414 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. impious

      Impious: to exhibit no respect towards of religion or God

      https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/impious

    2. Creator

      Milton consistently conveys the great power of God through his manipulation of the aesthetic device of repetition. Through his reinforcement of God as an Ultimate Deity, the Creator (as described here), he distinguishes the significant imbalance of power between the Lord and every other being/force.

  2. Dec 2018
    1. And thy faire Eve; Heav'n is for thee too high To know what passes there; be lowlie wise: Think onely what concernes thee and thy being; Dream not of other Worlds, what Creatures there

      It’s is very interesting how Milton’s Raphael tells Eve not to dream of other worlds, only to think of her and Adam. While on the other hand he informs Adam of everything he is curious about. This emphasizes Adam’s superiority once again.

    2. THE Angel ended, and in Adams Eare So Charming left his voice, that he a while Thought him still speaking, still stood fixt to hear; Then as new wak't thus gratefully repli'd. What thanks sufficient, or what recompence [ 5 ] Equal have I to render thee, Divine Hystorian, who thus largely hast allayd The thirst I had of knowledge, and voutsaf't

      I’m the original story we don’t hear much or get the sense that Adam is curious about his creation and how the world was formed. I think Milton did a great job explaining Adams thirst for knowledge giving us new insight.

    1. Let ther be Light, said God, and forthwith Light

      Here Milton references the beginning of creation in Genesis, with the same words used by God when forming the world.

    2. r staid, but on the Wings of Cherubim Uplifted, in Paternal Glorie rode Farr into Chaos, and the World unborn; [ 220 ] For Chaos heard his voice: him all his Traine Follow'd in bright procession to behold Creation, and the wonders of his might. Then staid the fervid Wheeles, and in his hand

      I find it quite interesting about Milton’s idea of chaos. On how he believes it is the median part between heaven and hell. It’s something that’s never been heard before, it gives insight onto Milton’s view of Heaven and hell.

    3. Mean while the Son On his great Expedition now appeer'd, Girt with Omnipotence, with Radiance crown'd Of Majestie Divine, Sapience and Love

      Milton also includes that the Som drove the fallen angels out of heaven which has never really been heard before in the original story.

    4. Say Goddess, what ensu'd when Raphael, [ 40 ] The affable Arch-Angel, had forewarn'd Adam by dire example to beware Apostasie, by what befell in Heaven To those Apostates, least the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his Race,

      I really like how Milton emphasizes on Raphael being such a prominent character in his poem that he is even sent by God to warn Adam about Satan and Adam’s potential fall. This is very contrary to the original story in the Bible however it gives insight into why the fall could have been so terrible for the human race because Adam was warned of this very potential fall.

    1. Sword of Michael smote,

      I find it very interesting how Milton places emphasis on Michael’s sword and it’s power. Something not thoroughly described in the original story.

    2. High in the midst exalted as a God Th' Apostate in his Sun-bright Chariot sate [ 100 ] Idol of Majesty Divine, enclos'd

      I find it very interesting how Milton describes him as an apostate with “Majesty”, and “Glorious Divine”, seared on a chariot during the war. This is not really mentioned in the Bible and Satan being portrayed this way is a technique I think Milton used very well to show, a non conventional form of Satan.

    3. Coverd with thick embatteld Squadrons bright, Chariots and flaming Armes, and fierie Steeds Reflecting blaze on blaze, first met his view: Warr he perceav'd, warr in procinct, and found Already known what he for news had thought [ 20 ] To have reported: gladly then he mixt Among those friendly Powers who him receav'd With joy and acclamations loud, that one That of so many Myriads fall'n, yet one Returnd not lost: On to the sacred hill [ 25 ] They led him high applauded, and present Before the seat supream; from whence a voice From midst a Golden Cloud thus milde was hea

      Milton goes into much more detail about the war in heaven to explain to the reader the battle fought and to help us understand that Raphael is trying his best to make sure Adam understands the entire “ history “ of heaven and his role.

    4. Abdiel

      Abdiel is like the fictional anti-Satan

    1. and to thy Husbands will [ 195 ] Thine shall submit, hee over thee shall rule.

      This is not a new rule, already in Eden Eve was ruled by Adam.

    1. Haile Mother of Mankind, whose fruitful Womb Shall fill the World more numerous with thy Sons

      It feels weird that Raphael is sent here to prevent Adam from falling, yet already seems to know that Eve will live outside of paradise and have many babies.

    2. Affects me equally;

      Eve’s dream affects Adam equally, emphasizing on the fact that though they are different they are equally different and dependent on one another.

    3. Best Image of my self and dearer half, [

      An interesting thing about Milton’s Adam and Eve, is that though Adam is superior to her, the words he uses to describe her, are words that show he adores her, and that she is the best image of himself, just as Jesus is to the father. I like how Milton’s compares and draws the two relationships together by how one being sees the other.

    4. O Sole in whom my thoughts find all repose, My Glorie, my Perfection

      I think another interesting thing about Adam and Eve’s relationship here is that she refers to him as her “Perfection”. This implies that she is incomplete without him, and she is very respectful of his superiority.

    1. Gabriel, thou hadst in Heav'n th' esteem of wise, And such I held thee; but this question askt Puts me in doubt.

      Burrrrrn :D

    2. Not equal, as thir sex not equal seemd; For contemplation hee and valour formd, For softness shee and sweet attractive Grace, Hee for God only, shee for God in him:

      I wonder if Satan seduced Eve and not Adam because he felt similarly inferior to Good as Eve was to Adam?

    3. Yet happie pair; enjoy, till I return, Short pleasures, for long woes are to succeed. [ 535 ]

      Satan is implying that Adam and Eve should enjoy the Garden while they have it, because with his plan everything they in the garden that they are enjoying right now is going to be taken away when he returns.

    4. Mother of human Race: what could I doe, [ 475 ] But follow strait, invisibly thus led? Till I espi'd thee, fair indeed and tall, Under a Platan, yet methought less faire, Less winning soft, less amiablie milde, Then that smooth watry image; back I turnd, [ 480 ] Thou following cryd'st aloud, Return faire Eve, Whom fli'st thou? whom thou fli'st, of him thou art, His flesh, his bone; to give thee being I lent Out of my side to thee, neerest my heart Substantial Life, to have thee by my side [ 485 ] Henceforth an individual solace dear; Part of my Soul I seek thee, and thee claim My other half: with that thy gentle hand Seisd mine, I yielded, and from that time see How beauty is excelld by manly grace [

      I believe another thing that surprises me about Adam and Eve in Milton’s book is because he emphasizes so much on Eve being submissive and how Adam is in a sense “superior” to her because he’s closer to God. However he shows that Adam doesn’t see her that way he sees her as glorious and far more superior to him, and he respects her equally to him.

    5. That day I oft remember, when from sleep I first awak't, and found my self repos'd [ 450 ] Under a shade of flours, much wondring where And what I was, whence thither brought, and how.

      I believe this aspect of Eve surprises me the fact that we see that Eve talks about how she was formed. We see a new perspective on which she even recalls how she was made, implying that it is something she strongly remembers. Thsi is a new perspective because I personally haven’t heard of Eve recalling how she was made from Adam. I believe it gives more insight into Eve as a character of the book.

    6. His fair large Front and Eye sublime declar'd [ 300 ] Absolute rule; and Hyacinthin Locks Round from his parted forelock manly hung Clustring, but not beneath his shoulders broad: Shee as a vail down to the slender waste Her unadorned golden tresses wore [ 305 ] Disheveld, but in wanton ringlets wav'd As the Vine curles her tendrils, which impli'd Subjection,

      You can tell the contrast between Adam and Eve in the way Milton describes their physical appearance. Through Milton’s eyes Adam is broad has long locks, and appears a bit firm. However Eve is fair, has a vail and through her long hair, she appears to be submissive.

    7. The image of thir glorious Maker shon, Truth, wisdome, Sanctitude severe and pure,

      Milton then reveals that the reason this Garden is so beautiful is because the image of God shows through it. It is as pure, glorious, and majestic as it’s maker.

    8. Southward through Eden went a River large, Nor chang'd his course, but through the shaggie hill Pass'd underneath ingulft, for God had thrown [ 225 ] That Mountain as his Garden mould high rais'd Upon the rapid current, which through veins Of porous Earth with kindly thirst up drawn, Rose a fresh Fountain, and with many a rill Waterd the Garden; thence united fell [ 230 ] Down the steep glade, and met the neather Flood, Which from his darksom passage now appeers, And now divided into four main Streams, Runs divers, wandring many a famous Realme And Country whereof here needs no account, [ 235 ] But rather to tell how, if Art could tell, How from that Saphire Fount the crisped Brooks, Rowling on Orient Pearl and sands of Gold, With mazie error under pendant shades Ran Nectar, visiting each plant, and fed [ 240 ] Flours worthy of Paradise which not nice Art In Beds and curious Knots, but Nature boon Powrd forth profuse on Hill and Dale and Plaine, Both where the morning Sun first warmly smote The open field, and where the unpierc't shade [ 245 ] Imbround the noontide Bowrs: Thus was this place, A happy rural seat of various view; Groves whose rich Trees wept odorous Gumms and Balme, Others whose fruit burnisht with Golden Rinde Hung amiable, Hesperian Fables true, [ 250 ] If true, here only, and of delicious taste: Betwixt them Lawns, or level Downs, and Flocks Grasing the tender herb, were interpos'd, Or palmie hilloc, or the flourie lap Of som irriguous Valley spred her store, [ 255 ] Flours of all hue, and without Thorn the Rose: Another side, umbrageous Grots and Caves Of coole recess, o're which the mantling vine Layes forth her purple Grape, and gently creeps Luxuriant; mean while murmuring waters fall [ 260 ] Down the slope hills, disperst, or in a Lake, That to the fringed Bank with Myrtle crownd, Her chrystal mirror holds, unite thir streams. The Birds thir quire apply; aires, vernal aires, Breathing the smell of field and grove, attune [ 265 ] The trembling leaves, while Universal Pan

      I believe it’s truly remarkable how Milton goes into great detail about the garden. From the trees, to the birds, and the mountains, you can really tell Milton wanted to paint a great picture of this garden. He wanted the readers to know and comprehend how beautiful this amazing garden was.

    1. Some I have chosen of peculiar grace Elect above the rest; so is my will:

      This sounds incredibly cruel.

    2. The first sort by thir own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-deprav'd: Man falls deceiv'd [ 130 ] By the other first: Man therefore shall find grace, The other none: in Mercy and Justice both,

      This line also shows how God fulfilled my expectations because he shows that, this is not the end for his beloved mankind. He will grant them grace and mercy die to the fact that they did not fall out of their own volition. The fallen angels, however, will be granted no mercy because they fell on their own will.

    3. Thir freedom, they themselves ordain'd thir fall.

      This also backs the fact that God is a just God, because just as he gave man free will to make choices, certain choices man makes can lead to his fall, which it ultimately did. So in all truth we ordain our failures or success based on our choices.

    4. Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. Not free, what proof could they have givn sincere Of true allegiance, constant Faith or Love, Where onely what they needs must do, appeard, [ 105 ] Not what they would? what praise could they receive? What pleasure I from such obedience paid,

      Here God also fuffils my expectations because it shows that when creating man, he intended to create them with free will. This sense of free will was to show that man would have had sincere, true allegiance to god, not one that was bought or insincere, hence why man can make his own choices in life.

    5. And Man there plac't, with purpose to assay [ 90 ] If him by force he can destroy, or worse, By some false guile pervert; and shall pervert For man will heark'n to his glozing lyes, And easily transgress the sole Command, Sole pledge of his obedience: So will fall, [ 95 ] Hee and his faithless Progenie: whose fault? Whose but his own? ingrate, he had of mee All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall.

      In this part of the passage I believe God does fuffil my expectations of him, because I believe is characteristics are rational and very fair. When God mentions that it is Adam’s fault he has fallen, I don’t necessarily believe that is an attempt to portray, a scenario of “victim blame” , I believe God was very right in the sense that he told Adam and Eve not to eat from the tree, and they did so. By them doing so it lead to the fall of man, which all goes back to it being mans fault, when he was tempted my the serpent and disobeyed God.

    1. For Spirits when they pleaseCan either Sex assume, or both; so softAnd uncompounded is thir Essence pure, [ 425 ]Not ti'd or manacl'd with joynt or limb,Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones,Like cumbrous flesh; but in what shape they chooseDilated or condens't, bright or obscure,Can execute thir aerie purposes, [ 430 ]

      This reminds me of Silmarillion by Tolkien, where beings similar to angels also have no predetermined gender.

    2. O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all Temples th' upright heart and pure, Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread [ 20 ] Dove-like satst brooding on the vast Abyss And mad'st it pregnant: What in me is dark Illumin, what is low raise and support

      This part parallesls the beginning of Genesis:

      2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

      3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

      4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

    3. as when men wont to watchOn duty, sleeping found by whom they dread,Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake.Nor did they not perceave the evil plight [ 335 ]

      Being asleep on guard, not the most proactive situation, not one of control, as a guard rarely guards their own property, but the property of another.

    4. Confounded though immortal

      They seem to be forever lost and confused.

    1. Then shining Heav'nly fair, a Goddess arm'd Out of thy head I sprung; amazement seis'd All th' Host of Heav'n back they recoild affraid At first, and call'd me Sin, and for a Sign

      Maybe Milton is equating sin with free thinking.

    2. Satan exalted sat, by merit rais'd [ 5 ] To that bad eminence; and from despair Thus high uplifted beyond hope, aspires Beyond thus high, insatiate to pursue Vain Warr with Heav'n, and by success untaught His proud imaginations thus displaid. [ 10 ]

      I’m this passage specifically we see that Satan exhibits behavior that could be deemed, “ridiculous”. He Sits “ by “his merit rais’d” and aspires to pursue success in his war quietly heaven. This could be deemed ridiculous regarding to the fact that Satan is exalted by his ironic merit, which merits punishment rather than glory, contrasting to the Messiah’s merits. This could be also deemed ridiculous because he has remained unttauhht by his banishment to hell and still urges to wage this war against heaven.

    3. Of Thunder heard remote. Towards him they bend With awful reverence prone; and as a God Extoll him equal to the highest in Heav'n:

      There is a comparison between satan and God because, satan is also surprisingly revered by his demons, however with what Milton describes as an “awful reverence”.

    4. Deliverance for us all: this enterprize [ 465 ] None shall partake with me.

      Here Satan exhibits signs of an epic hero by offering to deliver the demons from their current life in hell.

    5. exasperate

      To exasperate means to “intensely infuriate”. By this we understand that Belial’s plan is to exasperate God to his ultimate limit of rage so that he takes it “out on the demons”, and in turn they “perish”and are put out of their misery instead of waging a war which he believes they are going to lose.

    6. As not behind in hate; if what was urg'd [ 120 ] Main reason to persuade immediate Warr, Did not disswade me most, and seem to cast Ominous conjecture on the whole success: When he who most excels in fact of Arms, In what he counsels and in what excels [ 125 ] Mistrustful, grounds his courage on despair And utter dissolution, as the scope Of all his aim, after some dire revenge. First, what Revenge? the Towrs of Heav'n are fill'd With Armed watch, that render all access [ 130 ] Impregnable; oft on the bordering Deep Encamp thir Legions, or with obscure wing Scout farr and wide into the Realm of night, Scorning surprize. Or could we break our way By force, and at our heels all Hell should rise [ 135 ] With blackest Insurrection, to confound Heav'ns purest Light, yet our great Enemy All incorruptible would on his Throne Sit unpolluted, and th' Ethereal mould Incapable of stain would soon expel [ 140 ] Her mischief, and purge off the baser fire Victorious.

      Here we see the contrast between Belial and Moloc. Moloc strongly believes that the war should take place in order to seek revenge. He believes that after all they have nothing to lose and even if they do not wage this war, it will at least be a sign of revenge taken. Belial however believes that this war shouldn’t be waged, and that it could be quit impossible as he believes the “demons” do not have power to win a war against such a huge, miraculous, and powerful being such as God

    7. Powers and Dominions, Deities of Heav'n, For since no deep within her gulf can hold Immortal vigor, though opprest and fall'n,

      This line of Book Two,May seem ridiculous regarding the fact that though Satan and his followers ( demons), are cast into hell, and are “dammned” they are still immortal and are still deities of heaven.

  3. Nov 2018
    1. Might hap to move new broiles

      ??

    2. Before the Gates there sat On either side a formidable shape;

      Hell is a truly hellish place. This description is nightmare inducing

    3. The Stygian Counsel thus dissolv'd; and forth In order came the grand infernal Peers:

      again referencing parliament

    4. Thus saying rose The Monarch, and prevented all reply, Prudent, least from his resolution rais'd Others among the chief might offer now (Certain to be refus'd) what erst they fear'd; [ 470 ] And so refus'd might in opinion stand His Rivals, winning cheap the high repute Which he through hazard huge must earn.

      Love this - Satan is a very astute politician

    5. palpable obscure

      To go along w "darkness visible"

    6. Synod of Gods,

      synod - an assembly of clergy

    7. for so the popular vote

      There are several references here to parliamentary procedure

    8. Which when Beelzebub perceiv'd, then whom, Satan except, none higher sat, with grave [ 300 ] Aspect he rose,

      Beelzebub: Silly to think we would be allowed to build an empire here - let's find Earth

    9. and after him thus Mammon spake.

      Mammon: Open war won't be successful - let's build a place here with our gems and gold ( this seems popular - demons applaud)

    10. On th' other side up rose Belial

      Belial: revenge is no use - we should be model prisoners and hope for minimum security

    11. My sentence is for open Warr

      Moloch: Open war - things can't be worse so why not? At least we'll get revenge

    12. More glorious and more dread then from no fall, And trust themselves to fear no second fate

      It seems a bit silly to think the second go round would be better - against an omnipotent foe!

    1. So thick the aerie crowd [ 775 ]Swarm'd and were straitn'd; till the Signal giv'n.Behold a wonder! they but now who seemdIn bigness to surpass Earths Giant SonsNow less then smallest Dwarfs, in narrow roomThrong numberless, like that Pigmean Race

      Not only time but space is distorted

    2. Expos'd a Matron to avoid worse rape.

      Well ok then. Gah. How do believers justify this?

    3. drove them thence to Hell

      Still worried about the timeline here. All the old Gods are represented here as demons, yet Man has yet to appear

    4. Moloch

      Beelzebub, Moloch, Chemos (Peor), Baal, Astarte, Thammuz, Dagon, Rimmon, Osiris, Isis, Orus, Belial and all the greek Gods...

    5. Say, Muse, thir Names then known, who first, who last

      Lists are a common occurrence in epics - but whew the similes in this one!

    6. And justifie the wayes of God to men.

      Is the poet telling us this is the purpose of his poem?

    7. by thir own recover'd strength, [ 240 ]Not by the sufferance of supernal Power.

      Yet first they had to be freed from their chains. see line 212 "high permission of all-ruling Heaven"

    8. So stretcht out huge in length the Arch-fiend layChain'd on the burning Lake, nor ever thence [ 210 ]Had ris'n or heav'd his head, but that the willAnd high permission of all-ruling HeavenLeft him at large to his own dark designs,

      Here Satan is freed to create mischief - why?

    9. Who from the terrour of this Arm so lateDoubted his Empire,

      The holy spirit was afraid of Satan's power, and doubted he could keep his empire? When does the idea of God's omnipotence arise?

    10. If thou beest he; But O how fall'n! how chang'd

      Lucifer, now and evermore Satan, begins to speak

    11. As from the Center thrice to th' utmost Pole.

      celestial pole - another astronomy reference

    12. Who durst defie th' Omnipotent to Arms

      who dared to defy God

    13. Th' infernal Serpent; he it was, whose guile Stird up with Envy and Revenge, deceiv'd [ 35 ] The Mother of Mankind,

      Deceived after the fall...

    14. Thou from the first Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread

      Holy spirit? But ...wings outspread - Archangel?

    15. That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th' Aonian Mount, while it pursues [ 15 ] Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime

      Things unattempted - more epic reference here. Noble deeds by a noble man, written by a nobel (but not humble!) poet

    16. Sing Heav'nly Muse

      Epic reference - see Iliad, Odyssey

    17. (for Heaven and Earth may be suppos'd as yet not made

      Driven out of Heaven, yet Heaven " ...may be supposed as yet not made" I'm having a little issue already with the timeline. ( very biblical, since God said "let there be light" before the the formation of the stars)

    18. And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold wordsBreaking the horrid silence thus began.

      This is an example of Satan's heroic characteristics. He is rallying a group for a common casue.

  4. Oct 2018
    1. soar
    2. Heav'ns and Earth

      the two poles of creation

    3. To these Satan directs his Speech, comforts them

      Beginnings of Satan as epic hero rallying "troops" after loss

    4. BOOK 1

      Organized into books paralleling structure of bible

    5. I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song, That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th' Aonian Mount, while it pursues [ 15 ] Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.

      perhaps establishes the poet as the hero? "things unattempted yet" is arrogant & ambitious

    6. Mov'd our Grand Parents in that happy State, Favour'd of Heav'n so highly, to fall off [ 30 ]

      A foreshadow of the Adam and Eve story.

    7. Bullion

      Gold or silver in a bunch.

    8. Phalanx

      Here we see that Milton uses Greek heroic army terms to describe satan's army giving us the notion that satan is this hero of the epic, and is being packed up by his "heroic perfect phalanx", which is a body of troops moving in Unison. He also uses many other heroic adjectives to describe the army.

    9. the unconquerable Will

      This reminds me of the poem Invictus.

      Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul.

      I wonder if William Ernest Henley was inspired by Milton.

    10. wanton

      A deliberate and unprovoked action.

    11. Vale.

      A valley

    12. O Prince, O Chief of many Throned Powers,That led th' imbattelld Seraphim to WarrUnder thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds [ 130 ]Fearless, endanger'd Heav'ns perpetual King;And put to proof his high Supremacy,

      With Satan being describes as a "Prince" and "Chief" who lead great battles, it starts to fill the readers mind with thoughts about Satan being perceived as the hero in this epic, since Miton hasn't specifically narrowed down on a specific hero...yet.

    13. eternal Warr

      The "Eternal Warr" being referred to here is the battle between good, and evil, heaven and hell. This shows some characteristics of an epic because it brings the mention of a war. Which is in a sense an attribute associated with heroism.

    14. ignominy

      Public shame or disgrace

    1. To whom our general Ancestor repli'd

      This is the first thing that I find slightly surprising. Adam/Milton declares marriage is meant for 'fit conversation' but all the while implies that Eve is a simpleton and uneducated. It seems instead as if Adam/Milton wants a wife to be inferior in intelligence to the husband to make him feel proud of himself to know so much and be able to lecture her.

    2. '

      And he called this woman Pandora, because all the gods who abide in Olympus gave her as a gift, a pain for grain eating man. (works and days, verse 80). Mind that the gifts are not all good: and he ordered Hermes to put inside her an intent that is doglike and a temperament that is stealthy. .. and within her breast the messenger and argos killer fashioned falsehoods, crafty words, and a stelthy disposition.

      Pandora is created by Zeus (through Hepaistos) to punish mankind for deceiving him.<br> The act of deceiving/outsmarting can be seen as an attempt of being equal to the gods. An act of defiance.

    3. But follow strait, invisibly thus led?

      Eve needs guidance, God's voice, to become self aware.<br> Eve is physical (rib / flesh) and mentally dependent on Adam (my guide and head). When that balance is disturbed: when instead of Adam Eve is providing guidance, the paradise is lost. Eve is like Até, the Greek goddess of mischief, delusion, ruin, and folly.

    4. Had not a voice thus warnd me, What thou seest, What there thou seest fair Creature is thy self,

      Eve needs guidance, Adam's voice, to become self aware, self conscience. The question "what I was" is answered. Eve is physical and mentally dependent on Adam. When that balance is disturbed: when Eve is providing guidance advising to eat the apple, the paradise is lost.

    5. ease would recant Vows made in pain

      Even at his lowest, Satan is extremely self-perceptive.

    6. To wreck on innocent frail man his loss

      My pain is your pain. Man is the scapegoat of Satan.

    1. the tenth on bended knee

      Satan is made to bend the knee, an act of submission to God. Although not voluntarily.

    1. So cheard he his fair Spouse, and she was cheard, But silently a gentle tear let fall

      The dream is the announcement of the first disobedience of man. Adam shows compassion and emphasizes her innocence and incapability to sin. "In thee can harbour none". During the real act, God shows the opposite. Knowledge ends the dream they were living.

    1. They hand in hand with wandring steps and slow, Through Eden took thir solitarie way.

      A rather beautiful ending which leaves hope for better, given the mercy of God.

      I was rather sad to see Satan and his kin fade from the scene - things were always rather jolly when they were about! But of course they lie in Adam and Eve's future.

    2. Upon thir Tongues a various Spirit to rase Quite out thir Native Language, and instead To sow a jangling noise of words unknown:

      God did well here; the many languages we have is a part of the joy it is to be human. Of course babble here is about confusion.

    1. till fire purge all things

      The day of judgement follows the flood.

    2. Where luxurie late reign'd, Sea-monsters whelp'd And stabl'd

      Milton shows his Ovid here. The pervasive nature of flood stories, and arks, is remarkable. It, the flood, appears in the very ancient (and pre-Genesis) 'Epic of Gilgamesh'.

    3. Smote him into the Midriff with a stone [ 445 ] That beat out life; he fell, and deadly pale Groand out his Soul with gushing bloud effus'd.

      The beginning of a catalogue of horrors which even details many of the known diseases of Milton's time (lines 483 +). It is thought Milton was familiar with some of these, 'Joint-racking Rheums' (488), the gout he experienced late in life. Having experienced it myself I know the description, 'joint-racking', is a good one!

    4. Adam, now ope thine eyes, and first behold Th' effects which thy original crime hath wrought

      Adam is to behold how God's will has shaped the world. The 'original crime', disobeying God - 'crime' rather than 'sin'!

    5. First hunter then, pursu'd a gentle brace, Goodliest of all the Forrest, Hart and Hinde;

      The lion, now a hunter rather than the peaceful beast of before the fall. The 'Hart and Hinde', the prey, are deer.

    1. Self-tempted, self-deprav'd

      Compare to the earlier "self-rais'd" description offered by the fallen angels in Hell for their eventual future triumph. God has so recently championed the need to autonomy in his worshippers and yet scathingly rejects the fallen angels for self-determining.

    2. Reason also is choice)

      CS Lewis suggested that Satan rejects rationality and reason along with goodness through his rebellion.

    1. This place our dungeon, not our safe retreat

      A parallel can be drawn here to the way marginalised groups sometimes seek to reclaim their marginalisation, trying to make a point of pride out of surviving their oppression, sometimes to the point of ceasing to acknowledge the extent and cruelty of the oppression.

  5. Sep 2018
    1. What in me is dark Illumin, what is low raise and support

      A prayer to disperse the darkness caused due to ignorance and raise it to the place where there is light so that he may justly act as a link between the readers and God, asserting the ways of God - just like the bad angels were driven out of heaven, the sin of the man will be delivered by the greater man mentioned earlier in the poem.

    2. Invoke thy aid

      An appeal to one of the nine goddesses in Greek mythology who was responsible for inspiration in arts and literature. Now, this is again unique to epic poetry as was a tradition in Greek Literature. Homer invokes the muses in both, the Illiad and the Odyssey.

    3. Sing Heav'nly Muse,

      An invitation probably to the holy spirit for divine guidance to justly describe the epic deeds of Satan and later, a greater man(Jesus)

    4. Of Oreb, or of Sinai

      The Protestant reformer John Calvin took the view that Sinai and Horeb were the same mountain, with the eastern side of the mountain being called Sinai and the western side being called Horeb(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Horeb)

    5. Mans First Disobedience,

      This occupies the epic formula position as in the epics of Virgil and Homer and talks about man's disobedience as a heroic deed.(Contrary to what the epic poems highlight - noble doings of noble men)

    6. one greater Man

      Refers to Jesus Christ, the Son of God who redeemed us of all our sufferings.

    7. hope

      We've been told that this new place they've been cast is utterly without help, yet their will seems to sustain them in much the same way that hope might.

    8. If thou beest he; But O how fall'n! how chang'dFrom him, who in the happy Realms of Light [ 85 ]Cloth'd with transcendent brightness didst out-shineMyriads though bright:

      Here the author makes a reference to the Bible when he says "Oh how fall'n!" This is referenced in the book of Isaiah where it describes Satan's fall and how much he had changed from being such a respected Angel, to being thrown down into the lake of fire, and becoming the leader of other fallen angels like himself. Here you can also feel a wave of emotion from he author where he puts himself into the story to describe Satan's transformation.

    9. Sing Heav'nly Muse,

      Milton introduces Satan as subject of epic

    10. his Crew

      It should be meaning Lucifer and his advocates. Here in this composition, Satan, Lucifer and Serpent are confused. It seems the author wanted to imply the notion that Satan is the same person with Lucifer, which is not the concept as suggested in the Bible.

    11. consult

      In seventeenth-century usage, the term is associated with secret meetings for plotting insurgency. Was there ever a more secret and more insurgent meeting!

    12. Chaos

      I've always been confused over whether or not "Chaos" referred to here is the same as the character Chaos in the poem.

    13. Better to reign in Hell, then serve in Heav'n.

      Aeschylus' Prometheus expresses the same sentiment and a favorite saying of Julius Caesar was that he would rather be the first man in a village, than the second in Rome.

    14. Such place Eternal Justice had prepar'd

      Unlike Dante's well-structured Inferno, the topography of Milton's Hell is muddled and uncertain; conveying more a state of mind than a sense of place.

    15. As one great Furnace flam'd, yet from those flamesNo light, but rather darkness visible

      Milton's Hell is a chaotic, ill-defined region of turbulent darkness as opposed to the brilliant light that illuminates the orderliness of Heaven.

    16. In loss it self; which on his count'nance castLike doubtful hue: but he his wonted pride

      Beautiful words but what does it mean? Help is appreciated.

    17. Next came oneWho mourn'd in earnest

      Like the cescent of Odysseus into Hades: spirits pass by

    18. the Flowr of Heav'n, once yours, now lost

      flower of heaven: a flower has a temporal beauty, cut in his prime and then dies: once yours now lost...

    19. New courage and revive

      Once they hear that voice .. new courage and revive. Satan brings hope in hell. A battlecry.

    20. Receive thy new Possessor: One who bringsA mind not to be chang'd by Place or Time.

      Satan the new king / possessor of hell. He brings his quality: a good functioning independent free mind.

    21. What reinforcement we may gain from Hope, [ 190 ]If not what resolution from despare.

      Beautiful words. Hope gives strength, if that does now work: hate wil do also do nicely...

    22. As being the contrary to his high will

      There is no "good" without "evil" : the same that you won't have day or night. Satan brings balance, it is his being.

    23. Sole reigning holds the Tyranny of Heav'n.

      It all depends from which viewpoint you look. Tyranny from God: who is good of evil?

    24. deep despare

      A contrast with the boldness of 105 all is not lost etc. Is satan saying those words without confidence? Empty threats? He already lost from god.

    25. Instruct me, for Thou know'st

      The Muses tell him what they saw and heard. The writers mind is supposed to see and hear what the muses saw and heard. It gives authority and he is speaking the truth because he is directly connected to the goddesses of memory...

    26. Throne and Monarchy of God

      This feels like it could be a reference to the Kabbalah, particularly to the top (Keter) and bottom (Malkhut) sefirot which are identified respectively with the Crown and the Kingship/Rulership of God.

    27. Argument

      Theme: The subject of man's first disobedience

    28. O Spirit

      A very clear religious reference to the Holy Spirit, one of the three divine persons. Jesus has already been referenced in the poem's opening as the "greater man" who will "restore us." Still waiting for God the father to be mentioned clearly.

    29. Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,

      A reference to Moses who received the ten commandments from God and taught them to his people.

    30. OF Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast Brought Death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of Eden, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat, [ 5 ] Sing Heav'nly Muse,

      This is the standard introduction to epic poetry throughout the ancient world, as can be seen in the worlds of Homer, Virgil and many others.

    31. Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,

      This refers to where Moses received the Ten Commandments. Certainly a noble man and noble deed.

    32. one greater Man

      This is an example of the noble doings of a noble man. A reference to Jesus of Nazareth, known as "the second Adam" , and 'Restores us, and regain the blissful Seat'.

    1. what hope

      I noted this in the last book as well -- we're given an assertion that Hell is a wholly hopeless place, and yet the fallen angels are all such driven, dynamic personalities that the word appears again and again even so.

    2. with that care lost Went all his fear

      The variety of ways that the different fallen angels experience misery does more to mark them out as memorable than any of their other offered features.

    3. destin'd to Eternal woe;

      referring to original sin

    4. inheritance

      Satan is claiming what is his

    5. the fixt Laws of Heav'n

      democratic under Satan

    6. all things shall be your prey

      on earth. Satan introduces death and sin on earth while God introduces eternal live and love.

    7. Where I reign King, and to enrage thee more, Thy King and Lord? Back to thy punishment, False fugitive,

      "Better to reign in hell, than to serve in heaven". Now Satan finds out that he is king of nothing.

    8. learn by proof, Hell-born, not to contend with Spirits of Heav'n.

      Satan is not hell born, like sin and death. He is from heaven, so be warned :-) .

    9. Before the Gates there sat
    10. In discourse more sweet [ 555 ] (For Eloquence the Soul, Song charms the Sense

      Like the sirenes odyssey xii 184- 191. Sweet sounds of the voices that come from our mouths, and he who listens will not only expierience great pleasure before he goes back home but will also far more knowledgeable than before.. All is a lie off course.

    11. They vote:

      Satan is no leader or absolute ruler as he presents himself. In fact he has nothing to say in the matter and it is decided for him.

    12. and his Sentence pleas'd, Advising peace: for such another Field They dreaded worse then Hell: so much the fear Of Thunder and the Sword of Michael

      Evil is scared of a even worse fate than hell. They prefer peace; they are cowards.

    13. But perhaps [ 70 ] The way seems difficult and steep to scale With upright wing against a higher foe.

      Al least Moloc has some self insight and all his advice turns out to be dreams or illusions or proud imaginations.

    14. the Torturer

      AKA God.

    15. might draw [ 25 ] Envy from each inferior

      Here Satan claims he is inferior because he envied the throne of god, waged war and lost. Rather ironic that he mentions it as a benefit from hell.

    16. Did first create your Leader, next free choice,

      Like God created Adam first as his equal , he created Satan also first (and equal). And then free choice... . Free choice is a gift that makes a being.

    17. and another kind of creature equal or not much inferiour to themselves

      The other creature is the snake. Since this creature is equal or not much inferior than themselves it makes them ridiculous. All the grandeur of Satan from book 1 is deflated when he put himself on the same level of a snake.

    18. So he with difficulty and labour hard Mov'd on, with difficulty and labour hee

      When Milton repeats himself it is to make an important point. Here Satan's "labour" is "difficult" because it is in vain, since he is alienated from God. So he certainly does not look heroic here.

    19. and by what best way, [ 40 ] Whether of open Warr or covert guile, We now debate

      Satan is nothing if not incongruous…or, more specifically, ridiculous. One would've assumed that he, and by extension, the rebel angels, had learned that rebellion (overt or covert) against God supremacy was useless. But here they are again, this time plotting to avenge the perceived wrongs of their own rebellion.

    20. Warr therefore, open or conceal'd, alike My voice disswades; for what can force or guile With him, or who deceive his mind, whose eye Views all things at one view? he from heav'ns highth [ 190 ] All these our motions vain, sees and derides; Not more Almighty to resist our might Then wise to frustrate all our plots and wiles. Shall we then live thus vile, the race of Heav'n Thus trampl'd, thus expell'd to suffer here [ 195 ] Chains and these Torments? better these then worse By my advice;

      Belial seems to suggest that the devils cannot ultimately win against God's omniscience and power, and further rebellion might actually put them in a worse state than they are already in.

    21. and in his rising seem'd A Pillar of State; deep on his Front engraven Deliberation sat and public care; And Princely counsel in his face yet shon, Majestic though in ruin: sage he stood [ 305 ] With Atlantean shoulders fit to bear The weight of mightiest Monarchies; his look Drew audience and attention still as Night Or Summers Noon-tide air, while thus he spake.

      Here is the oberture of Satan's words. None of the three past fallen angels was so praised. "With Atlantean shoulders" offers an image of someone that will carry big weights, and in this context it seems like he'll be be one who will do it, the hero.

    1. Nor gentle purpose, nor endearing smiles Wanted

      I find it surprising that, to Milton, "fit conversation" was the purpose of marriage and his ideal of paradise.

    2. hee as a vail down to the slender waste Her unadorned golden tresses wore [ 305 ] Disheveld, but in wanton ringlets wav'd

      In the Bible, long and disheveled hair is associated with eroticism.

    3. Of sympathie and love; there I had fixt [ 465 ] Mine eyes till now, and pin'd with vain desire, Had not a voice thus warnd me, What thou seest, What there thou seest fair Creature is thy self, With thee it came and goes: but follow me, And I will bring thee where no shadow staies

      Eve's self-reflection amid this male cosmology is interrupted and she's urged into the arms of waiting Adam.

    4. God is thy Law, thou mine: to know no more Is womans happiest knowledge and her praise.

      This may not imply Eve's inferiority, as Eve is to Adam as Adam is to God, since the Son stands in the same relation to the Father.

    1. Scorpion and Asp, and Amphisbæna dire, Cerastes hornd, Hydrus, and Ellops drear, [ 525 ] And Dipsas (not so thick swarm'd once the Soil Bedropt with blood of Gorgon, or the Isle Ophiusa)

      All of this reveals the breadth of Milton's reading; Lucan and DuBartas, with Ovid providing the image of the change from 'man' to serpent. A problem for the modern reader of this poem is that, perhaps apart from Ovid, these sources are only in the realms of academia today.

    2. His Quadrature, from thy Orbicular World,

      'Orbicular World': a spherical world reflecting the ancient belief in the perfection of the circle. Heaven is 'Quadrature', a square, or probably, cube. The 'why?' of a cubic world I don't know.

    3. for thou Out of the ground wast taken, know thy Birth, For dust thou art, and shalt to dust returne.

      Straight from Genesis 3, 18 -19.

    4. Upon thy Belly groveling thou shalt goe, And dust shalt eat all the dayes of thy Life.

      This even though earlier (line 84) the serpent had been declared innocent.

    5. thy God, that her thou didst obey [ 145 ] Before his voice, or was shee made thy guide,

      Adam, in worshipping Eve, is effectively worshipping a false god, idolatry. He has not followed God's instruction.

    6. his Angels to make several alterations in the Heavens and Elements.

      Again Milton's attention to the heavens and astronomy. A reference to the events involving Adam and Eve, the microcosm, causing a realignment in the macrocosm: a renaissance conceit.

    7. O miserable of happie!

      Suggesting that his previous happiness has caused his present misery, Milton stresses how one condition can produce its opposite.

    8. His free Will

      What a lie...

    9. Man should be seduc't
    10. Man should be seduc't

      So the man was doomed to fall...should be seduct...It seems that everything was planed and from this point of view all our problems todayare planned to be. I don't like the idea and it seems to me that is very comfortable to avoid our responsibilities, but on the other hand its a very complicate philosophycal problem.

    11. that day [ 210 ] Remov'd farr off;

      This could mean that the actual day of their deaths is in the future, but the process of dying begins instantly.

    12. Thine shall submit, hee over thee shall rule

      The "rule" of man over woman could be part of the punishment for the Fall.

    13. Absents thee,

      could refer to psychological alienation rather than to physical absence.

    1. The sharpest sighted Spirit of all in Heav'n; Who to the fraudulent Impostor foule

      If Uriel cannot see the evil, how can men do? It is all part of the plan of God. In that way God and Zeus are alike. They design fate. It all meant to be like this.

    2. To serve him better: wise are all his wayes.

      Men serve better because they die. Heavenly creatures do not. The reward to do Godś bidding or being his slave is heaven so they serve him better.

    3. Thee I re-visit now with bolder wing, Escap't the Stygian Poo

      The narrator took the identity of satan to write book 1 and 2, like an actor and now is returning to the light, returning to his own identity, like a prophet.

    4. As my Eternal purpose hath decreed: Man shall not quite be lost, but sav'd who will, Yet not of will in him, but grace in me Freely voutsaft; once more I will renew [ 175 ] His lapsed powers, though forfeit and enthrall'd By sin to foul exorbitant desires;

      This gives me much hope in God's insight and power regarding this whole breech by Satan.

    1. Apples

      Interesting that Satan actually names the fruit. It is just a fruit in Genesis. The name, 'Apple' seems unimportant for it is the act of eating a fruit which is the act of disobedience Satan encourages.

    2. err'd in overmuch admiring What seemd in thee so perfet,

      Poor Adam, like so many of us, has been distracted by the beauty of a woman. Never mind, he comes out of it well enough; he has knowledge (and the beautiful woman!)

    3. I now must change [ 5 ] Those Notes to Tragic

      A change signaled by the narrator, Milton, the epic 'Notes' are now to tell of a tragedy. I have read that Bk 9 is about the length of an Euripidean tragedy, c. 1100 lines, and the Book is complete in itself.

    4. Scipio the highth of Rome. With tract oblique [ 510 ] At first, as one who sought access, but feard To interrupt, side-long he works his way. As when a Ship by skilful Stearsman wrought Nigh Rivers mouth or Foreland, where the Wind

      The first letter of lines 510 to 514 spell SATAN, an acrostic. Presumably deliberate?

    5. delight to Reason joyn'd.

      Milton could be referring to Aristotle's doctrine that "the highest end and chief delight of man is a life of intellectual speculation".

    6. if all be mine,

      Milton points out that age and circumstances should make it impossible for him to produce a work on the scale of PL, and stresses that there must be a force or spirit that is speaking through him.

    1. Earths green Cape and verdant Isles

      Cape Verde - modern Senegal. An indication of the ever expanding world and Milton's familiarity with it.

    2. the Wheele [ 135 ] Of Day and Night;

      A wonderful metaphor describing the rotation of the Earth, and a reference to the Copernican universe.

    1. Let us make now Man in our image,

      Man made in the image of God - one can only look at the world today and wonder what went wrong. Perhaps the creation should have stopped at line 519!

    2. Omnific

      Again an instance of Milton the Classicist. The word is a composite of two common Latin words, and so 'all-making' or 'creating' - which is probably better in the context.

    3. vast immeasurable Abyss Outrageous as a Sea, dark, wasteful, wilde, Up from the bottom turn'd by furious windes And surging waves, as Mountains to assault Heav'ns highth, and with the Center mix the Pole.

      This is, I take it, chaos. A wonderful concept of matter at it most primitive - the universe just after the Big Bang: uncontrolled and violent matter, but matter with the potential to be ordered, as the creation will do. (Note: I do not suggest Milton preempted the Big bang theory - that is mere whimsy on my part.)

    4. And by my Word, begotten Son, by thee This I perform

      I would be interested to know just why Milton makes this departure from the Biblical Genesis. Or does he? Perhaps the Son in that work is called 'God'! Milton often confuses me!!

    5. DEscend from Heav'n Urania, by that name If rightly thou art call'd, whose Voice divine Following, above th' Olympian Hill I soare,

      I often find it difficult to understand who is speaking in this poem, who is the 'I' here for instance. I take it this is the narrator, who is Milton himself, calling upon his muse, Urania. Interesting that this muse may reflect Milton's interest in the heavens (astronomy). Galileo was an older contemporary and Milton, who met him, was well aware of the use of the new telescope in studying the night sky.

    1. Labouring,

      Labor was the curse laid on Adam after the fall.

    2. then purg'd with Euphrasie and Rue The visual Nerve,

      Milton has had personal experience with diseases of the eyes and he has made a reference to cures number of times in PL.

    3. There is, said Michael, if thou well observe [ 530 ] The rule of not too much, by temperance taught In what thou eatst and drinkst, seeking from thence Due nourishment, not gluttonous delight, Till many years over thy head return: So maist thou live, till like ripe Fruit thou drop [ 535 ] Into thy Mothers lap, or be with ease Gatherd, not harshly pluckt, for death mature: This is old age; but then thou must outlive Thy youth, thy strength, thy beauty, which will change To witherd weak and gray; thy Senses then [ 540 ] Obtuse, all taste of pleasure must forgoe, To what thou hast, and for the Aire of youth Hopeful and cheerful, in thy blood will reigne A melancholly damp of cold and dry To weigh thy spirits down, and last consume [ 545 ] The Balme of Life.

      Milton here saw us a soft, mild, kind way of our fall, our death. All are coming to an end as the result of our sin. Death come to all of us. In my point of view this is nice, comfortable view, instead our reality. Our painful fall to diseases and death. The end is not peaceful. For the most of the people is painful, violent and hard. But people always tried to calm our violent enviroment. Life never was easy for the human.

    1. Thousands and by Millions

      Even the numbers are Homeric in their magnitude. They also reflect the unknown concept of truly large numbers in Milton's time. John Locke similarly impressed by size refers to the microscope, new at his time, as magnifying an image a million times. He seemed to have no conception of just what that implies.

    2. Wak't by the circling Hours, with rosie hand Unbarr'd the gates of Light.

      This seems the first reference to Homer whose rosie fingered dawn begins the day (quite often in fact). The battle is Homeric in its proportions and not decided until God's son, Jesus/Achilles, arrives upon the field.

    1. or possibly his love desert [ 515 ] Who formd us from the dust

      Adam seems to be asking if God will desert Mankind.

    2. Mean while enjoy Your fill what happiness this happie state Can comprehend, incapable of more.

      Adam and Eve's state evokes the words of Nirvana - "I think I'm dumb, maybe I'm just happy".

    3. His praise ye Winds, that from four Quarters blow, Breathe soft or loud; and wave your tops, ye Pines, With every Plant, in sign of Worship wave.

      Adam takes his responsibility to have dominion over all of Nature quite literally, commanding the winds and trees and animals to give God praise.

    4. And why not Gods of Men, since good, the more Communicated, more abundant growes, The Author not impair'd, but honourd more?

      Satan conveniently forgets that the evil will be communicated as well.As a political metaphor, though, he is dead on - the more the King grants freedom, the more honored will be the King.

    5. And O fair Plant, said he, with fruit surcharg'd, Deigns none to ease thy load and taste thy sweet, Nor God, nor Man

      Satan as usual makes his mischief sound like an act of kindness, by "deigning to ease the load" and plucking an apple.