178 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2016
    1. increase teacher retention, satisfaction, and student achievement

      I know for me, having a mentor teacher who I could sit down with, bounce ideas off of, vent to, help me find resources, etc. really helped me feel successful my first year teaching in a new district. I know this made made me a more comfortable teacher in my classroom and helped me become more personable with my kids.

    2. Grade-level teams focused on student learning have also been supported by research

      I agree purely by experience. My school schedules our department planning based on grade-level and content area and I know we create engaging activities together that helps our students learn.

    3. Lesson study

      During my student teaching, I had the opportunity to do this--and it did not turn out great. The lesson was not authentic, as students were too busy wondering why there were other people in the room. I'm not sure if it was just the way we were required to structure it, but it just kind of seemed like one of those things that worked in theory, but not in practice. However, I would love to have another shot at it, now having the experience of the previous lesson study. It seems like a really great practice, so I would be interested in trying it again.

    4. Great leaders focus on developing people's capacities rather than their limitations

      Great reminder for us as teachers. We have the power to build up those around us professionally (find qualities and traits that are useful) and to our students in our classroom. Positive mindsets.

    5. apply new knowledge and receive feedback, with ongoing data to reflect how teaching practices influence student learning over time.

      I think this is a key piece that many teachers and schools miss. If the school/district is teaching us something new, then we should be expected to implement it as best we can in our classroom. This needs to include FEEDBACK on how we are doing with the implementation.

    6. This resulted in the teachers engaging in intensive discussions about mathematical discourse while collaboratively and substantively examining each other's practices

      I think it is great to see how you teach from a "students perspective". I also agree that intensive discussions can come from examing each other's practices.

    7. A body of research indicates that mentoring programs can increase teacher retention, satisfaction, and student achievement (Ingersoll and Strong, 2011), as well as reduce feelings of isolation, particularly for early-career teachers

      Seeking out the wisdom from older/experienced teachers has truly helped shape my profession. While I have my school-provided mentor (in my same grade level), I have also built connections around the building so I have a number of people in my PLN to go to for advice and just to talk. This is so huge! A school that has a collaborative staff makes all the difference!

    8. On the other hand

      Yes--but too often this is exactly what we see. From my limited experience, PD seems like a quick run down of everything that we could be doing, or should be doing, but never actually how to do it. It is a lot of talk, but not a lot of action.

    9. Training teachers solely in new techniques and behaviors will not work.

      Then why do we do it? New tech doesn't mean that the old stuff is invalid or useless. When will we learn...

    10. Lesson study: Lesson study is a form of Japanese professional development that engages teachers in collaborative analysis of lessons. I

      I would love to do this. Major pushback is having teachers leave a classroom to do a lesson study. I think lesson study is incredibly valuable and one of the most effective ways or teachers to collaborate.

    11. Successful Collaboration Focus on Student Learning Continuous Teacher Learning Teacher authority to make decisions regarding curriculum, the processes of their own learning, and aspects of school governance.

      I had a great experience with PLC's when I taught kindergarten. Three times a year all K teachers would meet for PD that related to our blended learning program. I did not have the same opportunity in 4th grade. We only had one day before school to meet together. I think a lot is lost when you don't have time to collaborate and share across a district level.

    12. Teachers apply new knowledge and receive feedback, with ongoing data to reflect how teaching practices influence student learning over time.

      Key step - often left out. I feel like PD is a time for admin to throw a bunch of tools or programs or philosophies at you, but they never check in on how implementation is going - there isn't that feedback element or reflection on how it works in the classroom. It feels mostly like an imposition that "should" work.

    13. On the other hand, one-shot, "drive-by," or fragmented, "spray-and-pray" workshops lasting 14 hours or less show no statistically significant effect on student learning

      This feels like a 'duh' to me. Think about anything you do, one-shot never works, why do we expect it to work for teacher training?

    14. should compensate teachers for their expert contributions

      How is this defined?

    15. student learning measured in a variety of ways

      My district is grappling with this. 20% of my evaluation is student achievement, but what exactly does that mean? Test scores? Portfolios? Surveys? Interesting that they outline this as a way to "effectively identify and support quality teaching" I often feel this supports teaching to the test. Something to think about.

    16. vision

      Our school has a "vision statement" that is posted in every classroom and in the halls, to remind each student as well as the staff what the goal of being at MHS is. I think this helps keep both students and staff focused on success.

    17. When teachers receive well-designed professional development, an average of 49 hours spread over six to 12 months, they can increase student achievement by as much as 21 percentile points

      We only have 30 hours of district provided PD. As a new teacher, I need an additionally 90 hours. I wonder how much that effects my students growth compared to older teachers?

    18. On the other hand, one-shot, "drive-by," or fragmented, "spray-and-pray" workshops lasting 14 hours or less show no statistically significant effect on student learning (Darling-Hammond, Wei, Andree, Richardson, and Orphanos, 2009).

      Unfortunately, most PD is one-shot and drive-by, sometimes not even lasting more than an hour. It is hard to change teacher actions and perceptions is such a short amount of time.

      I have always believed that there should be more rigorous training for teachers. We need to be pushed and directed by clear leadership.

    19. Accomplished teachers are most knowledgeable about how students in their school or district learn, and thus they are ideal candidates to lead professional-learning and curriculum development efforts

      Most of my PD sessions are run by a) people who have been removed from the classroom for years or b) people outside of my district. It would be interesting to be in a PD with teachers that have taught my particular kids successfully.

    20. trust among parents, teachers, and school leaders are more likely to see academic improvement than schools that do little or fail to foster trus

      It is great to foster trust, but I always wonder how you can build that trust. I had placements in schools that clearly did not have this type of relationship, and it definitely had a negative impact on students. How do you build that trust? Or, once it is broken, can it be fixed?

    21. trust

      What is meant by trust? Trust with/in what?

    22. Leadership is second only to teaching among school-related factors that can improve student achievement, and it tends to show greatest impact in traditionally underserved schools (Leithwood, Seashore Louis, Anderson, and Wahlstrom, 2004)

      Interesting that leadership is the second factor. However I understand it. A good leader strives to help all teachers and has a great connection to the community. Especially in underserved schools, this can cause good talent to stay and the school to be well run.

    23. Great leaders focus on developing people's capacities rather than their limitations

      I feel like this goes not just for admin, but for us too. We don't want our evaluators pointing out all of our shortcomings, why do we do this to our students? I feel like this has a trickle down effect, if your admin focuses on teacher ability, teachers may focus more on student ability - both of which are likely to increase student achievement.

    24. Teaching quality has been defined as "instruction that enables a wide range of students to learn" (Darling-Hammond, 2012), and it is the strongest school-related factor that can improve student learning and achievement

      This is huge - if we want to improve our learning environments and achievement for students, we need to spend more time perfecting our craft. We need better PD to make this happen (not more, just better).

    1. Set a cooperative climate for learning in the class-room;•Assess the learner’s specific needs and interests;•Develop learning objectives based on the learn-er’s needs, interests, and skill levels;•Design sequential activities to achieve the objec-tives;•Work collaboratively with the learner to select me-thods, materials, and resources for instruction;and•Evaluate the quality of the learning experience and make adjustments, as needed, while ass

      All of this things are what makes adults successful learners, but I feel like the main component they lack that children thrive at is the questioning, curiosity, and creativity. Too often, adults get stuck in their ways and are used to just doing the norm rather than questioning it.

    2. There is no single theory of learning that can be ap-plied to all adults.

      This statement is powerful because this is actually true for all of education. There is no "one-size-fits-all" strategy for learning and I actually just wrote a blog about this so I can relate to this statement.

    3. pedagogy(“the art and science of teaching child-ren”)

      I thought that pedagogy was a thought process and way of critical thinking. I did not know that it was aimed at children specifically, but now this helps me understand that "andragogy" is for adults.

    4. wants to apply new learning immediately

      I see this during Professional Development all of the time. My colleagues always want the opportunity to work on the issue and implement the changes immediately.

    5. types of learning activities that most appeal to them

      One thing that changes from teaching youth is that adults have more prior knowledge to account for when approaching teaching.

    6. Provide feedback that challenges learners’ as-sumptions and deepens their critical thinking.

      Not sure what this would look like when leading PD

    7. TEAL Center Metacognitive Processes Fact Sheet
    8. TEAL Center Universal De-sign for Learning Fact Sheet
    9. expose different points of view

      This is good. Sometimes we just present information rather than the background or different perspectives on an issue/topic.

    10. teaching adults effectively requires an un-derstanding of various principles or theories of how adults learn

      This is very similar to the way children learn! I think that the mindset around adult learning needs to change. Scaffolding and accepting that adults learn at different paces (just like kids) needs to be taken into account.

    11. Incorporate more writing in more context

      I wonder if it matters if it is online or by hand? Should this writing be collaborative and be shared with others?

    12. complete and accurate information about the topic for discussion, be free from bias, and meet in an environment of acceptance, empathy, and trust

      Showing again that making our thinking visible is important. I think that this would be easier for adults to do than children, but it is the same environment that would be ideal for my students.

    13. ndivid-uals engaging in reflective discourse need to chal-lenge each others’ assumptions and encourage group members to consider various perspectives

      This has been a major component of the learning I have done within the MAET program - my classmates and instructors challenge the way I think. This is also a goal of mine for my classroom and my students as well. Again, it doesn't seem to be a clear difference between what adults and students need. There seems to be a lot of overlap.

    14. involve the learner in communica-tion with experts and peers

      value of a PLN - guidance and resources

    15. SDL can be difficult for adults with low-level literacy skills who may lack independence, confidence, inter-nal motivation, or resources.

      Doesn't seem to be different than what is also true for students.

    16. e, SD

      Isn't this the goal for all learners?

    17. valuating their own learning experiences

      90% of adults doing this at least once a year is not a great statistic. Once a year of evaluating our own learning is not a lot, even if the majority of people are doing this.

    18. "culture blind," stating that the con-cept of self-directed learning and the concept of the student’s establishing a non-threatening relationship with the teacher as facilitator of learning may neglectraces and cultures that value the teacher as the pri-mary source of knowledge and direction.

      I find this especially interesting. I think this goes back to the Design Process, specifically the Empathize component. We need to know our learners - what do they need and what do they expect?

    19. Because adults learn by doing, effective instruction focuses on tasksthat adults can perform, rather than on memorization of content
      1. Yes learning by doing is usually best
      2. (Why) is this different from children? Shouldn't we also focus on doing not memorizing for them too?
    20. adults need to know whythey are learning something

      Interesting idea in contrast to Warren Berger's idea that questioning slows after a very young age

    21. Evaluate the quality of the learning experience and make adjustments, as needed, while assess-ing needs for further learning

      This is often the piece that is missing from my district's PD.

    22. Develop learning objectives based on the learn-er’s needs, interests, and skill levels

      This seems to be good practice, as do many of these suggestions, for all learners. I want to meet the needs of my students as well.

    23. Draws on his/her accumulated reservoir of life experiences to aid learning

      Often in PD the teachers in attendance also share what they do in practice (not just presenters presenting)

    24. TEAL Center

      (Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy)

  2. Jun 2016
    1. Many young children have trouble giving up the notion that one-eighth is greater than one-fourth, because 8 is more than 4 (Gelman and Gallistel, 1978)

      Students would learn quickly if we brought in a large candy bar of some sort. Give them two options, see which one they pick, and then explain which fraction they chose.

    2. For example, imagine being asked to design an artificial artery—would it have to be elastic? Why or why not?

      I think the rigor and application of this example is excellent. I constantly try to use real world applications in my lectures, but I find it challenging with lower level math classes. I look forward to doing this more when I teach Calculus or Trigonometry.

    3. Thorndike argued that rewards (e.g., food) increased the strength of connections between stimuli and responses.

      I constantly struggle to find unique ways to reward my students. I usually use positive reinforcement and I find that works very well. Teaching in Philadelphia has shown me that positive reinforcement goes a long way and students rarely hear it at home.

    4. information and knowledge are growing at a far more rapid rate than ever before in the history of humankind

      Technology companies are constantly in competition to try create the next best device. Young kids are being introduced to technology at such young ages and are becoming fluent much quicker. I feel like technology companies have to maintain this quick turn around to keep the interest in the users.

    5. Now, at the end of the century, these aspects of high literacy are required of almost everyone in order to successfully negotiate the complexities of contemporary life.

      Individuals need to learn how to find their own answers by using technology as a resource. I agree that simple reading, writing, and calculating should be heavily tested because it required numerous types of thinking. Biology has recently become a requirement for Pennsylvania, which I am happy about as well.

    6. Emerging technologies are leading to the development of many new opportunities to guide and enhance learning that were unimagined even a few years ago.

      The beauty of technology is that it can even change to atmosphere of learning. You can guide instruction outside the classroom and create innovative ways of learning. I constantly pull my classes from my classroom and take them to various rooms in my school like the cafe on the first floor. I feel like changing locations may help prepare them for higher education and/or post schooling.

    7. variety of research approaches

      Which also allows for a variety of resources. We are pulling information from endless resources with the help of technology.

    8. experts

      "accomplished novices" ;-)

    9. individual work

      I think this is cultural thing for Americans as a whole. We are very focused on the individual and it isn't surprising that we teach this way. It's also common for students to complain about "being bad at group work" to such an extent that it may make teachers hesitant to assign a significant amount.

    10. The language that children bring with them to school involves a broad set of skills rooted in the early context of adult-child interactions.

      See, language! :-D

    11. Gradually, students come to ask self-regulatory questions themselves as the teacher fades out.

      This is my biggest struggle.

    12. First graders in an inner-city school were so highly motivated to write books to be shared with others that the teachers had to make a rule: “No leaving recess early to go back to class to work on your book”


    13. students need feedback about the degree to which they know when, where, and how to use the knowledge they are learning.

      I'd like to improve in this area. It'd be helpful to have a discussion of examples of this type of feedback.

    14. Their work with the data sets set the stage for them to learn from the lecture. The lecture was necessary, as indicated by the poor performance of Group 3.

      I think this is helpful-- combined with the earlier mention of using themes as an intro to a new unit/book. It suggests that starting with a theme and having students work through it THEN lecturing/helping students organize that information is the best technique.

    15. One aspect of previous knowledge that is extremely important for understanding learning is cultural practices that support learners’ prior knowledge.

      Fascinating. Previously, the author states "All new learning involves transfer." However, I am thankful for the authors perspective on cultural influences on this learning. Students' background information that they bring to school is a direct result of their cultural influences, as is students' ability to apply their learning to other situations.

      Effective learning means being able to transfer learning in school to everyday environments.

    16. One major contrast between everyday settings and school environments is that the latter place much more emphasis on individual work than most other environments (Resnick, 1987). A study of navigation on U.S. ships found that no individual can pilot the ship alone; people must work collaboratively and share their expertise.

      This is an interesting point. I have never thought that schools place so much more emphasis on individual work than other environments. What is the take-away for the classroom? Should we be emphasizing group work in classrooms more?

    17. The knowledge-acquisition strategies the students learn in working on a specific text are not acquired as abstract memorized procedures, but as skills instrumental in achieving subject-area knowledge and understanding.

      Close reading, when done well, should focus on knowledge acquisition strategies. Same thing with vocabulary. At a PD, I wrote down this applicable quote "Don't teach words, teach the skills."

    18. Transfer could also be negative in the sense that experience with one set of events could hurt performance on related tasks

      I see this when students use knowledge of another language to pronounce the new one and end up having an incorrect accent.

    19. up at Vanderbilt, 1997). A third way is to generalize the case so that learners are asked to create a solution that applies not simply to a single problem, but to a whole class of related problems. For example, instead of planning a single boat trip, students might run a trip planning company that has to advise people on travel times for different regions of the country. Learners are asked to adopt the goal of learning to “work smart” by creating mathematical models that characterize a variety of travel problems and using these models to create tools, ranging from simple tables and graphs to computer programs. Under these conditions, transfer to novel problems is enhanced (e.g., Bransford et al., 1998).

      This paragraph is what I was waiting for. What are ways that teachers can ensure that student learning can be applied in other scenarios and be used in multiple (possibly unrelated contexts?)

      1) As learners to solve one problem, but then provide them with similar problem. If students can apply their first experience to their second? 2) What-if questions are powerful to lead to learner flexibility. What if this part of the problem was changed? 3) Make sure the case is generalized, instead of one specific case. For example, don't have learners plan one specific boat trip, but plan a trip with more than one possibility of transport. In this way, students test their fluency in more than one scenario while working on the same task.

    20. The response of the “rote” group to novel problems was, “We haven’t had that yet.”

      This is a very frustrating response as a teacher. Often, students respond with that and completely shut down. How can teachers change our student thinking to ensure that students don't respond this way? How can teacher make sure this is a a permanent change, not just one to placate the teacher?

    21. But it took the student a huge amount of practice before he could perform at his final level, and when he was tested with letter strings, he was back to remembering about seven items.

      I am extremely interested in this anecdote. This student spent an extraordinary amount of time and effort in one specific skill, one that isn't particularly useful in other applications.

    22. Steven then asked students to think about the circumstances that might drive them so mad that they would contemplate murdering another human being.

      I love the idea of having students explore the themes of a new unit before delving into the unit itself. This is a preview that is more substantial than a simple "intro" before teaching the unit. It also allows for a reversal-- at the end ask students why the discussion was held and compare/contrast what they said to what happened in the unit.

    23. process information

      To me, not only does this mean giving them "wait time" to process during the lesson, but it means giving them times to reflect on their learning afterwards. Recalling the information that they learned that day and then having them connect it to what we did before or maybe make a prediction about what we are learning about the next day has been a powerful tool for my students to start to think for themselves.

    24. Jake’s image for how students would respond was his own responses as a student who loved Shakespeare and delighted in close textual analysis.

      Often teachers expect their students to be similar learners to themselves, which is never going to be the case. Important for teachers to view the lesson from the students' point of view, often.

    25. Transfer is best viewed as an active, dynamic process rather than a passive end-product of a particular set of learning experiences.

      The "end-product" would be the coveted answer that all of my kids are constantly asking for. I know that fostering critical thinking to be transferred from one setting and one subject to the next is important, but that is something that I personally have struggled with. Getting better this year, but always a struggle. Especially on the particularly difficult days.

    26. In fact, expertise can sometimes hurt teaching because many experts forget what is easy and what is difficult for students.

      Though I am not an expert by any means, I see this often in my classroom. Sometimes I truely forget what is easy or difficult for student. Many times I use vocabulary or terms that students do not understand to my great surprise.

      This is why it is so important that students see their teacher as a learner as well. Students need to see their teachers go through the same process that they do everyday.

    27. The use of instructional procedures that speed pattern recognition are promising in this regard

      I'd like to see examples of these practices.

    28. “educate”

      educate vs train. Meaningful because educating involves thinking critically, problem solving, and learning to take in the whole picture. Training requires memorization and procedures.

    29. As one fifth-grade child explained, after giving the answer of 36: “Well, you need to add or subtract or multiply in problems like this, and this one seemed to work best if I add”

      This statement is very silly For me, this really shows that just because an answer is correct, doesn't mean understanding is proven.

    30. Experts’ thinking seems to be organized around big ideas in physics, such as Newton’s second law and how it would apply, while novices tend to Page 38 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "2 How Experts Differ from Novices." National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000. doi:10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel perceive problem solving in physics as memorizing, recalling, and manipulating equations to get answers.

      This speaks to the importance of having clear and visible learning goals visible to the students. Control the narrative by using a common language of trying to problem solve and learn rather than 'just get the answer.'

    31. flexible and adaptive to new situations

      I think being flexible is what being a teacher is all about! Nothing ever seems to go quite as planned.

    32. For example, a high school class studying the principles of democracy might be given a scenario in which a colony of people have just settled on the moon and must establish a government. Proposals from students of the defining features of such a government, as well as discussion of the problems they foresee in its establishment, can reveal to both teachers and students areas in which student thinking is more and less advanced.

      While reading the previous paragraphs, I found myself nodding in agreement with the author. However, I often struggle to implement these characteristics of effective instruction in Social Studies. I am glad they added this practical example.

    33. epistemological

      (fyi-- from dictionary.com) pertaining to epistemology, a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.

    34. The goal of coverage need not be abandoned entirely, of course. But there must be a sufficient number of cases of in-depth study to allow students to grasp the defining concepts in specific domains within a discipline

      This goes on my previous annotation where I brought this point up. Another question arises, what is a sufficent number of cases of in-depth study? Who decides this? What does this look like in Social Studies where it is normally taught in a linear fashion?

    35. Within this picture of expertise, “knowing more” means having more conceptual chunks in memory, more relations or features defining each chunk, more interrelations among the chunks, and efficient methods for retrieving related chunks and procedures for applying these informational units in problem-solving contexts

      This relates the the earlier definition of "knowing"-- that it's not a matter of remembering and repeating information but more about being able to find and use it. By extension, "knowing more" is being about to find and use more chunks of information and knowing how to add new chunks to existing ones.

    36. For the scientific understanding to replace the naïve understanding, students must reveal the latter and have the opportunity to see where it falls short.

      The importance of preassessment and knowing your students is paramount in to have true understanding take place. Without those elements, the students will never reveal their misunderstandings and not have an opportunity to see where it falls short.

    37. sense-making, self-assessment, and reflection on what worked and what needs improvin

      What I like about this is that this is not only a positive for classroom growth, but character building as well. Something that obviously should be emphasized in public education, but often is not.

    38. Similarly, young children have been taught to demonstrate powerful forms of early geometry generalizations (Lehrer and Chazan, 1998) and generalizations about science (Schauble et al, 1995; Warren and Rosebery, 1996).

      This reminds me of the "Marshmallow Challenge," where kindergarteners often-times outperform college kids due to their propensity for learning by trial and error. This also reminds me of Malcolm Gladwell's book (forget which one... I think David and Goliath) where Gladwell describes various scenarios where kindergarteners outperform adults.

      It is important to not underestimate the abilities of our students (especially the young ones) and this research shows the power of inquiry based teaching.

    39. Though experts know their disciplines thoroughly, this does not guarantee that they are able to teach others.


    40. The principles are relevant as well when we consider other groups, such as policy makers and the public, whose learning is also required for educational practice to change.

      How????? Policy makers seem to rarely be familiar with actual classroom learning and practices. Even more so with the public. The public expects that their students be taught they way they were-- a major hiccup in the roll out of the common core. This book was first published in 1999 and we're still struggling to do this.

    41. An understanding of veins and arteries does not guarantee an answer to this design question, but it does support thinking about alternatives that are not readily available if one only memorizes facts

      I found this entire paragraph interesting. The author seems to be showing that students need a deep understanding of each concept. I.e. students need to know not only what a vein is, but why they have specific properties.

      This springs a question for me which I have often had discussions with colleagues about standards (particularly Social Studies). There are far too many standards for teachers to be able to cover each standard in depth. What should a classroom teacher do, teach all the standards but only scrape the surface, or skip other standards in order to ensure deep understanding of topics covered?

    42. Cultural differences can affect students’ comfort level in working collaboratively versus individually,

      I appreciate this acknowledgement-- I'd like more suggestions on how to help students from a variety of cultures overcome their fear of being wrong as mentioned in the next bullet point.

    43. experts are more likely than novices to first try to understand problems

      I feel like this is not just math...?

    44. the importance of providing students with learning experiences that specifically enhance their abilities to recognize meaningful patterns of information

      In my class we do lots of labs, reading charts and tables, looking at pictures to compare and classify things. To me, this is part of teaching them how to "look at the big picture"

    45. Now, at the end of the century, these aspects of high literacy are required of almost everyone in order to successfully negotiate the complexities of contemporary life.

      Technology has made this statement a necessity. Memorization of dates, facts, and definitions is superfluous as these are very easy to Google. This next step of being able to locate and use information is the most important, and difficult, to teach. This is a major reason that I joined MAET.

    46. “wisdom of practice” that comes from successful teachers who can share their expertise.

      I often put much more weight into techniques and research done by classroom teachers, as opposed to people who haven't worked in a classroom setting. It is extremely important for researchers to include teachers in every step of their research.

    47. Superficial coverage of all topics in a subject area must be replaced with in-depth coverage of fewer topics that allows key concepts in that discipline to be understood.

      It's important to have administrator support here...I was fortunate to have this in recently redesigning my curriculum but I feel as though that was unique...

    48. students might help one another solve problems by building on each other’s knowledge, asking questions to clarify explanations, and suggesting avenues that would move the group toward its goal

      It's a beautiful thing when I see this in my room! Made me smile so big this last year when it finally happened.

    49. Superficial coverage of all topics in a subject area must be replaced with in-depth coverage of fewer topics that allows key concepts in that discipline to be understood.

      mastery vs memory

    50. themselves

      Formative assessment has been a big push this year at my school. It has been a big discussion on whether we use the data as teachers to just change what and how we teach something or do we share the data with our students to know how their learning is coming along.

    51. internal conversation

      Does it have to be? What about Visible Thinking routines?

    52. In Teacher A’s classroom, the students are learning something of media production, but the media production may very well be getting in the way of learning anything else. In Teacher B’s classroom, the teacher is working to ensure that the original educational purposes of the activity are met, that it does not deteriorate into a mere media production exercise. In Teacher C’s classroom, the media production is continuous with and a direct outgrowth of the learning that is embodied in the media production.

      In order to differentiate for the various learners in my class I can typically be found doing all of these at once on a project. This year a student was REALLY struggling with the technology piece and it was clearly getting in the way of him actually learning the material so instead of a slides presentation, he constructed an old-school poster board. It had the same information requirements, just in a more "user friendly" format for him.

    53. What strategies might they use to assess whether they understand someone else’s meaning? What kinds of evidence do they need in order to believe particular claims? How can they build their own theories of phenomena and test them effectively?

      Sounds like the "Claims-Evidence-Reasoning" writing that has been a push in the younger grades in my district. The NHA school I was teaching at last year did this as well.

    54. They come to formal education with a range of prior knowledge, skills, beliefs, and concepts that significantly influence what they notice about the environment and how they organize and interpret it.

      unlocking this knowledge is the key. Silly high school students saying "I don't know" to every question I ask.

    55. At the same time, students often have limited opportunities to understand or make sense of topics because many curricula have emphasized memory rather than under- Page 9 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "1 Learning: From Speculation to Science." National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000. doi:10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel standing.

      In science, there is deinfinely a chunk of stuff that has to be memorized, but the processes that we learn about have to be understood, not just memorized for students to show mastery. I have the luxury of being able to conduct labs, give demonstrations, find comupter simulations, and lecture all on the same process.

    56. the meaning of “knowing” has shifted from being able to remember and repeat information to being able to find and use it

      Love this! This has been a big push for me this year to shift the control of learning from myself to the students. Having my students be responsible for their own learning is a powerful tool that helps them feel confident and competent.

    57. Emerging technologies are leading to the development of many new opportunities to guide and enhance learning that were unimagined even a few years ago.

      Using new technology has been a hot topic in my district this year. We had many PDs focused on introducing all the teachers to new things that they can use in the classroom. It was always fun!

    58. Research on learning and transfer has uncovered important principles for structuring learning experiences that enable people to use what they have learned in new settings.

      As a high school special ed teacher my students are constantly fighting with me about how they will never use this information "in the real world." It is always nice when I can prove them wrong. Through teaching science, I bring in real life examples of science happening all around us and within us to help my kids connect. It is always a proud moment when they come into class and say that they saw something that we learned about outside of class!

    59. extraordinary outpouring of scientific work on the mind and brain, on the processes of thinking and learning,

      for me, in special education, we are constantly thinking about how our kids think and process the world differently. It is amazing to me that we are constantly learning more and evolving how we think about things.

    60. Nevertheless, they provide important glimpses of connections between goals for learning and teaching practices that can affect students’ abilities to accomplish these goals.

      I hope the author goes into more detail as to how this can be done, or ways in which we can better observe this in order to replicate it in our own classrooms.

    61. trial and error

      I think that the most valuable learning occurs this way (despite my misgivings with early behavioral psychology/ists) and find that the biggest stumbling block in student learning is often that they (and we as a society) view mistakes as a bad thing. They are not. They should be viewed as opportunities to improve and yet are often used as excuses to give up or to avoid the subject matter. (Some of those excuses are fully supported by American culture-- "I suck at math" being maybe the most common example)

    62. better at selecting talent than developing it

      This can likely tie into the earlier mention of classroom settings and norms.

    63. the meaning of “knowing” has shifted from being able to remember and repeat information to being able to find and use it

      I love this-- I'm sure we can all find evidence of this in our classrooms. The language teaching techniques that I currently practice are drastically different from how I was taught in high school.

    64. In the early part of the twentieth century, education focused on the acquisition of literacy skills: simple reading, writing, and calculating. It was not the general rule for educational systems to train people to think and read critically, to express themselves clearly and persuasively, to solve complex problems in science and mathematics.

      Which educational systems? Was this true for a majority of countries or is the author describing the U.S.?

    65. all learning takes place in settings that have particular sets of cultural and social norms and expectations and that these settings influence learning and transfer in powerful ways

      A discussion of these norms and who they tend to benefit would be worth having.

    66. What is perhaps currently most striking is the variety of research approaches and techniques that have been developed and ways in which evidence from many different branches of science are beginning to converge.

      I find it interesting that in spite of this, we still teach math and sciences in isolation (biology/chemistry/physics/algebra/geometry.etc). I'd be interested to see research combining the findings of this research in classes where subjects are less isolated. It seems as though this would set students up for success doubly-- using the new research to support them and helping them build connections between new and previously learned information.

    67. Teachers can be helped to view different cultural backgrounds as strengths to be built on, rather than as signs of “deficits.”

      This is something that I learned through MSU's student teaching in Hazel Park, MI. I was forced to reevaluate my understanding as the students had such different backgrounds than I did. It was an important lesson for me to learn that these students were not incapable of learning- instead they had unique experiences that contributed to our lessons in ways I could never have imagined.

    68. To counteract these problems, teachers must strive to make students’ thinking visible and find ways to help them reconceptualize faulty conceptions.

      Visible thinking is a hot topic right now in many districts. I love that this method has students explain their understanding so that we can see what they're thinking. Rather than lecturing and hoping they were paying attention well enough to solve problems. I think this is huge and I would love to use more visible thinking strategies in my classroom.

    69. First, students may have knowledge that is relevant to a learning situation that is not activated. By helping activate this knowledge, teachers can build on students’ strengths. Second, students may misinterpret new information because of previous knowledge they use to construct new understandings. Third, students may have difficulty with particular school teaching practices that conflict with practices in their community.

      Just another reminder of how important it is to get to know students and their background knowledge prior to lessons and instructions. So much of their ability to transfer new knowledge depends on their beliefs coming into the class.

    70. Thus, the program involves modeling, scaffolding, and taking turns which are designed to help students externalize mental events in a collaborative context.

      Just like the "I do, we do, you do" mentality of gradually releasing the responsibility to the students during lessons.

    71. Providing students with time to learn also includes providing enough time for them to process information.

      Wait time! I've heard it time and time again. It can be so difficult when half of your class "gets it" right away. I definitely need to work on my wait time for students.

    72. The ability to recognize the limits of one’s current knowledge, then take steps to remedy the situation, is extremely important for learners at all ages.

      This is such great point, and something, that I think many students never achieve. They want to get in, get their work done, receive a good grade, and move on. Very few go above and beyond to take the time to deepen their understanding. Would love more info on how to effectively teach students this in the classroom.

    73. Pedagogical content knowledge is an extremely important part of what teachers need to learn to be more effective.

      I think this is a huge thing for teachers to remember. We know our class best, and sometimes that means we can add to or tweak the set curriculum we are given. This is especially prevalent if you need to provide additional background information before delving into the content.

    74. They asked themselves whether to add, subtract, multiply, or divide, rather than whether the problem made sense.

      I see this exact problem with my students. Often times they are rushing through problems and don't bother to stop and think about the problem logically. With everything so automatic for these kids nowadays, many don't have the patience to stop and think. They seem to work toward a solution instead of going back to see if their answers make sense. So frustrating! This was definitely something that I would like to combat more in the next school year.

    75. John Dewey’s vision, “School should be less about preparation for life and more like life itself.”


    76. FIGURE 1.2 Students spend only 14 percent of their time in school.

      Wow! I like this graphic. There are so many outside factors that are influencing our students before they're sitting in front of us. Good reminder for me as a teacher.

    77. Each of these techniques shares a strategy of teaching and modeling the process of generating alternative approaches (to developing an idea in writing or a strategy for problem solving in mathematics), evaluating their merits in helping to attain a goal, and monitoring progress toward that goal. Class discussions are used to support skill development, with a goal of independence and self-regulation.

      Teacher goals right here!

    78. Students can become more expert if the geographical information they are taught is placed in the appropriate conceptual framework.

      Geography is one of my passions in teaching. I love having conversations with my students about this exact topic. They bring up the ideas later in the year. Conceptual understanding is key in this case.

    79. A logical extension of the view that new knowledge must be constructed from existing knowledge is that teachers need to pay attention to the incomplete understandings, the false beliefs, and the naive renditions of concepts that learners bring with them to a given subject. Teachers then need to build on these ideas in ways that help each student achieve a more mature understanding. If students’ initial ideas and beliefs are ignored, the understandings that they develop can be very different from what the teacher intends.

      One of my favorite things in class is when a student courageously raises their hand and asks me about a topic and makes a connection to a false belief. I love having that opportunity to clarify misconceptions. We need to be able to have conversations that allow students to ask questions, because I know not all students will have the personality to bring their questions up in front of a class. With all the push of curriculum, I think some of these conversations are lost... but they are so important to the child's "complete understanding"

    80. At the same time, students often have limited opportunities to understand or make sense of topics because many curricula have emphasized memory rather than under- Page 9 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "1 Learning: From Speculation to Science." National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000. doi:10.17226/9853. × Save Cancel standing. Textbooks are filled with facts that students are expected to memorize, and most tests assess students’ abilities to remember the facts.

      I've seen a shift in this mindset with the new tests coming out (especially ELA) for students to make connections from different texts instead of rote memorizations. It will be interesting to see how this progresses in coming years.

    81. Students who are learning oriented like new challenges; those who are performance oriented are more worried about making errors than about learning.

      I wonder if this is something we can help change in our students - maybe by modeling how mistakes are a normal and good part of learning.

    82. Monitoring involves attempts to seek and use feedback about one’s progress. Feedback has long been identified as important for successful learning

      Makes sense. But it's not easy encouraging students to want to self-monitor their progress and use feedback to improve!

    83. Emerging technologies are leading to the development of many new opportunities to guide and enhance learning that were unimagined even a few years ago.

      This topic is something that has intrigued me this past year. I have gone to several PD's about different technology opportunities available to students. There is so much great stuff out there.... it's just a pain to have limits on availability on devices in my classroom. Time to think outside the box and incorporate more small group/ center/stations in the classroom.

    84. create innovative curricula that introduce important concepts for advanced reasoning at early ages.

      I think this is so huge! I feel like we often put limits on ourselves and our students based on demographics (SES, Free and reduced lunch, etc) instead of looking for ways to connect our curriculum to our students. All children have the capacity to learn and grow no matter where they were raised. I like that this is putting an emphasis on reasoning and problem solving too.

    85. Although many people believe that “talent” plays a role in who becomes an expert in a particular area, even seemingly talented individuals require a great deal of practice in order to develop their expertise

      Growth mindset! Spend more time and effort, and you can be successful. This is good to use to encourage our students who struggle - no one was an expert immediately.

    86. “accomplished novices.” Accomplished novices are skilled in many areas and proud of their accomplishments, but they realize that what they know is minuscule compared to all that is potentially knowable. This model helps free people to continue to learn even though they may have spent 10 to 20 years as an “expert” in their field.

      I like this idea that we all have more we can learn. It relates to a quote someone told me at a PD last year that she uses in her classes "everybody knows something, but nobody knows everything".

    87. Steven began his unit on Hamlet without ever mentioning the name of the play. To help his students grasp the initial outline of the themes and issues of the play, he asked them to imagine

      This seems like a great hook to make students engaged and get them thinking. I've been introduced to hooks but don't always find good ideas for HS math...I hear "Teach Like a Pirate" is a good book though!

    88. In sum, although the students scored very well on facts about history, they were largely unacquainted with modes of inquiry with real historical thinking.

      I think this relates back to the metacognitive skills emphasis from the previous chapter. We need students not just to know facts but how to THINK in our discipline. How do students attack a new problem/situation? How do they reason? This means learning isn't about knowing the answer but about the process of thinking & inquiry. How do we get our students there?

    89. Their knowledge is not simply a list of facts and formulas that are relevant to their domain; instead, their knowledge is organized around core concepts or “big ideas” that guide their thinking about their domains.

      I agree! All too often I feel education revolves around having students learn/memorize lists of facts rather than building deep conceptual understanding about a topic. It's easy to get caught up in this!

    90. children can be taught these strategies, including the ability to predict outcomes, explain to oneself in order to improve understanding, note failures to comprehend, activate background knowledge, plan ahead, and apportion time and memory. Reciprocal teaching, for example, is a technique designed to improve students’ reading comprehension by helping them explicate, elaborate, and monitor their understanding as they read

      These are good strategies!

    91. In Teacher A’s classroom, the students are learning something of media production, but the media production may very well be getting in the way of learning anything else. In Teacher B’s classroom, the teacher is working to ensure that the original educational purposes of the activity are met, that it does not deteriorate into a mere media production exercise. In Teacher C’s classroom, the media production is continuous with and a direct outgrowth of the learning that is embodied in the media production.

      Interesting - about the purpose of technology, learning objectives and how to teach. (TPACK!)

    92. New curricula for young children have also demonstrated results that are extremely promising: for example, a new approach to teaching geometry helped second-grade children learn to represent and visualize three-dimensional forms in ways that exceeded the skills of a comparison group of undergraduate students at a leading university (Lehrer and Chazan, 1998).

      Wow! This is impressive and seems to be good evidence for using some type of "inquiry-based" teaching.

    93. “usable knowledge”

      Does this mean students who just "rote" memorize something won't really be able to use this knowledge - that they have to more deeply understand the concept and its connections? Therefore as teachers we should strive to have our students build conceptual understanding not just quickly cover topics.

    94. Emerging technologies are leading to the development of many new opportunities to guide and enhance learning that were unimagined even a few years ago.

      New technology is exciting! How do we best use technology to engage and help our students understand/learn better? (that's what I've been starting to focusing on recently)

    95. a new theory of learning is coming into focus that leads to very different approaches to the design of curriculum, teaching, and assessment than those often found in schools today.

      I find it interesting how theories of education change over time - do people change or just the research? Why do teachers often think a new educational trend is just a phase? (ex. Common Core Standards)

    96. A second major contrast between schools and everyday settings is the heavy use of tools to solve problems in everyday settings, compared with “mental work” in school settings

      I see this as one of the biggest issues in schools preparing students for real life situations. Schools are not equipped to create realistic learning environments because of lack of funds, budget restrictions and other factors. While technology does close this gap for some, there are many schools who do not have this access to technology, or have too little access. Even old fashioned print materials can be scarce for some schools. Unfortunately, some of this won't change until accountability factors (standardized tests) change because teachers often refuse to teach students in a medium different than what they will be tested in (that has both positive and negative consequences). I think if we want to make learning more genuine for students and encourage that transfer outside the classroom, we need to make our classrooms more like the real world scenarios students will face and give them the proper equipment to accomplish their tasks.

    97. In the mind of a child, all of these questions can become more of the focus than the subject of fractions that the teacher is attempting to teach.

      This is such an important thing for all teachers to recognize. I once observed in a classroom where a teacher was teaching about the Great Lakes (this is a classroom in Michigan). The teacher assumed that all students knew these were fresh bodies of water, so she asked "Would a whale go in the lake?" Many students laughed and said "NO!" but one student looked very confused. As other students began sharing their answers, all referring to fresh water, the boy raised his hand and said that he thought the answer was "no, because a whale would be too big for a lake." It dawned on me that even though the boy lived just miles from Lake Michigan, he had never seen it. It's so important to learn all that we can about our students, their experiences, and what they are specifically bringing into the classroom.

    98. Many of the activities mentioned by the students had involved a great deal of hard work on their part: for example, they had had to learn about geometry and architecture in order to get the chance to create blueprints for the playhouses, and they had had to explain their blueprints to a group of outside experts who held them to very high standards

      This is a great example of an authentic assessment, in my opinion. Students are using project-based learning to understand the overarching patterns and are certainly transferring the knowledge. Presenting it to an expert audience is a fantastic way to assess student understanding.

    99. “We haven’t had that yet.”

      As a teacher, this response can be entirely frustrating. It is one of those things that you know you taught it, but because you are the expert, and the students are likely novices, the transfer is not there. It also goes back to the point that you have to be explicit in your instruction. The "understanding method" recognizes patterns and allows for students to see the shape in a different way, and may help expand their thinking.

    100. Transfer is affected by the degree to which people learn with understanding rather than merely memorize sets of facts or follow a fixed set of procedures;

      I think that this is very important, and emphasizes points made in previous chapters. If students are taught by the "mile wide, inch deep" mindset, the ability to transfer will suffer. If students are purely just memorizing facts, they may be able to make near transfers, but far transfers may suffer.

    101. In fact,

      I have seen this a lot in my experience. You forget that you need to teach the very basics before moving on. I have seen teachers get frustrated that they have to do this, but because we are experts, we really do forget that at one point in time, we were not.

    102. The exercise is less a test than an indicator of where inquiry and instruction should focus.

      Formative assessments are essential at any grade level. They are far more authentic and allow students to perform in a way that truly shows their abilities. This past year, I worked with second graders with spelling test anxiety. They would freeze up moments before the test and completely forget their words. Quick, informal formative assessments are a great way to better understand your students, their misconceptions and how to better focus instruction.

    103. The model of the child as an empty vessel to be filled with knowledge provided by the teacher must be replaced.

      Many of my undergraduate courses at MSU focused on this concept. Students are not a receptacle to be filled with your knowledge, but rather the transfer of knowledge needs to travel both ways.

    104. The act of instruction can be viewed as helping the students unravel individual strands of belief, label them, and then weave them into a fabric of more complete understanding.

      I really like this. So often, I felt like my own education was just instructors trying to connect the strands instead of helping me unravel and understand them. While making connections is undoubtedly important, educators should strive to help students unravel and create a new understanding.

    105. Thoughtful participation in the democratic process has also become increasingly complicated as the locus of attention has shifted from local to national and global concerns.

      I was lucky enough to see this first hand during my undergraduate time at Michigan State. MSU focuses greatly on giving us field experiences that demonstrate the constantly developing realm of education. During my student teaching, my students were taught that literacy was all encompassing. It was not just the ability to read and write, but it was also the ability to turn on a computer, to send an email, to vote in an election, etc. To be literate, simply means to be capable in an certain area.

    106. “wisdom of practice” that comes from successful teachers who can share their expertise.

      As a new teacher, I am very reliant on the wisdom and experience of those around me. I value their opinions and experiences greatly, and look forward to how it will impact my own teaching.

    107. create innovative curricula that introduce important concepts for advanced reasoning at early ages.

      I think this is a very exciting and important step to curriculum development. As a new teacher, I have many hopes. One in particular is that I hope to be able to teach advanced reasoning skills to my first graders. I have seen raw, natural ability to do this in my field experience and I'm very excited to see how this helps both my students and myself develop.

    108. Research has indicated that transfer across contexts is especially difficult when a subject is taught only in a single context rather than in multiple contexts

      I understand the need for cross-curricular learning, but I don't think there has been enough buy in. Too often the subjects that team up are math & science, or history & English, which use many of the same skills but fit together logically. I think to encourage far transfer, disciplines that are not logical connections should be paired with one another - the possibilities are endless. Science and physical education, English and foreign languages, science and history, etc.

    109. Students taking regular algebra in a major school system received an average of 65 hours of instruction and homework during the year. In contrast, those taking honors algebra received approximately 250 hours of instruction and homework (John Anderson, personal communication). Clearly, it was recognized that significant learning takes major investments of time

      Homework that is purposeful can have a huge benefit, but the trick is to make it purposeful. The days of sending home practice worksheets is over, we need to find ways to encourage learning outside of the classroom because 250 hours of instruction > 65 hours of instruction. I feel like that is doing a disservice to the kids by asking them to transfer skills they never had the time to master.

    110. By such an account, skills of writing letters of the alphabet are useful to writing words (vertical transfer). The theory posited that transfer from one school task and a highly similar task (near transfer), and from school subjects to nonschool settings (far transfer), could be facilitated by teaching knowledge and skills in school subjects that have elements identical to activities encountered in the transfer context

      I hadn't thought about there being different types of transfer before. I think it is important to understand the distinctions if we are trying to help our students. I can see a lot of vertical and near transfer in my classes, but I think the administration and community wants to see far transfer - that is students apply academic skills to non-academic settings. I think talking more about the different levels of transfer and using those to scaffold could help more people reach the far transfer stage.

    111. Educators hope that students will transfer learning from one problem to another within a course, from one year in school to another, between school and home, and from school to workplace

      I think it is interesting that the author uses the word hope in this sentence. I think hope is exactly what many teachers do - they lay out all the skills and knowledge students need, but don't help them through the transfer stage, they just hope the student figures it out for themselves. I think transfer needs to be more explicitly taught, until students can think through that process on their own.

    112. expertise can sometimes hurt teaching because many experts forget what is easy and what is difficult for students

      I think this is very common, unfortunately.

    113. Sometimes students who have done well on such assignments—and believe that they are learning—are unpleasantly surprised when they take tests in which problems from the entire course are randomly presented so there are no clues about where they appeared in a text

      I see this happen a lot on my campus, especially in math. Students will go through sets of practice problems and will feel like they have a grasp on the content, but the test will then ask them to transfer their skills. They will be given word problems that don't specify or encourage a particular process for solving, so students get very frustrated that "the review was nothing like the test." I think we need to find a better way to bridge this gap, or make it apparent to students why the test seems different from the review, but actually requires the same skills and knowledge.

    114. Many forms of curricula and instruction do not help students conditionalize their knowledge

      How do we change this?

    115. the importance of providing students with learning experiences that specifically enhance their abilities to recognize meaningful patterns of information

      What does this look like in practice? How would I make this happen in my classroom?

    116. When viewing instructional texts, slides, and videotapes, for example, the information noticed by novices can be quite different from what is noticed by experts

      I know as teachers we have all had that moment when we teach a concept that is so basic and logical to us and our students just don't get it. We get so frustrated because we cannot understand how the students are not understanding something so simple, but this touches on that phenomena. We as "experts" in our content can see patters and information that our novice students cannot.

    117. short-term memory is enhanced when people are able to chunk information into familiar patterns

      I feel like this is a common strategy we try to encourage our kids to use, not for learning, but rather for time management. We often encourage students to "chunk" their readings so they can do a little at a time and not get overwhelmed with the amount of information they have to remember - I think we need to stress the idea that this helps with discerning patterns which facilitate thinking and memory formation, and it's not just a time management strategy.

    118. One of the earliest studies of expertise demonstrated that the same stimulus is perceived and understood differently, depending on the knowledge that a person brings to the situation

      This is relevant to the idea that our students all come to us with varying levels of prior knowledge and different understandings of content and concepts that can affect their perceptions and learning.

    119. Are not community centered

      I recently read an article about ways to engage students within the school community and one of their suggestions was to invite parents to professional development sessions. Though I am not yet sure how I feel about that proposal, it is an interesting concept. The article mentioned that this helps parents understand the expectations for their child and ways to support learning at home. It also gives parents insight into the demands placed on the teachers by the school and administration. I would like to get some other's opinions on this and discuss what types of professional development would be beneficial for parents to see and what that might look like in practice.

    120. Research shows that students who think that intelligence is a fixed entity are more likely to be performance oriented than learning oriented—they want to look good rather than risk making mistakes while learning. These students are especially likely to bail out when tasks become difficult. In contrast, students who think that intelligence is malleable are more willing to struggle with challenging tasks

      I see this a lot in my GT classes - some of my GT students are in the latter group; they are willing to struggle to accomplish something personal. My high achievers, on the other hand, are in the former group; they constantly ask me "what do I need to do to get an 'A' on this assignment/project/test?" I would like to foster more students in the latter group as struggling to success is a fundamental value in life.

    121. There is no universal best teaching practice

      I think this is important for teachers to remember. I feel like when these new teaching strategies come out (PBL, Flipped Classroom, Stations, Maker Space, etc) teachers think that you are no longer allowed to lecture because kids do not respond to that. Too often teachers try to implement these new strategies holistically, for every lesson and that is just not reasonable. Sometimes you have to lecture - it may be the most effective way to deliver the content. Sometimes PBL doesn't work for what you want students to gain from the lesson. I think it is important to encourage teachers to use a variety of strategies and not just one - it is also important to note that the newest strategies are not always the best. Lecture style classrooms produced a lot of intelligent people before PBL was created, but I think newer teachers are afraid of it.

    122. Developing strong metacognitive strategies and learning to teach those strategies in a classroom environment should be standard features of the curriculum in schools of education

      How do we make this a standard practice in our schools? How can you train teachers to train students how to recognize their thinking?

    123. A teacher is put in a bind if she or he is asked to teach for deep conceptual understanding, but in doing so produces students who perform more poorly on standardized tests. Unless new assessment tools are aligned with new approaches to teaching, the latter are unlikely to muster support among the schools and their constituent parents

      This is a struggle I have as a teacher in Texas. Students are required to pass 5 state standardized tests in order to graduate (this was cut down from the original requirement of 15). If students pass all their classes, earn all their credits, but don't pass the test, they don't get their diploma. It is difficult for me to not think about the test constantly because I don't want students to fail and miss out on their diploma. I would like to move more toward practical applications of skills and life/workplace skills, but until those are tested, I have to find a way to marry these two approaches. I'm interested in learning how to more effectively help students acquire deep conceptual understanding, while also passing their required tests.

    124. people must learn to recognize when they understand and when they need more information

      How do we encourage this? Many times students think they are "done" with something, but I can quickly glance at it and see huge holes in their work. How do we teach someone to continue gathering information until they have exhausted all their options?

    125. Thorndike argued that rewards (e.g., food) increased the strength of connections between stimuli and responses

      I've had many discussions with colleagues about the use of positive reinforcement. One colleague shared with me that positive reinforcement only works where there is the potential for a negative consequence. In this case, the positive reinforcement (food) is paired with a potentially negative consequence (being stuck in the box) that encourages the cat to escape. I am concerned that using just positive reinforcement will foster an environment of entitlement in which people expect a reward for doing the right thing.

    126. In the early part of the twentieth century, education focused on the acquisition of literacy skills: simple reading, writing, and calculating

      Literacy development is my district's new "problem of practice." I think that over time literacy has changed to include a whole realm of technology literacy and it is essential now, more than ever, that students understand the different types of literacy and how to code switch between them.

    127. Research on learning and transfer has uncovered important principles for structuring learning experiences that enable people to use what they have learned in new settings

      As a high school teacher, I think this is one of the greatest obstacles I face with my students. Too often students think the skills we are teaching them are reserved for classroom use only. I think getting students to understand how to transfer their skills would help people value education more and see their skills as necessary for lifelong success.

    128. Thirty years ago, educators paid little attention to the work of cognitive scientists, and researchers in the nascent field of cognitive science worked far removed from classrooms

      I am very excited to see the relationship develop between these two disciplines. When pursuing a psychology minor, I was often discouraged by my counselor because it was "not a marketable degree." As an educator, I think it is essential that we understand cognitive development when designing and delivering content.

    129. When a subject is taught in multiple contexts, however, and includes examples that demonstrate wide application of what is being taught, people are more likely to abstract the relevant features of concepts and to develop a flexible representation of knowledge (Gick and Holyoak, 1983).

      Benedict Carey's book "How We Learn" has some different -- but related (and interesting) -- research-based insights about learning. Have you ever wondered, for example, whether it's more effective to study in a quiet room vs. a noisy one? Or better to listen to jazz or classical music while studying?

    130. Today, the world is in the midst of an extraordinary outpouring of scientific work on the mind and brain, on the processes of thinking and learning, on the neural processes that occur during thought and learning, and on the development of competence

      One of the areas that I've become interested in is how we learn when reading print vs. reading on screen. One book I've read on the subject is Words Onscreen by Naomi Baron about how technology affects the way we read.