40 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2018
    1. "triangulating"

      triangulation is often used to indicate that two (or more) methods are used in a study in order to check the results of one and the same subject. In journalism you owuld do this by checking multiple credible sources to see if the information you found lines up and is relaiable.

    2. found that students use search engines as a parameter of trustworthiness. As long as a site is toward the top of a search engine's listings, many of this study's subjects considered it credible

      This can relate back to the supplementary article i read about fake news on facebook. People usually are more likely to trust news sources posted by their friends or family who may share ismilar political leanings so when coming across fake news on facebook they are less likely to question the source. A perfect example of this would be on my own facebook page where people post nonsense satire stories from fake news sites where often times when you click on the link it says the story is not real but based off the comments on the article you can tell most people are only sharing based off the headline and may skim over the details while sharing the article with friends on their page.

    3. The supplementary article i choose was "Debunking Fake News" by Eugene Kelly . In the article it tlaks about the spread of fake news information on facebook and how factcheck.org has agreed to

  2. Feb 2018
    1. Without the capacity for distraction, you wouldn't hear the taxicab horn when you step off the curb

      Its within these situations, where multi-tasking would be moreover accepted. If you are following one task, whether it be checking your phone, and walking then you would not be able to scan your surroundings. If you were able to split your attention in between both, however, you would not be blind to your surroundings. Your senses would be more alert than to they would have been if you only focused on your phone. That being said, its not safe to be distracted on non-important tasks. When you're outside being a pedestrian, the only task you should have is being aware of your surroundings. Crossing busy streets or walking out onto the rode with no awareness of your surroundings can be fatal, especially if you were distracted by something else.

    2. "If we want to survive, we must under-stand the actions of others.

      According to Aristotle, "humans by nature are very social animals." So by that alone, humans would need to have high interactions with other humans in order to thrive. Which is why it is important to be able to understand the actions of other humans. If we don't have this sort of behavior, it leads us to being anti-social, and eventually segregating yourself from the public. Being alone with no social interaction can have many health problems, both physically and mentally. That is why most prisoners who are put into solitary confinement most of the time come out with psychological problems, which can lead up to being a danger to the rest of society, because they forget how to interact with one another.

    3. Stone grew even more intensely interested when others reported that they, too, sometimes held their breath while reading or writing email-a phenomenon that she started calling "email apnea." She told me that she came to realize that "breathing is the regulator of attention." Stone reminded me that holding one's breath is directly connected to the "fight or flight" response. When your ancestors and mine heard a noise, they held their breath until deciding whether to flee, fight, or ignore the sound, while their glands pumped energy-mobilizing hormones into their blood-streams, just in case. Holding your breath affects the body's balance of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. It activates the sympathetic nervous system, causing an increase in glucose and cholesterol levels in the bloodstream along with an increased heart rate as well as a sense of hunger. Stone remarked that regular breathing patterns, by contrast, activate the parasympathetic nervous system, causing relaxation, the release of diges-tive enzymes, and a sense of satiety-signs of a "rest and digest" mode. She pointed out that "we're putting our bodies in a state of almost constant low-level fight-or-flight. This is great when we're being chased by tigers. But how many of those 500 emails a day is a TIGER? How many are flies? Is everything an emergency? Our way of using the current set of technolo-gies would have us believe it is."23 Paying attention to your breath-the core technique of mindfulness meditation methods-is where Stone sug-gests starting to moderate our online reactions. I'll get back to that later. For now, I'm convinced that Stone is right to think that attention to breathing could be a tool to help moderate our unthinking, ultimately unhealthy reactions to many online stimuli.

      Stone brings up some interesting points about the deeper, scientific implications of the habits she's formed when reading emails. She says that she has a habit of holding her breath for long periods of time when reading emails. I find it interesting that she mentions that she is conscious about her breathing, as she mentions that she does morning meditations, but immediately fall into her habit of holding her breath as soon as she checks her email. This shows that our familiarity with constantly being connected and immersed in our technology can form subconscious habits. These habits are not necessarily bad, but they do raise questions about their lasting effects.

    4. lthough she isn't a cognitive psychologist or neuroscientist, Linda Stone was an obvious choice when I started inquiring into the connection between attention, always-on media, and health. Stone has in fact been immersed in creating online media for the twenty-five years I've known her. I first met her when she was one of Apple's multimedia researchers in the 1980s. In the 1990s, when she was director of Microsoft's Virtual Worlds Group, Stone and I sat in my garden to discuss virtual communities. Since she retired from Microsoft, Stone has been concerned about the ways social media use might be affecting our minds and bodies. She was kind enough to make another garden visit this past summer to converse about our mutual interest in literacies of attention. As we sat under my plum tree, Stone recalled that she had noticed some-thing crucial about her own online behavior while she sat at her computer one day. "I realized that I hold my breath sometimes when I am doing my email." She has recounted this little epiphany in print:

      It's assumed that people who are outsiders to the realm of technology are the biggest proponents, but I have seen many people in the field who are just as adamant. Rheingold agrees, and he cites Linda Stone, who has worked in online media for a long time.

    5. I don't argue with the Thoreau objection. I embrace it. Years ago, I cut a door in my office wall; it's now three steps to my garden. The fact that I acknowledge my attraction to distraction doesn't mean that I have to suc-cumb to the urge to be constantly connected. I simply ask myself when I reach for my iPhone while waiting in line, Why not stay disconnected for a minute and see what happens? Or I deliberately leave my podcasts at home when I take the dogs out for a walk in the neighborhood. Throw some sand into the machinery that automatizes your attention.

      I agree with Rheingold here. Rheingold acknowledges the benefits of disconnecting every once in a while and interacting with the outside world. While I admit, most times that I disconnect, it's because I have already exhausted all the social media I partake in. However, I think it's always good to let one's mind wander free every so often. This reminds me of the habit of reading shampoo bottles while in the bathroom, before cellphones. It was still absorbing information, but it was physical and of the outside world, so that counts, right?

    6. When I interviewed Nass, he proposed that a better way for getting things done than multitasking all day is to deliberately work on a single task for fifteen to thirty minutes before going with the multitasking flow for five to ten minutes. This insight is the basis for a simple attention-training methodology known as the "Pomodoro Technique."103 The method is easy enough. Write down your major tasks to accomplish each day on a piece of paper. Set the timer (which resembles a tomato; hence pomodoro) for twenty-five minutes and work on one task in whatever medium the task requires until you hear the alarm sound. Then take five minutes to do what you want. Repeat. Every four pomodoros, take a longer break. Train your-self to be present and aware of whether what you are doing online is going to help you achieve your own goal. Eventually you don't need the alarm clock

      I'm glad we were assigned this reading, because I have been searching for the Pomodoro Technique for months. I remember reading about it on a late night, and I forgot to save the article, so it's awesome that it happens to be in assigned reading for class. Some people are more attuned to jumping into assignments or tasks for the day at leisure, and can manage that way with ease. On the other hand, there are others, like myself, who have a hard time with managing time and keeping deadlines. This technique seems good for me because it has strict deadlines that are manageable. I have noticed that I am most productive at work in the last few hours, and I think it's because I subconsciously know I can leave the task to go home and do things that I enjoy, like homework. I think this technique could be a good way to train my mind to always think like it's the last hour before works end, and make my work streamline more efficient.

    7. I bring my attention back to my breath. I don't try to "think about nothing." I don't strive to do better than I did yesterday or last year. I simply observe the way thoughts emerge and pass away with or without my conscious intent. Attention! 71 If you haven't done it, watching your breath with your eyes closed and labeling your thoughts as they pass through your mind sounds like a colos-sal waste of time. I admit that I get antsy, and look forward to getting back to work, play, or whatever I had been doing. I don't assign the "fun" tag to meditation.

      Meditation is a practice that appears more and more challenging as the allure of your smartphone is just a few feet away. Artist Father John Misty has a lyric that relates to this on a song called, "The Memo."

      "And as the world is getting smaller, small things take up all your time Narcissus would have had a field day if he could have got online"

      While I have not tried yoga explicitly, I have noticed that reading books is kind of a mental break in the same way that yoga is to some. Sometimes, I can pick up a book and read for a few hours with ease. However, most of the time, it's hard to concentrate on the words on the page and often times I will reach for my phone for no inherent reason. The instant gratification of social media is tempting, but it is always important to take some time away and focus on yourself.

    8. Today's technology may be new, but using media to change (some would say expand) human consciousness at least goes back to forty-thousand-year-old cave paintings.

      Modern society's use of technology seems to get nothing but criticism. A few years ago, there seemed to be a final frontier on how technological advancements could improve our lives more and more.

      However, technology doesn't necessarily have to be something with a circuit board and a touch screen. Any big advancement, like building a fire or the first polio vaccine, can be considered technology. With every major advancement, society has always adapted, and that will likely hold true as we move deeper into the smartphone age.

    9. In one arena of daily life, distraction has proven to be life threaten-ing. Who hasn't witnessed the chilling sight of another driver in the next highway lane who appears to be texting while driving? A Harvard study in 2003 estimates that 2,600 traffic deaths and 330,000 accidents annually are caused by cell phone distractions. 24 A study in 2009 of professional long-haul truck drivers who equipped their cabs with video cameras for eighteen months claims that the collision risk became twenty-three times greater when the drivers texted.25 University of Utah researchers found that drivers who talked on a cell phone-just talked, not texted-were as impaired in driving simulation tests as subjects with blood-alcohol levels close to the legal limit.26 Although there are more subtle dangers to consider in this chapter, texting while driving kills; that's all that needs to be said about it. I'll only add that the fact that anyone would risk life and limb for an LOL is a clue that something about texting hooks into the human propensity to repeat pleasurable behaviors to the point of compulsion.

      The term "addiction" is not one that should be thrown around lightly. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) claim that 21.5 million American adults (aged 12 and older) battled a substance abuse disorder in 2014. As prevalent as texting while driving is, many opinions I have heard think this practice is one of those unavoidable things or a dirty little secret. In my opinion, I think this is a tell-tale sign that someone is addicted to their phone. I don't think any message is worth a life lost, especially if you are driving with other people in the car.

    10. This phenomenon, known as "selective inattention," is dramatically illustrated by the online video of the "awareness test" conducted by Dan-iel Simons of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Christo-pher Chabris of Harvard University.18 Subjects were asked to watch a short video of two groups (distinguished by black or white T-shirts) passing basketballs and count passes by one team, or keep track of bounce versus aerial passes. While the basketballs were passed, an actor walked through the scene wearing a gorilla suit, paused, turned to look at the camera, and walked on. When asked whether anything out of the ordinary occurred, around 50 percent of the subjects did not report seeing the gorilla. The assigned task created a frame for the subjects' attention, filtering out dis-tractions that didn't fit, to the point where a gorilla on a basketball court escaped notice.

      My first job ever was a neighborhood lifeguard. One of the most important abilities our company wanted us to work at was cognitive awareness. The instructor teaching the certification class showed us this same video and nearly the entire group missed out on the dancing panda.


      In this video, the same Daniel Simons cited in the text shows the audience different examples of street art that blend the external and internal information that makes these images appear multi-dimensional and life-like.

    11. While I was writing this book, my friend Duke University professor Cathy Davidson was also working on her own book about attention. 13 In her blog, Davidson recounts an incident that happened when she was tracking down footnote references requested by the editor. She was working at her desk, got up to put a teakettle on the stove, and went back to her writing. Hearing a garbage truck outside, she assumed it was the source of the burning rub-ber she was beginning to smell. When she started to see smoke, Davidson realized that the water had boiled out of the teakettle and the plastic handle had been melting. She had forgotten to pay attention to the stove while concentrating on her book.

      This piece of anecdotal evidence that ends being up being relevant reminds me of the supplementary reading article, "Mystery of Russian Fake on Facebook Solved, by a Brazilian". Rheingold discusses reading a blog by his friend, professor Cathy Davidson. She details a day where several incidents happened in a short span of time. She consciously told herself to be more mindful, instead of letting her mind drift. A few minutes later, she narrowly avoided hitting two dogs that ran in front of her car. In regards to "Mystery of Russian Fake on Facebook Solved, by a Brazilian", there was a tweet that faced scrutiny, claiming that one of the Parkland shooting survivors was actually a trauma actor. It seems that the person who tweeted this comment and image is in Moscow, Russia. Even then, who knows if this image was doctored or altered in any way?

      While Rheingold intended to use Davidson's conscious mental notes as a narrative for this chapter of his book, it reminded me of all the media bias in politics. There has been political bias since the house party system first became commonplace, but technology has blurred the lines between fact and fiction and that has impacted how people analyze media. One should always make an effort to do their own research on topics that they consider important, rather than just take their Facebook feed at face-value.

    12. 1 Attention! Why and How to Control Your Mind's Most Powerful Instrument

      "How to Thrive Online" is a text written by Howard Rheingold about technology in modern society and its tremendous impact. Rheingold talks about topics such as focus, attention span, and learning in a classroom setting among many others. While Rheingold inherently believes technology has a positive impact on knowledge in our society, he argues that the overload of information can have negative effects.

      An interesting subject that Rheingold brings up is the core, scientific reasons why staying connected all the time is addictive. Rheingold uses the term "dopamine squirt" to refer to the hormonal stimulation the brain receives when engaging in frequent social media. Social media, at it's core, is about connecting people. Social media websites are meticulously crafted and engineered to remove the awkward long pauses and small talk normal conversation might have, and makes engaging with other people more fun. Streamlining this engagement makes the brain pump out frequent bursts of dopamine, enough to the point that not being on social media and not making those engagements feels boring.

      Rheingold presents a broad range of information about how the mind is altered when we become too comfortable with the easily-accessible technology that surrounds us. He cites the research of many noted psychoanalysts and researcher and this shows the reader that extensive research went into the development of this text.

      Source Rheingold, Howard. Net Smart: How to Thrive Online. MIT Press, 2012.

    13. Then I'll consider the dangers of distraction posed by social media, examine arguments that the Web is making us stu-pid,

      With the new trends of social media in our society, there poses a lot of threats to our well-beings or physical safety. A mass majority of our society, you can say, is addicted to social media. The dangers in that is the distractions that are caused by it. Nowadays, you see a majority of young people in our society using social media whenever they can. The dangers in the is that they would be blind to everything around them. For example, if you are driving while browsing twitter or instagram you cause a risk to you and everyone in your environment, because you are blind to the important tasks due to multi-tasking. When they say the web is making us, as a society, stupid, they aren't wrong. Primarily in today's society, we rely on social media for our news. So when we see some viral post about something, we just assume its true. In Reality, most of the content on social media are false and biased. We as a society will just accept it instead of knowing the truth. So instead of researching the truth, we just follow along with everyone like sheep in a herd.

    14. Humans pay a lot of attention to other humans

      This statement alone is very similar to the supplemental reading, How Terrorists recruit online. Within the Article, it talks about how ISIS would reach out to potential candidates for their cause through the internet. The same goes both ways as well, the candidates can reach out to ISIS too through out the web. On both sides they're can be intense research on each other. What happens next is that ISIS would flock their subject with heavy amounts of social inputs. If they subject stays they would have to cut off all ties to mainstream media, family, friends, etc. ISIS would encourage for their candidate to fly out to them or stay at their homeland and carry out attacks from there. All of these wouldn't even be a process if it hadn't gone back to the beginning, where one person on either side had some sort of liking to the other side.

    15. The executive control we all exercise when we maintain focus on one task becomes useful when we move from understanding attention to con-trolling it

      Understanding attention is similar to those of having focused attention. For example, it is like pointing a flashlight in a certain direction. You're paying attention to the most important details while still looking out for distractions. It's almost like multi-tasking, because while you're still focusing on the main important details, you are still being aware of everything around you, which can sometimes make you miss the important details. Controlling your attention would almost be like sustained attention, where you focus on a single-thought for a long period of time and how well you can hold this thought. Most teens and adults can hold their thoughts on a single thing for more than 20 minutes, it would be their choice afterwards whether or not they want to keep focusing on it again. This kind of scenario happens when you're watching a film or lecture.

      Link to Article: https://www.edubloxtutor.com/understanding-attention-concentration/

    16. Only you can know your goals, and only you can determine which stimuli are relevant at any moment.

      This statement I feel is very true, because when you are online, whether for entertainment or research, you are in full control of what your goals are. You can decide whether any form of information is relevant to you or not. Because you are able to determine what stimuli is important, it is also very easy for you to multitask. By multi-tasking, however, the information seeker is more prone to getting distracted by the various information that is being present for him or her. Once the information seeker gets distracted, the outcome is that there is little to no work being done. The only way to get past this is to focusing on one goal at a time, in an order of importance. Rheingold makes a good point of this throughout the reading about multi-tasking can be the downfall of productivity.

    17. "awareness test"

      (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahg6qcgoay4) This was a video made to raise awareness for drivers to watch out for cyclists. In the video you are to keep track of how many passes the players in the white shirts make. While you are so focused on counting the passes, you don't notice someone in a bear suit walk into frame and dance out of it. This awareness test shows that we, as a society, will easily miss something we are not looking for. The reason why we might not see the bear is because we are blind to the bear because of the task that was given to us in the beginning of the video, that's why we would ignore it or miss it completely. This kind of scenario is very similar to how people, teens more specifically, are blind to their surroundings. For example, with social media being a big thing in today's society, teens are more focused on their phone than they are with their surroundings. Because of this, they are not considering what's going on around them which creates a higher risk for everyone around them.

    18. People multitask because they believe they can get more done, but Nass has solid evidence that the opposite is usually the case.

      Common belief among many individuals in the age of information, including many millennials, show the belief in the power of multitasking in daily life. As stated by Rhiengold, this is common practice for many young individuals. But contrary to popular belief, mental health takes a great toll as multitasking is utilized more. A study by Time Magazine recently describes how neuroscientist, Dr. Kubu, took time to research the mental activity required in multitasking. His results showed that when trying to utilize it to complete tasks, many were not only unable to complete either task, but are having a false sense of doing two things at once, but doing singular tasks in rapid succession. This does not help in trying to complete work or in becoming efficient.


    19. I'll help us begin the process of learning to control attention by exam-ining how attention works

      As Rheingold goes on to explain, beginning to understand the importance of attention and beginning to utilize it in a efficient manner is the beginning to be successful, especially in our growing age of technology. One of the main ways to utilize our attention is from utilizing it from "distractions". Though some information seems to be beneficial, it might not be the primary information you are looking to analyze, study, or utilize. One of the points that he makes is "focusing attention on relevant portions in a tsunami of information". This allows us to take it piece by piece, fully understanding each piece of text and putting it together.

    20. When you shift your attention, there is always a short interval during which you must reorient, refocus, and filter out competing information in order to move from one stable theme to another,

      This text perfectly describes why multitasking does not succeed. As one embarks on a task, it is meant to take the full attention of your brain. As attention switches to other tasks and events, it shifts your perception on current tasks and the brain must re-align itself back to the task at hand. The deficit of attention is what deters from task completion and slows down the process. Many people in this technological do this and do not realize how detrimental it is to their health and well-being, as well as how it is not helping them to succeed.

    21. ~ It. .., '. · • ·~ 1 ~ • 1· r ' . '···· ,,, •• ,1 Net Smart

      The Supplemental Reading I chose was "Debunking Fake News" by Eugene Kiely. The article discussed the epidemic of Fake News, a moniker for mass overloads of false information, in the digital realm of Facebook. They advocate fighting articles that contain Fake News, upvoting content that debunks it, and using their factcheck site in order to see if the news is fake. This problem arises with the masses believing the grand amount of information overload on the internet and creates disruption in society out of false information and false facts. https://www.factcheck.org/2017/07/debunking-fake-news/

    22. In regard to propaganda the early advocates of universal literacy and a free press envisaged only two possibilities: the propaganda might be true, or it might be false. They did not foresee what in fact has happened, above all in our Western capitalist democracies-

      Conscious Distractions are important to discuss, especially with the problem of fake news. As fake news is normally created with a purpose, it serves as a form of propaganda for the party or organization it benefits, and hurts the organization that it slanders. Often in politics, fake news has gone to slander many members, with no basis in factual evidence and truth. This causes many who don't understand the importance of identifying distractions actively to fall for these schemes and information that is false is spread to them in order to further a false agenda.


    23. 44 Chapter 1 however, you'll need to train yourself to recognize and withdraw attention from activities unrelated to your intended goal of the moment.

      Rheingold bluntly states the importance in withdrawing attention as a key to success. Along with identifying distractions, it is important to withdraw yourself from unrelated information. Many modes of unrelated information often try to hide as useful information, but go on tangents in order to drag the reader and move them from the task at hand. It is important to drain this information out as it is not part of the goal of the moment and creates rifts in being successful.

    24. Unhealthy for everybody • Fatal for a growing number • Addictive for some

      These three points encompass the effects of fake news. Fake News, first and foremost, is curated out of "thin air". It is based in fiction and falsehood and is not beneficial for anyone to indulge in and read. As many begin to read it and spread it to their circles, it becomes fatal. False information is spread to a mass number of individuals and is thought to be true information and becomes truth to many, as individuals put little effort into seeing if it is a distraction. Finally, it is addictive. Interests groups and societies have been created based off the theories and beliefs of many fake news sources, and have stirred up hatred for individuals that do not even deserve it. It also poisons the political community in America and tarnishes it with false data and information. https://www.factcheck.org/2017/07/debunking-fake-news/

    25. What are my media practices doing to my brain?

      Technology has allowed us the ability to search for different forms of media at any given time. We can get any form media at any time now because of technology and it is shaping the way we think and act. We know that we can find the funniest video on youtube of a dog flipping in circles just by doing a youtube search. It is making us more distracted and is causing our brain to reshape the way we think. We know that we no longer have to go to a comedy show to see a comedian, we can just watch his/her show on youtube. Media practices is changing us more into a stay at home and use the internet society rather than an actual go out and experience society.

    26. Use

      The technology that we have today has a wide array of uses. We can use technology for many things, and in many ways it has made the world we live in today a much better place. We can discover information from all around the world and use it to better our lives. We can find people from all over the world or fall in love with someone that lives 1,000 miles away. Technology has allowed us easy access to many things, and has cut the burden on us having to travel long distances to get things done. Like in the article redlining article by Gilliard, technology has allowed colleges and university to collectively stop bad internet usage by students. One college found a solution to the problem, and was able to give the solution to other colleges that were many miles away through technology. We are now able to share solutions to problems and information easily with one another, and to make easy fixes accessible to anyone via technology.

    27. If you are a parent, beware of the media equivalent of secondhand smoke: the impact of how you use media in your children's presence.

      In today's society, not just children use the internet and social media to gain information. Adults also use social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It has now become socially acceptable for adults to have social media pages and use them constantly. Because parents are now using social media like children, they can become distracted and not pay attention to their own children. Adults can be so caught up looking at adult things on social media that they don't notice that their kids are watching them. If the adults are constantly using social media, then it gives children the thought that it's ok to always use social media and that it's ok to be distracted by it. Parents using social media all the time can also make children addicted to social media and internet usage. Children follow what their parents do most of the time, and them watching their parents always on their phone, tablet, or computer makes them want to do it too.

    28. Only you can know your goals, and only you can determine which stimuli are relevant at any moment.

      When you are searching the internet, only you know your primary focus and what information you are aiming to take in. Only you know what information is useless to your goal of attaining information, and only you can filter out the useless information that you may access. You have to work on your focus on the primary task and complete it before moving on to another piece of information. Multitasking and searching for multiple modes of information only leads to the information seeker becoming more distracted or not getting anything done. In order to completely capture the information you are seeking you must pay attention and focus. You have to control your focus and not be distracted by random searches or second party information.

    29. When you are online, how often do you control your own focus-and how frequently do you allow it to be captured by peripheral stimuli?

      It is almost impossible for people to not be distracted at all when accessing the internet or using technology. There is too much information that can be accessed, and too many things for the brain to take in for us to not be distracted at all. What we can do though, is focus more on how we pay attention and how often do we get distracted while accessing the internet and using technology. We can work on how we focus and use executive control over ourselves to make ourselves focus more. Once we are able to control our focus and not get distracted, we will be able to complete more tasks in a timely matter and get more things accomplished.

    30. The simple-minded accounts of how the Internet is ruining our attention would not connect the teakettle with the stray dog.

      As technology grows rapidly, there will always be people who are stuck in the past and don't want to grow with technology. If we didn't have the technology we have today, we wouldn't be able to do half of the things we do, or wouldn't have the ease of access that we have. Doctor's communicate with each other across the world via internet, businesses make long distance transactions via internet, and family members communicate with each other over long distances through technology. These are a few examples of how technology has changed the way we do things and communicate with each other. In the Digital Readings article, it is shown how technology has changed since the 90's. In the 90's if a student in the library searched "inappropriate" material, a buzzer would ring loudly alerting the teacher. Now, the website is blocked through the computer server, and no buzzer is needed. Some people would've been opposed to the changing of this technology because it made a change in the classroom and how the student and teacher interacted. The ability for the teacher to not get distracted by a student searching something inappropriate but to just redline the sites in general is so much better for both the teacher and the student. The student doesn't have to be shamed by the buzzer, and the teacher doesn't have to stop what he/she is doing to check the student's content.

    31. People multitask because they believe they can get more done, but Nass has solid evidence that the opposite is usually the case.

      Because students have easy access to multiple modes of information online, they think that when they multitask and access all these forms of information at once it is better for them. This is actually the opposite of the truth. When students multitask their coursework with other information modes such as Facebook or random google searches, they are distracting themselves from the primary task at hand. It is nearly impossible for anyone to multitask with secondary and third information without being distracted from the primary information they were searching. When someone multitasks, when they do end up going back to their primary information source they are too distracted to learn or have already missed most of the information. A recent study by linkedin, a website that hosts as a medium between employees and employers, showed that 98% of people can multitask effectively, multitasking lowers productivity by up to 40%, and multitasking lowers IQ by 10 points. Link to Article: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/five-things-know-brain-akash-bagrecha

    32. Each week, I introduce a new attention probe to the classroom. I told a cohort of fifty students, for instance, that five of them could have their laptops open at any one time. "In order for somebody else to open their computer," I stipulated, "one of the current five will have to close theirs." This was not only an attention probe but also a collective action problem. It forced the current five to be aware of their own attention in the context of other students who were waiting to Google my lecture (or slay monsters in a role-playing game). Each class session, I reminded students that the objec-tive was "to get you to start paying attention to the way you pay attention. 1

      By using this exercise, Rheingold showed how easy it is for students to get distracted in the classroom because of the easy access to information. In class, the students with the laptop open are able to search on any site or social media app and not fully pay attention in class. This gives them the ability to pay attention while not actively paying attention which means they are actually distracted. Even the students who didn't have their laptop open were distracted by the ease of information access by other students. Students had to wait to use their laptop which makes them distracted while trying to pay attention to the professor. The use of technology in the classroom allows students the ability to not actively pay attention to the lecture but to also search for other things. This is bad for the students attention to the class and is a good example of distracted technology usage.

    33. all peo-ple and media are available all the time, and in all places, but relatively few people appear to use ubiquitous informational access and social connectiv-ity politely and productively.

      In this section, Rheingold focuses on the distracted tendencies of children and adults when they have the multiple modes of information tracking. How people use digital media to gain information also determines how distracted they are when trying to focus on one source of information. Since technology has allowed us the ability to have "always on" information, the more likely we are to not use that information correctly. Because we know that we will always have access to that information, the more likely we are to use that ability incorrectly for things like Facebook, Twitter, or random youtube searches. In the Digital Redlining article by Gilliard, he talks about how schools had to Redline certain websites and information because students would search inappropriate topics or websites. This is an example of how the easy access to information can lead to distraction from what we are actually supposed to be doing. Students will often get sidetracked from their coursework because they have access to other sites and they know that the information will always be there. This lead to school administrators having to Redline sites and block students from doing random searches instead of classwork.

    34. 1 Attention! Why and How to Control Your Mind's Most Powerful Instrument In the transmission of knowledge the children and teachers of the future should not be faced with a choice between books and screens, between newspapers and cap-suled versions of the news on the Internet, or between print and other media. Our transition generation has an opportunity, if we seize it, to pause and use our most reflective capacities, to use everything at our disposal to prepare for the formation of what will come next.

      In today's society, the use of digital media to gain information is the most prominent way of learning. Children and adults alike no longer have to go to the local library or travel long distances to gain information. Information today is easily accessible, and with just the click of a button an individual can find out almost anything. In today's world, any person with internet connection or a device that can connect to the internet can gain information from all around the world in just a few seconds. With the production of more technology that allows easier information tracking, there is also a decline in physical learning via books and texts. Children and adults alike mainly use digital media to find what they need, and no longer have to rely on texts to learn. The rapid growth of technology will make future generations have to choose between learning via digital media or not learning at all because most forms of information tracking are becoming obsolete. The world we live in today is rapidly growing, as well as information. Even though people need to be able to easily access this information, the easy accessiblity to this information is also distracting us. We can now find hundreds of different information all in a day's time. Even though it is good that we can access information, is it making us too quick to access to information at once?

    35. Gaining control of your attention while you are online requires, first of all, intention. When you formulate a goal, you need to intend to achieve it.

      This statement can also work very well with those of the real world, not necessarily while being online. Even before the internet, there would always be some sort of multi-tasking, except this time with hands on real world scenarios. When you were in school, teachers would often make you do one thing at a time. There was a reason behind doing this, it was so you don't get distracted or spend more time doing something. Switching around tasks is considered "expensive" not through money, but through time. Just like the saying goes, "time is money" we have to be able to do one task at a time and finishing it, before going on to the next.

    36. People multitask because they believe they can get more done, but Nass has solid evidence that the opposite is usually the case

      A new study by researchers at the university of Connecticut shows that multi-tasking can be more harm than students think. In a survey of 350 students, Researchers found that students who multi-tasked while doing homework, such as texting or checking Facebook, would have to study longer than students who don't. They would also have lower grades in class compared to their other peers. The reason they would have low grades is because while they are diverting their attention to send a text or check social media, they could be missing critical information from a lecture. By the time they bring their attention back to the lecture, their opportunity to grasp the information is gone.

      Link to the Article: https://clas.uconn.edu/2015/07/23/multitasking-increases-study-time-lowers-grades/

    37. By 2005, the year Facebook spread to most universities, the sight of stu-dents staring at their laptops rather than looking at their professor had become commonplace in classrooms.

      Students being on Facebook at the time was just like any new invention of any generation. When the Newspaper came out, everyone was using it. When cellphones came out, everyone was using it. Everyone wants to be included in a trend, its a part of human nature. Now, we have apps such as: Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, which will always be present in any situation, especially in a classroom. The only difference is that these apps have expanded past laptops, but on to cellphones as well.