate "homosocial" relationships as argued by Eve K. Sedgwick: https://thequixoticpedagogue.wordpress.com/2017/04/14/foundational-essay-sedgwicks-introduction-from-between-men-english-literature-and-homosocial-desire-and-gender-asymmetry-and-erotic-triangles/

    2. whereat the old Jew
    3. Japazaws
    4. easily perswaded to goe abroad with him and his wife to see the ship: for Captaine Argall had promised him a Copper Kettle to bring her but to him, promising no way to hurt her, but keepe her till they could conclude a peace with her father; the Salvage for this Copper Kettle would have done any thing, it seemed by the Relation.

      Similar to Columbus' narrative, Smith and colonizers see relationships in terms of technological commodities.

    5. James towne

      One word.

    6. Modern anthologies are created to capture the literature of the past in a way that the author enjoys, rather than to capture history.

      Interesting to think of Smith's text functioning like this.

    1. truly


    2. Anti-Slavery Newspaper


    3. Truths


    4. Gage controversially transcribed Truth by using the voice of a southern black slave, even though she wasn’t.


    5. Northerner

      a Northerner

    6. ntersectionality of race and gender

      Another awesome observation, but probably worth a few words of explanation or a link to a definition of the term.

    7. that time,

      Bradstreet was about 2 centuries prior and only a "feminist" in retrospect.

    8. this


    9. The Speech tackles the issue of Woman’s rights by describing Woman’s Rights, not as something Woman do not have and are trying to gain, but something deserved all along that they have yet to receive.

      Great observation.

    10. Woman’s Rights.

      Same here. I would limit capitalization to proper nouns and the beginning words of sentences.

    11. Famous Abolishionist and Woman’s Rights Activist

      (1) no need to capitalize these words. (2) "abolitionist." t = sh sound

    1. .

      A good bio, but it's way too close to the text on this site: https://www.biography.com/people/sojourner-truth-9511284. Please re-write in your own words. Also, these sections shouldn't rely so heavily on one source. Above all, the sources need to be cited.

      If you want to get together and work through ways to paraphrase what you've read from other sources, please let me know.

    2. The famous phrase would appear in print 12 years later, as the refrain of a Southern-tinged version of the speech. It is unlikely that Sojourner Truth, a native of New York whose first language was Dutch, would have spoken in this Southern idiom.

      Fascinating tidbit.

    3. The Anti-Slavery Bugle

      Periodical titles get italics.

  9. Nov 2018
    1. That moonlight night, I cried in my mother’s presence when I heard the jolly young people pass by our cottage. They were no more young braves in blankets and eagle plumes, nor Indian maids with prettily painted cheeks. They had gone three years to school in the East, and had become civilized. The young men wore the white man’s coat and trousers, with bright neckties. The girls wore tight muslin dresses, with ribbons at neck and waist. At these gatherings they talked English. I could speak English almost as well as my brother, but I was not properly dressed to be taken along. I had no hat, no ribbons, and no close-fitting gown. Since my return from school I had thrown away my shoes, and wore again the soft moccasins.

      Struggles with pressure to adapt with her resentment of dominant culture.

    2. Suddenly, out of the earth a coyote came forth at a swinging trot that was taking the cunning thief toward the hills and the village beyond. Upon the moment’s impulse, I gave him a long chase and a wholesome fright. As I turned away to go back to the village, the wolf sank down upon his haunches for rest, for it was a hot summer day; and as I drove slowly homeward, I saw his sharp nose still pointed at me, until I vanished below the margin of the hilltops

      Why mention this anecdote?

    3. My mother had never gone inside of a schoolhouse, and so she was not capable of comforting her daughter who could read and write. Even nature seemed to have no place for me. I was neither a wee girl nor a tall one; neither a wild Indian nor a tame one.

      Trapped in this "liminal" space.

    4. iron routine

      an iron horse becomes an iron routine.