61 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2017
    1. and processed finish. Decoration and color are also important cultural indicators. One group’s taste might lean toward the embellished baroque style, for instance, while the aesthetic philoso­phy of another could be driven by asceticism and restraint. A building’s appearance is never left to chance, but rather is based on a system of culturally determined ideas of what is considered suitable or beautiful to behold (fig

      In this sense architecture is easily comparable to the cultural history that art and painting styles have created a story for us. Both change in traceable trends which reflect the culture and people creating them. Art history may focus on an even more abstract concept than vernacular architecture does by analyzing the highs and lows of an era based upon what their art depicted.

    2. rt of what attracts us to old buildings is their insistence on communicating, in some outmoded dialect we do not entirely understand, the energy and purpose, the achievements and hopes, the disap­pointments and hardships of those who made and used them.”1" I

      Buildings and structures have an incredible longevity about them, that in an academic perspective, allows researchers to avoid possible biases and second hand records left by authors or records of the path. Buildings are the most honest of story tellers.

    3. the Rule of Least and Best; they achieve a necessary efficiency in their work by gathering the least amount of best information needed to solve their problem."

      Quality over quantity is more important when drawing from and citing sources.The best solution to a problem is often the simplest one in similar philosophical terms

    4. ernacular architecture research is not going to replac e other kinds of humanistic inquiry. In the right situations, however, it can con­tribute greatly in addressing many kinds of questions concerning human behavior. Car

      This is applicable in a sense to science as a whole. No one different subject holds more significant weight over another in the end because they all must interact to expand their own personal fields. Intellect breeds and thrives from similar intellect

    5. ou might ask if the house type was new to the city-"— that is, does it represent a contin nation of older ideas or the introduction of new ones? Is

      Building types indicate trends within society. Changing ideals are reflected within what we build; minimalism for example is a rising trend both artistically and architecturally currently.

    6. here are no intrin­sic truths but only your own story of what happened. Ho

      Due to vernacular architectures lack of being a "library" science, it is largely based on an observer utilizing their deduction skills to piece together a much larger picture of how a building fit in and told it's own story. The only truth is the one you establish about it

    7. rom these sources we can begin to say something about the history of the house and its occupants.But what do we learn from the house itself? What does it tell us? “V

      Vernacular Architecture focuses on a much more abstract and larger question than the typical elements that seem to make it up. The studied buildings are meant to speak for themselves rather than be given relevance based upon other events, people, or things attributed to them.

    8. e study of material culture is grounded in the physical and material presence of objects -in

      What is the difference in physical and material presences? Physical existence is an obvious concept, but material existence may refer in this case to the value and relevance we assign to objects we surround ourselves with.

  2. Jan 2017
    1. artifacts, however they are referred to— to live in the world, and we make those things, not randomly or by chance, but systematically and intentionally through our culture.

      This section implies a generally repeating theme for the tools of survival, or artifacts, found throughout different cultures

  3. Sep 2016
    1. the place to begin is with the buildings themselves.

      As Carter and Cromley discuss, vernacular architecture is a very hands-on experience. You can't learn everything there is to know by simply looking at pictures or reading papers about it. You have to examine all of the finer details to build a picture that incorporates all of the true purposes of the building or area.

    2. Rather than foregoing the status that brick afforded, they put their m oney where it would do the I most good, on the fr

      This line reminds me of some topics discussed in "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl." By investing the money in a small project that would allow the Dubois' to come across as affluent and monetarily sound, they created an outward image, at least on part of the house, that represented this. This is similar to the roads that are being built today. The roads are "built to support sprawl, designed to modern safety standards" (Steuteville 1). In my mind, this is much like the situation with the Dubois house. Many people say that it is safer for drivers, and that in the long run it will work better, however by looking at the statistics, there are more casualties associated with these new roads that with those made before the 1950s. On paper, these ideas may seem much better, but in practice it may not be so.

    3. heir good taste and apparent affluence could be seen by all.

      The authors say that the owners chose to make only the front of their house out of this relatively expensive material as a way to present themselves in a light that made them seem more wealthy, and because of this, they appeared to have a higher position in the social hierarchy. However, this would only work if the people viewing the house did so in passing, such as driving. For anyone living in the neighborhood, they would realize what the family had done.

    4. bigger houses that survive

      Less wealthy people are unable to afford larger homes, so when the time comes for expansion to occur, these are the people that lose out. When areas are targeted for demolition for the construction of larger, more expensive homes, the poorer people in these areas may be forced out.

    5. Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans.

      In the past, many things were handmade, and because of this, there was a little bit more of the creator in each piece. This particular passage reminded me of the story about the Mohegan painted baskets. Our culture and our personal identity serve to help us produce items that allow others to see into the creator's life.

    6. We can, if the buildings have survived, interpret them for ourselves.

      Every building still around today has some form of character. Every material and every design was specifically chosen to serve some purpose, and these all build up to tell a story not only about the building itself but about the area in which it exists. For example, in many large cities, the buildings are very tall, and a lot of people live in apartments because there is a strain on the space, and they can't fit enough people into it.

    7. buildings reflect our cultural values. Once created, they not only become symbolic representations of those values but also serve in their own way to enforce those values actively, making sure that they are adhered to and followed. In this sense, as anthropologists point out, the material world is reflexive: architecture, in the words of the social theorist Mark Gottdiener, “possesses the dual characteristics of being both a product of social relations and a producer of social relations.”1

      In the article, "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Rural Communities," it is asserted that implementing simple projects such as local parks, benches, and sidewalks can influence a community to get out on the streets and influences the social constructs of the community. Take the Reflection Pool for instance, pictured above. Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    8. But even in times of historical record­keeping, most people do not write about themselves and most do little that makes others want to write about them. But every­one makes, or buys, and uses things,

      Analysis of artifacts and things are a sort of way to keep someone alive. Some believe that as long as someone is talking about you or saying your name, you are never really dead. So in a way, analysis brings certain times and places and people back to life. http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/46464-do-you-not-know-that-a-man-is-not-dead

    9. The study of vernacular architecture

      "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project," by Tasnim Shamma, Summary: The article starts with the ground breaking of MARTA’s “‘transit-oriented developments'" (Shamma) at Edgewood-Candler Park. The project was sponsored by a private developer who poured 40$ million dollars into the project; MARTA did not have to pay a single cent. The development will feature apartments, restaurants and even a theater; basically a living complex that centers around MARTA’s Edgewood-Candler Park station, for ease of access. The article then introduces a native to Edgewood, Eric Kronberg, and his interactions with his neighbors on ideas for the area, a vision they have been working on for well over a decade. The ground breaking has left him speechless, he described it as a kind of thing "...you don't even wish for because you don't believe it's possible." (Shamma) The development hopes to increase density capacity so that it can accommodate new ridership. Ridership, compared to last year statistics, is low. General manager Keith Parker however, expects things to pick up again describing it as only a "matter of time" (Shamma).

      This development anticipates the return of old members, as well as new patrons; an outcome MARTA is pretty confident in. With the building where it is, and the function it serves, people will be "'...right here to ride our services '" (Shamma). Expected to finish by the end of 2017, Amanda Rhein, senior director of the transit-oriented development, focuses on the other 5 locations where such developments will take place; for a total of 6. The article then briefly mentions the other location and their readability for work. According to Rhein, there are still a lot to figure out, but they have contact with a development partner they wish to work with, and have a good grasp on the projects.

      Shamma, Tasnim. "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." 90.1 FM WABE –<br> Atlanta's NPR Station. NPR, 23 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    10. ability to find meaning in artifacts.

      These artifacts are a physical representation of the culture of the person who created it. By looking into the designs, materials from which it was made, and what it was used for, we may be able to discern a lot of information about the people who made it, as well as its intended purpose if it isn't the traditional house or building.

    11. Vernacular architecture research implies a marriage of sources: oral history written documents, and the buildings themselves.

      Word and physical image must come together in an interplay of information so that we can get the perfect grasp on what it is we want to learn from the building. Lets then take a look at the MARTA transit buildings. Image Credit: (“SpokeEdgewoodCandlerPark.jpg (JPEG Image, 2400 × 1078 Pixels) - Scaled (53%).” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.)

      Looking at just the building itself (or how it is supposed to look when finished), a researcher wouldn't be able to tell that it was a building meant for ease of transportation. Without some inkling of a background, this building just resembles an apartment complex. This is where the article, "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" comes into play. In the article, it is revealed that these structures are "'transit-oriented developments'" (Shamma), with this information, the entire view of the structure, and all its connection to this concept of transit, comes to life. For example, the apartments we see, their purpose serves more than just housing, they provide ease of access to those who wish to live closer to their bus stops. Without the accompany of text, vernacular research can not commence, because what is needed is both the physical, as well as the abstract.

    12. 1 We need to remember that the everyday objects we see all around us are indicators of our cultural values

      Everything around us has a purpose, however what we intend to happen does not happen at all. As the article discusses, we began to construct roadways differently than we had in the past, as a way to "protect" people from driving carelessly (Steuteville 1). However, this change in our cultural values to a more relaxed view has actually led to an increase in the number of deaths, showing that what we may have valued and tried to achieve did not actually pan out.

      -This is a chart taken from the article "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl." Steuteville, Robert. "The Morbid and Mortal Toll of Sprawl." CNU. N.p., 26 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    13. Maps, blueprints, historic photo­graphs, and paintings can also reveal information about vernacular architecture.

      Perfectly complies with the "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" article by Tasnim Shamma. The building is not complete, all there is are rendered images, floor plans, and blueprints, yet, with just that, the meaning of the building and its purpose can already be assessed.

    14. In both its formal organ­ization and its use, the room reflects a normative approach to the education process.

      This can relate back to many things. As people perform research into the way people think and interact, there have been changes in fields that have't changed in a long time. For example, many classrooms have now implemented flipped classroom practices, in which the students teach, or they reorganize the class and allow for more student participation and discussion.

    15. Determining history through buildings has its drawbacks, certainly. One has been mentioned already: the time it takes to do fieldwork

      As with anything, good work takes time. To truly understand the importance of something, time must be taken. As the authors write, time in the field does not pass quickly. However, it is well worth it when, in the end, the researchers are able to accurately discuss the studied piece.

    16. survival

      This relates back to what we read in "Understanding Comics." The two main goals for us as humans is to survive and to reproduce. Everything that we produce, in some way is making out lives easier and more enjoyable, but ultimately, the point of these items is to help us survive.

    17. ed from actuality.

      In what ways can we attempt to stop the biasing and perceptions of the people that analyze a building, material, etc.? From an early age, we are trained to perceive certain traits of things based on how they look, etc., and it can be hard to overcome that.

    18. TO

      The article, “The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl,” is a very interesting read that discusses some of the changes that have occurred within society in the past few decades. Change occurs all the time, whether we like it or not. However, some of the things that are done as a way to try and help the majority of people actually do the exact opposite. The roadways that we put in place to help the majority of people actually led to more problems (Steuteville 4). The article goes on to discuss the fact that on paper, many of these roads and highways are safer for the majority of people than those that were built prior to the 1950s. The charts, on the other hand, tell a different story; more deaths occur on these newer, “safer,” roads (Steuteville 4).

      When looking at the information, it is easy to understand. But why do people not fight for roads that are truly safer? It is because we accept what we are told. The companies building these roads say that they are better for the overall safety of the drivers, and no one looks further into it. This causes a problem, because without people voicing their opinions and making their own ideas, nothing is ever going to change. More and more dangerous roads will be built, and only when the numbers start to climb even higher will people finally take notice.

      Steuteville, Robert. "The Morbid and Mortal Toll of Sprawl." CNU. N.p., 26 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    19. Analyzing and explaining the cultural content of a building is not something you can justr/o,

      To understand the significance of buildings, you have to look back into when it was built and by who. Then you can look at the people that lived or worked inside of it, because each of them has their own individual story, and it is likely that they left some piece of themselves behind, either in decorations or other aspects of the building.

    20. In its form, then, the room adheres to all the conventions proper to educa­tional space in the United States.1'

      By analyzing the classroom's construction, rather than just its contents, the classroom is decidedly different than any other room with desks and chairs. This classroom also seems more strict than some others of today's time. The symmetry of the room and classic set up of the desks speak volumes about the importance and seriousness of the education in that time and how classic its learning structure is.

    21. As mentioned, archaeologists deal little if any written documentation for early peri­ods.

      Most people, for example, would not document that they visit a community park often or that they walk to and from work, but in looking at the sidewalks and parks and benches or lack of these things, it can be determined if a certain community does these things or not.<br> Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016. “Bucharest, June The 1St 2015, Crowded Park On A Summer Afternoon, Heat Wave, Family Time, People Having Fun Stock Footage Video 10439756 - Shutterstock.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-10439756-stock-footage-bucharest-june-the-st-crowded-park-on-a-summer-afternoon-heat-wave-family-time-people.html.

    22. people need things— objects, artifacts, however they are referred to— to live in the world, and we make those things, not randomly or by chance, but systematically and intentionally through our culture.

      The things we make/use contain our cultural upbringing/views; we can then use the artifacts to reconstruct the past and get a more in depth view of the people who lived in and used those objects.

    23. questions about time, form, context, and ultimately function are necessary to a dec iphering of tbe building’s content

      You have to look at a whole lot of aspects in order to properly analyze a building.

    24. tell us about human behavior both past and present.

      Lets apply this idea to the developments Tasnim Shamma talks about in the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project". Vernacular studies can give insights into human behavior, both from the past, as well as the present. Then looking at the rendered image of the building, along with the text of course (mentioned before that vernacular studies incorporates both physical and written) can the past and present be told? Yes. The past: hundred of thousands of people ride MARTA on a daily basis, the building is to make it easier for commuters, as they can now live near the station. The present: MARTA is promoting the use of it's transportation by providing these structures.

    25. Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans

      I agree with Harry (Mr_Jenius), the physical change we experience in our environment is the direct result of our change in culture. Harry brought up the change in roadways in the article "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl", I also read the article, and it talks about the change in roadway construction from the 50's and how it actually causes more death then pre-50's constructions; cities who adopted a new road plan, compared to those who kept the same form since the 50's,have much higher traffic death rates. Harry mentioned the reason for this change; the MARTA transit oriented buildings, in the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", are also the result of cultural change. They are built to accommodate those who wish to live closer to the bus stops, so they do not have to travel far, to do more traveling. We are physically changing our environment to better fit our everyday needs.

    26. Mark Gottdiener, “possesses the dual characteristics of being both a product of social relations and a producer of social relations.”1

      In simpler words, buildings are made due to social interaction, which then causes more interaction to occur; its a cycle. The MARTA transit buildings possess such traits/characteristics. The building is a direct consequence of the interaction between transportation personnel, and the working class who use said transportation; in this case, MARTA. "'Once you build these types of developments...people will be right here to ride our services.'" (Shmma), these transit oriented buildings play the role of product, as well as producer.

    27. discovei highly complex meanings in even the simplest of forms.

      Essentially, a very in depth, close reading.

    28. such as class differences— rarely talked about in the United States— that becom e evident in the architectural landscape.

      Buildings represents culture. How we build them, their functions, everything about a building, is built based upon our perception; and what is our perception if not a cultural construct? Take for example, in the article "'MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project'" Within the article, there is a section where they talk about the housing plans "'MARTA expects to allocate about 20 percent of the apartment units as affordable housing – for those who make less than 80 percent of the area median income.'" (Shamma), why did they include this? Because there's class difference, and they want it to be known. Not the developers per se, but rather the whole of our society. Class difference is something that prevails throughout history, and will continue to prevail, because it is so ingrained upon our culture as human beings. So much so, that it appears in our "'architectural landscape'" (Carter, Cromley, 10) We may not talk about the existence of classes, but we don't have too, the things we make speak volumes. That is why vernacular studies has such a profound effect on understanding history.

    29. To understand how people bring beauty to their lives, one must study the buildings themselves

      I find this to be true while reading the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" by Tasnim Shamma. Space allocation of a building speaks volumes about what holds precedence over another; for example, in relation to this reading, the MARTA article talks about an entire hall "...dedicated..." (Shamma) to a educational dance group. Reading into the design of such a hall could quite possibly lead to the idea that, this is one way that beauty is brought into the architecture. Giving credence to the previous sentence that "...Objects are essential in the study and understanding of the artfulness of a culture" (Carter, Cromley, 10).

    30. If culture determines behavior, and we can see such behavior in the things people make, it is logical that we can also move in the opposite direction, working back from the object in an attempt to explain the ideas, values, and beliefs— the culture— that caused that object to com e into being.1

      Reiterates previous remark on the use of artifacts/objects as tools to reconstruct cultural views; essentially, the essence of the article. The reading "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" provides and excellent example. By reading the text, we already know why the buildings are being made, but lets say we don't. Then, from a vernacular study of these "'transit-oriented developments'"(Shamma), we can probably find out that these buildings were complex, incorporating both living and entertainment, and were built around MARTA stations. If such a building was centered around a transport station, well, that explains itself.

    31. figure out when and under what circum­stances buildings and landscapes become the best documents for answering particular kinds of historical questions,

      Vernacular architecture is not an all the time kind of thing, sometimes its actually best not to use vernacular studies in answering historical question. Like how math is not the answer to everything, we have to determine whether or not it is plausible to use buildings as the tool to historical understanding; if its the best way.

    32. watch and observe how people behave in various archi­tectural environments.

      Observing the interactions of people around a building will help determine the place in which the building holds in society.

    33. There is a great deal to learn about studying buildings for meaning.

      In "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", the idea behind the development of these buildings lie with the nature of urban sprawl. Transportation plays a huge role in our identity, as such, we as a community, go to great lengths to provide said transportation. It could be said then, that the development of these buildings, projects our views and encompasses our cultural presence. "'Our hopes have been exceeded greatly'" (Shamma) Hope in itself holds our dreams, dreams come from our perception of society, and society comes from culture. So, a simple building of a transit oriented complex can have insights into the workings of our world.

    34. Sometimes, in studying contemporary buildings, you may find the people who made or used the buildings speaking about bow they were used or what they meant.

      The purpose of a building lies in its use, and it is through that use that vernacular studies can try and interpret the cultural meaning of the building, and what it represents. in "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", there is a section of the article where Erick Kronberg talks about how much the development means to him and his community. Stating that his "'...hopes have been exceeded greatly'" (Shamma). The building, he says, will "'...help pay for things..." (Shamma), this would give insights into economic activity during the time, as well as a key function to the building. This further complementing the notion that we build things not by chance, but through culture. An aspect of our collective culture is that we are movers, we like to move around, from point A to point B. So, with a building solely dedicated to the ease and access for those who seek transit, we can see its cultural importance, and people in the distant future, were they to stumble upon these transit buildings and perform some vernacular readings, will find that we were a culture fixated on the notion of movement.

    35. We would not suggest that the study of buildings is some kind of academic panacea.

      Not some sort of "end all" to the endeavor to understand human culture, just another way of looking at things.

    36. We have to be careful to reconstruct the proper per­centages of houses in each economic level in the past and not to take the standing evi­dence for granted (

      Reconstructing history is a very powerful ability, therefore, it is crucial that the one reconstructing these histories be scrupulous in there work; or else history may be interperated wrongly.

    37. uneven rate of survival of building

      Vernacular studies deal with buildings and artifacts, so when you use vernacular studies to determine history, it may be difficult due to the fact that, a lot of the buildings, during whatever time period you're studying, are probably gone. That is when, in the aforementioned text, we reconstruct them through records and accounts; going into the written to rebuild the physical; all very abstract.

    38. The physical properties of the room, so constructed, ensure that these values are enforced and that those who use the room adhere to them as well.

      Great example of how our values are projected through the layout of buildings/rooms. Not only that, through this projection, we add a sense of...purpose into the room, we give it substance. It is this substance that almost makes the room/building alive; representing values and enforcing them onto whoever uses the building/room.

    39. best reason for studying buildings is the poten­tial they hold for helping us in the humanistic endeavor of better understanding who we -are and why we have done the things that we have.

      Unlike some animals in the wild, we are a species driven by our sense of community; take that away and it all crumbles. That's why we have so many laws and regulations that governs us as a whole, instead of laws for individuals. This humanistic quality that practically defines us as a species, can be seen not only through our interactions with one another, but also in the architecture that we have built over the years; architecture that binds us together into communities.

    40. the study o f thosehuman actions and behaviors that are manifest in commonplace architecture.

      Definition of vernacular Architecture.

    41. find meaning in buildings

      When we try to find meaning in buildings, we are are deconstructing the physical materials and turning them into words. Incorporating both word and image, something we talked about in our graphic novels class.

    42. We apply the known to the unknown, saying that “the house is significant because it is associated with such and such person or this or that event,” but we still have not studied the materiality of the building

      When analyzing a building, you have to analyze the building itself, not the events that took place there. You have to look at the style, why was that style chosen? what were the materials, the plan?; everything that made that building must be looked at so that we may get a glimpse to the human behavior during the time of construction.

    43. Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans.”

      Over the years, culture changes, and thus our physical environment changes. Over time, we have seen a change in the way in which homes and other buildings have been built so that they provide more function or provide for the maximization of land. In many ways, this is very similar to the ideas brought to mind in "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl" (Steuteville 1). Roadways have changed, allowing drivers to "feel comfortable driving carelessly" (Steuteville 1). As a people, with more things drawing our attention and more technology providing distractions, we have had to make accommodations for those people because there is a realization that not everyone is going to do what they are supposed to do, but I believe this actually makes it more dangerous for those people that follow the law and do as they are supposed to.

    44. Reading buildings requires some­thing of a leap of faith: faith in yourself as an objective onlooker and faith in your methodology.

      To get the true meaning of anything, you have to be able believe in, and support, your ideas concerning whatever it may be. You have to fight for what you believe in, and stand up for your beliefs no matter what. More than likely, there are other people that will suppoort you and who have the same ideas as you, but you just have to ge the ball rolling. As stated by Steuteville, "our complacency is killing us" (1).

    45. And of course if we are looking for “traces of people doing things,” then it is easy to see that one of the main things people did in the past was to build and/or use buildings, and with such objects we do not have to rely on what people said about them. We can, if the buildings have survived, interpret them for ourselves.

      Placemaking seeks to implement buildings and community involvement based on what the community's identity is, so by analyzing the structures of the area, it can be understood what the community's identity is. Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    46. tell us about human behavior both past and present.

      Placemaking helps to create a thriving community by furthering its community involvement and creating jobs and activities, but it is a careful practice that works not against the history and present identity of the community, but rather with it. Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    47. *I.l:lI N V I TAT ION

      "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Rural Communities" Summary: Rural communities from all over the country are struggling to find a way to support their local economies and provide a stable future for them. They face the problem of having to figure out how to do these things effectively by using what they have available to them as far as financial and human capital. This way to do this is to develop solutions within the community using placemaking to create a sense of place and connectedness. To integrate placemaking into these rural communities, partnerships have been formed and have provided training programs for community leaders, serving to inform and also network the rural areas with potential regional funding partners. These partnerships allow the communities to not merely submit, but rather to integrate the important parts of the community’s identity into the future plans rather than wiping them out entirely. Main Streets are full of history and provide the identity of the place, and the objective of placemaking is not to erase these aspects, but rather to help them thrive by creating more places by attracting members of the community to become engaged. For this reason, the process of placemaking must be undertaken by the community in order to ensure positive outcomes.<br> Furthermore, placemaking creates spaces for people to be involved, rather than a space primarily for cars. This can be achieved by implementing low cost, projects to include parks, benches, and fun programs on the street to get people walking. The idea behind getting people to interact within their communities is to create place attachment to assure that young people stay rooted to their communities. However, it can be difficult to carry out these projects due to lack of funding or resources, so Lisa Mensah explains that “partnerships between sectors is central to making rural areas thrive,” so that rural regions can have an effective, lasting impact (Project for Public Spaces).

      Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    48. Without some kind of technique for interpreting the architectural lan­guage of the house, we likely cannot read the physical evidence of the structure as a social or cultural text.

      There is a certain way to read architecture. Without the basic training, it is almost impossible to accurately read a structure. If you do not have a basic understanding of how to read a structure, it is likely that you will misinterpret it in context.

    49. building’s appearance is never left to chance, but rather is based on a system of culturally determined ideas of what is considered suitable or beautiful to behold (f

      Nothing is random, especially in a building's construction, just as no word that an author writes is random to his story. A lackluster appearance in one house may show that the particular inhabitant is not concerned with appearance or that they have insufficient funds. A group of these houses point to an overarching cause in the community. Similarly, an ornate residence may point to a more flashy resident with the means to decorate.

    50. “historic architecture is one aspect of the past that we can still see, touch, experience . . . and part of what attracts us to old buildings is their insistence on communicating, in some outmoded dialect we do not entirely understand, the energy and purpose, the achievements and hopes, the disap­pointments and hardships of those who made and used them.”

      This is interesting because most people are at least somewhat intrigued with old things. They are interesting, and it is because there is a story behind it. If there was no such interest or wish to understand these things, history would not be a class and museums would not be so crowded.

    51. then we need to utilize the widest possible range of sources, and buildings are one such source (

      One cannot only view one building and accurately draw conclusions about it. It takes analysis of various buildings and artifacts in order to determine what is normal and average and distinguish each building from the other in order to know the full history and context.

    52. - Countless now nameless immigrants moved through tenem ents like this one in New York City’s Lower Hast Side neighborhood on their way to the American Dream. The people are gone, but the buildings remain.

      Even though the people are no longer living, they left artifacts, things, and a legacy. The example here about a neighborhood is just one of many. For instance, many soldiers who fought and died in wars are not all named but because of what they did and the things we do have, we remember them and know they existed. Likewise, not all men and women who were enslaved are documented. Therefore, documentation through words is not always reliable, so further investigation into "things" is necessary.