100 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2016
  2. techwritingf16.robinwharton.net techwritingf16.robinwharton.net
    1. "The Problem of Speech Genres,"Bakhtin (1986) provided his most thorough exploration of issuesrelated to the stability as well as questions related to the trans-formativity or instability of genres. Bakhtin's concept of genre wasintricately linked to his dialogic understanding of language and hisrefusal to accept the Saussurean division between langue and paroleand the consequent attempt to create a rule-governed science oflanguage.

      The full pdf of Bakhtin's writting - "The Problem of Speech Genres"(https://livelongday.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/bakhtinspeechgenres.pdf)

    2. Miller's redefinition of genre goes a long way in helping us theorizeabout perceived recurrent ways of using discourse.

      how to use communication effectively.

    3. taxonomic
    4. Further, neither he nor other members of the collegewere aware of how much record keeping the students actually did orof how the record-keeping system might be influencing the faculty'steaching and evaluation practices and thus students' learning andliteracy

      Here, you can see the possibilities of why students are having literacy problems be examined more closely.

    5. forced to compress vast amounts of information into their courses.

      This sentence supports my argument that their is a reason students aren't comprehending and communicating efficently. This could be a possible reason why there is an apparent literacy problem among college students.

    6. I'm appalled by the techniques students use in answering questionson exams. I don't know if they are unable to write on exams or if it's theway they have been trained.

      Maybe we can take into consideration that the students are having trouble comprehending certain materials because of the way they are being taught. Their lack of communication skills are stemming from somewhere...

    1. All in all, I think this lengthy written work by Schryer is a way of finding connections between record-keeping and genre via rhetorical analysis, studies, and hard,cold facts. I like that Schryer incorporated evidence with studies that have been done, and examples from their own research.

    2. Genre - current significant action. I think in writing this is a good definition. I would personally define it as a niche that writing, art, or any other medium falls under. This could be singular or plural, as we discussed in class that genre and medium are not interchangeable.

    3. When genres are viewed from a rhetorical as well as a dialectical and dialogic perspective, they then become ways to theorize about complex, evolving discourse practices. I think this is a great way to showcase the positive effects of genre in rhetoric.

    4. More important, as teachers of writing, particularly at the advanced level, we can teach our students of examine critically the genres that both constitute....

      I think this is very important for professors to know. By allowing students to bring in information from various genres, we can create an atmosphere that is diverse and beautiful.

    5. Schryer discusses medical recordkeeping as a genre that reflects and influences the medical field's ideology. The records serve as an indicator of relevant ideas and what the field values. We observe how the development of the genre shifted how the students observational styles and recordkeeping.

      The genre topic serves as a parallel to rhetoric and modes. All concepts are dynamic in an evolving world and reflect the needs of the group that utilizes them. Thus, we also know that rhetoric and modes have the ability to reflect and influence our own ideologies.

    6. I think this talk about medical records is somewhat accurate, as they are known to have flaws in their organization. This is why electronic records with accurate information is key.

    7. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized at MICHIG

      The medical recordkeeping genre reflects the needs of the community by developing POMVR; this style encourages the audience to observe and think about their observations in a certain fashion and demonstrates how change in rhetoric/mode can influence a group's ideology. Thus, we observe how modes functions as an indication of evolution and communication.

    8. "Contradictions always exist. It is through contradication, in fact, that change occurs."

      This quote was deep! I love this and I am going to keep it. I think Schryer is so right we she notes how simple relationships can exist between both big and small things, like people and society.

    9. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized at MICHIGAN

      Recognizing problems- The examination of the genre revealed that the characteristic rhetoric, in spite of lacking cohesiveness, was inherently understandable for people in the field and commonplace in the community. However, it only applies towards the in-group; any outside group (like a non medical student) would likely have issues in understanding.

    10. On page 9, Schryer makes connections between Miller and Bazerman in how rhetorical genres can be social action. I think this is important in establishing how technical communication can reach across broad spectrum.

    11. RIES on

      Creating a Data Base- The development of data-keeping had a specific structure consistent among practitioners of the field.

    12. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized at MICHIGAN STATE UNIV

      The medical records genre has a social use and it was developed for that particular purpose.

    13. on.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized at MIC

      POVMR is another example of genre development.

    14. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. N

      History- Weed developed the medical record genre to better fit the needs of the community. This is an example of how rhetoric evolves to better suit the audience.

    15. At the end of the article, Schryer suggests that students should not acquiesce to genres. We need to able to see what parts of certain genres work for our intended audience, why they work, and how to improve them if they don't. Technical communication has to rely on presenting information in different ways through different mediums and different genres. To fully comprehend the best way to do that, we need to learn and write and immerse ourselves in writing in different genres.

    16. On the bottom of page 228, it is suggested that because we spend so much time in school practicing only a few genres, the lack of knowledge about other genres actually ends up hurting our overall writing. I think this is so true; years and years of writing essay after essay makes me knowledge about writing essays and what goes in it and what my essay writing process is, but what about everything else?

      The fact that lots of GSU classes are starting to lean away from "traditional" writing assignments to broaden our knowledge of how to write makes us more marketable in our future, but also more literate. Understanding how to write in different genres adds a whole level of literacy to our lives that most people before us never got. It is not enough anymore to know how to write essays; being literate in all forms and genres of writing makes you more valuable. to the advancing world around us.

    17. Reading this article helped me understand the importance of the consultation/study they received by the author. The school will better understand the student's issues that they should or should not address.

    18. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserv

      We can use existing records of genres as evidence to show how the mode has evolved over time; it can reflect changes in ideology, language, etc.

    19. Referring to p. 204 2nd paragraph; the professors don't seem to realize what their students have to go through on a daily basis regarding their schoolwork The professors were most likely trained well in English writing because of the many years of school they've had to perfect their skills.

    20. In the beginning of the article, where there is dialogue between Dr. L and the researcher and Dr. L is "appalled by the techniques students use in answering questions..."

      Dr. L doesn't seem to understand why students don't do well regarding their literacy skills and I think it has to do with the fact that students aren't as inclined to put a lot of effort into their writing because it's repetitive and they are busy with their many assignments.

    21. At the bottom of 226, "The person creating the record was not as important as the organizational existence of the record itself."

      Audience is the key factor in any rhetorical writing. Considering the audience is what sets technical communication apart from other forms of communication. The audience should dictate what and how and why you write, and the audience should be thought of in every decision you might make when producing something of any genre. That is how genres change and evolve...with their audiences.

    22. On page 208, the author mentions that Miller's definition of genre was contradictory and could not be resolved. There are many different definitions of genre mentioned in this article. Charles Bazerman defined genre as a "sociopsychological category which we use to recognize and construct typified actions within typified situations.

    23. I think one of the reasons that record keeping should be organized and that Dr. Weed had the right idea is because of audience. While many people would consider records as something on person sees, the secondary audience is technically every in the office that has access to it. If a person moved from Georgia to California and their medical records weren't accessible to their new doctor, then a slew of problems rise. It's important to think of not only the primary audience when creating anything but also the potential secondary audience.

    24. I like how the author (Miller) simplified the definition of genre by saying it is a "frequently traveled path or way of getting symbolic action done either by an individual social action or group of actors," whereas we defined it as a way of figuring out what will or will not work, in class.

      Schryer made the definition sound story-like instead of a basic description.

    25. In the middle of page 214, "Weed wanted to make medical records more readable more scientific--in effect, more open to monitoring, evaluation, and standardization than traditional records."

      Weed basically wanted to change the genre. By making it more accessible and organized, he proposed a change of the set rules of the genre by introducing a new technology. Oftentimes, a new technology can prompt a change in the way that we can and should do things.

    26. p. 206 first 2 paragraphs

      Dorthy Smith goes on to say that records "constitute organization, but are also constituted by them and function as mechanisms of control" and "systematically exclude women." It's interesting to mention this because the way certain words are organized or written can effect the way the reader views that person in the medical record. The judgement may impact the way the doctor or nurse treats the patient.

    27. Bottom of 208 into 209 is a perfect way to think about genre. It can be conventionalized, but the freedom of expression is also there. Genres can be ever changing and ever growing, just like technical writing as we saw in the Albers article.

    28. Many believe that clinical cases are too complex, too multi-factorial and that students are too prone to hasty diagnoses without a great deal of prior course work.

      I agree with this statement to some extent, but I still believe students should be allowed to have practice of real on hands work.

    29. On the top of 208, "if a genre is used to describe stable systems, then the concept is rhetorically unsound because a stable system cannot respond to changes in audience or circumstance."

      Genres CAN'T have a set of rules that shouldn't be broken because not all audiences are the same. A product might need to be on the internet, but it might be an audience of senior citizens who have poor eyesight. How can we combine those two needs if we have to stick in a bound box of rules?

    30. p. 205 2nd paragraph mentions Dorthy E. Smith who was a feminist and marxist who received the lifetime sociology award. Smith is a very credible person to mention in the paragraph relating to the judgement of the patient's records that medical practitioners will see.


    31. When I think of genre, I like to think of it in terms of music. There are many different genres of music, and we can categorize music into these genres based on characteristics of the song and what we hear. For instance, if a banjo is present in a song, people oftentimes will categorize it as "country". If there is a song that has no lyrics, people hastily call it "classical". But not every song with a banjo in it is a country song and not every classical piece is without lyrics.

      While genres can be very prescriptive in terms of the content and medium, it isn't always the case. Genres aren't formulas and they can be innovated and changed just like musical genres.

    32. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized at MICHIGAN STATE UNIV LIBRARIES on August 22, 2008 http://wcx.sagepub.comDo

      Like rhetoric, like technical writing, and much like everything we discussed in class, genres are a dynamic concept in a constantly evolving world. They aren't set to stay the same forever; they'll change to keep up with society's demands and the current ideological (cognitive) needs of the public.

    33. On page 204, we get the main argument to this text: whether or not record keeping is vital to some disciplines and also how genre can be used to explain the ideology behind it.

    34. The conversation at the beginning of the article really sets a question in the readers' mind: what matters more, the actual content that you write or how really you write it? If there are some disciplines that don't evaluate how well you write something because of the genre in which the disciplines exists, then why study writing and English?

      (Because people actually do care about how well you write.)

    35. Two types of triangulation were used in the study (between-method triangulation and within-method triangulation), in which included "interviews, observation, document collection," etc. This relates to what we discussed in class about the many genres that we defined as a loose set of rules to distinguish one thing from another thing. This could range from novels, websites, brochures, etc. So triangulation methods may include many different genres or ways to go about the study.

    36. .© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized at MICHIGAN STATE UNIV LIBRARIES on August 22, 2008 http://wcx.sagepub.comDownloade

      Genre both reflects and influences the communal discourse/communication of ideology. Being that it is a "recurrent, significant action," genres are a mode to reveal cognitive needs. Thus, the rhetoric used in the genre is very field specific in order to best cater to those cognitive needs.

    37. On page 6, I find it interesting that none of the staff at the school thought that record keeping, as a genre, could have an influence on student's performance and literacy.

    38. Late page 6/ beginning of page seven pertains to medical records. I find this interesting as medical records are slowly becoming more and more digital, perhaps due to the absurd handwriting of doctors.

    39. Schryer asks 3 questions to the veterinary college that are very important. The questions gather relevant background information before consulting the college. They were "radical and contextual" questions to avoid blaming the students automatically.

    40. When Schryer quotes Dr. L and says "...they are graded more for their observations than for their literacy skills," he believes the medical students should be concerned with their writing. I completely understand where Dr. L is coming from, but at the same time, it isn't required for medical students to take the top literacy and English courses so I don't see why that would be expected. However, there should definitely be some courses they should take in order for the medical students to be able to communicate with their clients and co-workers once they get into the field. A solution would be to incorporate courses that would be beneficial to their literacy skills.

    41. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use o

      Genre in the context of this article becomes the rhetorical frame that we used to view modes. They conceptualize the ideologies and thoughts of the technical field that they reference. Thus, the genre also reflects the verbal context of the community.

      Thus, we are privy as to how rhetoric shifts the cognition. In class, we discussed how minor differences in mode can affect audience interest; similarly, it can affect how the audience thinks about things. It reflects in how "her definition recognized that genres shaped reading and writing practices and were shaped by the texts in which they were embedded." In other words, the mode/genre was written to show the way people think about a concept, while influencing how people recognize it.

    42. Connecting back to the ideas of audience and genre, on page 212, Schryer, while referencing "Bakhtin's most important insight" says "The change in speaking subjects determines the boundaries of the genre."

      Here he is speaking about audiences and their direct connection to genre. I too find this an interesting point in that genre is created by humans and that the humans that a piece of writing is intended for can dictate "the boundaries" of that genre. The audience determines the writing. Democracy in action.

      This to me is the central issue of this study. One of the problems that this article is seeking to address is that the students of this college were not communicating their own records very well. Their notes and writing were written for an audience of one (themselves) with no real thought as to who may need to read this information in the future.

      Their records and research which when presented for multiple audiences could be a part of a larger discussion, much like this one, are instead left out. To me this is a great disservice to the researchers in any field.

    43. An interesting part of genre is brought up by Schryer when he quotes Bakhtin who on page 224 says, "Addressivity is a genre's quality of being directed at someone."

      Genre is a created not only by the writer but by the audience. The information that is being gathered is being gathered with an end user in mind. This ties in with the article, "Beyond a Narrow Conception of Usability Testing" by Patricia Sullivan. The usability of the information creates value. The genre of record keeping is being directed at multiple audiences who need to be able to process the data quickly and clearly.

      The veterinary student taking notes about a wounded horse knows that his information, as a part of this genre, must be written in a way that can be understood and usable by multiple audiences. So by sticking to the guidelines of the genre, the data will be presented in a way that others will be able to easily understand.

    44. An interesting aspect of record keeping is that by creating the record, it becomes real. Schryer quotes Catherine Pettinari on pg. 204-205 when she writes, "medical records, besides providing means of communication and planning, actually come to represent the patients themselves."

      I found this so interesting because in the medical field, the patient is the record and vice versa. By creating a record of not only a patient's visit, but their problems or symptoms, those problems become real as well. They are now a matter of record. They can be searched for and found.

      This also connected to a larger theme of the study which is that if the record represents the patient than the record must be thorough and written not only for the use of the medical professional who is creating the record, but everyone who may read it afterwards, including the patient themselves.

    45. All the way back on page 202, Schryer makes an interesting point about observational notes. She writes, "Observational notes contained detailed descriptions of what I observed and detailed reconstructions of conversations that used as much of the "original" language of participants as possible."

      While interviewing countless students and faculty she seems to take note of her own note taking. Many were observational while others more analytical. I think in regards to technical communication, observational notes can be extremely important as they can combine multiple modes of communication. Through observation one can note the sights, sounds and even feeling of an environment.

      In the field for example, she can record not only what she sees, but what she hears and can physically touch. These notes have the potential to be viewed by multiple audiences, just like these annotations. By recording her observations linguistically she is able to combine the visual, aural, spatial and gestural modes of communication to create a clear record for not only her use, but other audiences in the future.

      Through strong note taking that combines as many modes as possible, the author is then able to create a clear understanding of the problem and thus and strong diagnosis.

    46. A big question I have is how is Genre monitored? After reading, genre is created humans as a set of loose-ish standards. Is it up to the individual writer to choose a genre and define their own parameters within it? Does that really matter in the real world or is this an academic specific issue? What I got from the article is that genre creates a set of rules to operate within, but are purposefully left open ended as not to stifle creativity.

    47. At the bottom of page 201 and top of page 202, Schryer explains her methods of note taking during her study. Based on the lecture on Tuesday I found it interesting that the author references "triangulation" and using "a variety of methods" (interviews, observation, doc collection) combined with varied sources creates the best data just like the combination of modes can create the best written product. I find the aspect of triangulation interesting since she is using multiple methods that on their own are not as useful but when combined with her other research help paint a vivid picture of the study she was apart of. The clearer the picture the better the result. In this case this means a better diagnosis.

    48. "The addressee in the case of the exam, and I would argue in the case of medical records, is a reader who is prepared to "read" a great deal of tacit information into these accounts."

      Addressivity can define genre in that who the information is being prepared for will influence the style and delivery. As we discussed in class today (9/6/16), who the work is intended for will heavily influence not only genre but the style and language that are used as well. As technical writers, I believe there should always be an effort to communicate in as broad a manner as the subject matter will allow. The more audiences that can be reached the more impactful the writing or "deliverable".

    49. On page 202, Schryer writes that "Traditional ethnographic research often includes a map in order to help locate readers."

      I think this goes back to what we discussed in class about connecting different modes to bring about further understanding of the subject. Through visual and linguistic modes a map is able to convey more information that can then be comprehended faster. But for the sake of this article, Schryer is creating a metaphorical map linguistically to tie in all the disparate elements of the college together to create context for the study. After reading more about different modes in "Writer/Designer: A Guide to Making Multimodal projects", the map itself intrigues me as it can orientate a reader almost instantly while also visually displaying pertinent information.

    50. After reading about the needs of a thorough system of record keeping, it's interesting to notice on page 215, that even though many within the college recognized that the Problem Oriented Veterinary Medical Record system was a better system for recording data, they were hesitant to switch from the System Oriented Record system.

      Dr. Lawrence Weed created the POVMR system to replace the SOR system because the SOR system was not focused enough on problem solving. Schryer writes on page 215, "Weed saw the possibility that records could be redesigned to imitate a specific medical problem solving process."

      In my opinion it seems that POVMR is a better record keeping system in the field while SOR is more accepted in academic settings. The POVMR mode of record keeping could also remove students from the staccato rehearsing of terms and definitions by immersing them in real world problem solving scenarios thus hopefully avoiding the symptoms of Green Grad Syndrome. In the end, the POVMR system creates more detailed records that are then easier to share as well as fulfilling the need for students to write with other audiences in mind. More data can only help in the mission of creating a better diagnosis. By using this system the data created by the students can be used as a part of a much larger data pool in which veterinarians from other parts of the world could search for and reference their findings for their own diagnosis. This gets back to the notion that genre is a set of loose guidelines that can help veterinarians and technical communicators figure out what works and doesn't work in regards to audience.

    51. A constant theme in this article is that record keeping and audience should go hand in hand. A prime example of this can be found on page 220. Schryer writes, "A discussion with the record technicians revealed that new veterinarians would sometimes attempt to use the term "a poor doer" to describe an animal that essentially was not thriving. Such records would be returned for clarification because, according to the technicians, the term was too vague."

      While Schryer admits that veterinarians should avoid using "vet speech" they should also avoid language that is too broad. Their records should be as clear as possible so that the next person who reads them will not need to second guess what they are reading but will be able to continue where the previous person left off. When creating these records, the audience must be a consideration since that audience itself could also be quite broad.

    52. On page 204, Dr. L., a professor at the college in question and Dr. Schryer disagree fundamentally on what constitutes literacy. Schryer writes, "Dr. L. viewed literacy in terms of writing exams but did not see that the keeping of medical records was also a form of literacy."

      Will this opinion be a common one as I search for career in technical communication? By reading the article, I believe that record keeping is indeed a genre as well as a form of literacy. Elements of style and structure are necessary to provide records for a wider audience.

      As the needs of technical communicators change with the technology (Pullman, Gu, Albers), I'm wondering if the definitions of what is considered literacy will change with it.

    53. On pg. 211, Schryer notes that Miller as well as Bakhtin "...saw genre as a fusion of content and style." This quote caught me since I myself am trying to decode the "fusion of content and style" that is technical writing. Having graduated as a history major I wrote in order to prove a larger point. In technical writing I'm doing something similar by not necessarily proving my finely worded argument, but still searching the most concise and clear way to frame information for others to digest.

      During my undergrad, my audience was my professor. Not a soul on any of the construction sites I worked on after college cared about why I believed the end of the Cold War was one of the major facilitators of political change in South Africa in the early 1990's. But I have always looked for ways of explaining complex historical events in ways that my peers would not only listen to, but be genuinely interested in. This is one aspect of technical writing that has drawn my own attention.

      To me, taking complex subjects/information and distilling them into something easy and understandable is like putting a puzzle together. So reading about how Miller, Bakhtin and Schryer look at content and style in regards to Genre and record keeping to me illustrates what it is technical writers are doing. While Pullman, Gu and Albers tell us we are transforming into content manager hybrids, the basic elements of content and style within the genre are still the building blocks on top of which we can add more elements such as new software.

      Genre like electricity, like water is always moving. It can inhabit many forms and shapes, but it never stops evolving. Genre is a building block of style and content providing a path, but the path is never walled in. There is still room to navigate ones own path within it without ever losing sight of the destination. In technical communication we have to be exposed to as many modes and genres to further our own cause of communicating information that not only explains something complex, but can create genuine interest in something that was previously deemed too difficult. To me, that's awesome.

    54. distribution.© 1993 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized at MICHIGAN STATE UNIV LIBRARIES on August 22, 2008 http://wcx.sagepub.comDow

      The latter half of the page, Smith observes how written language eventually becomes a subconscious presence in a field's ideology; records are remembered in the form that it was written in, so they gradually affect our thinking.

    55. The dialogue between the clinician and student on page 218 talks about what the symptoms the student is looking for when the golden retriever had gotten hit by a car. The symptoms that the student looks at are all visible signs. Both the clinician and student are using complex words or technical language to describe the golden retriever's pain. But, the data collectors did not understand some of the words, and so they had to ask more questions or rephrase them.

    56. "..., which encouraged students to memorize a vast number of facts without emphasizing the problem-solving skills essential for the practitioner."(Schryer 214). I think that this is still happening today. People don't look at the bigger picture of their problem. They need someone to help them to solve it, and then they just need to memorize the answer part of the problem and they think that this is okay when it really isn't. The people aren't going to get anything out of the problem, they will only remember the answer to it, and not think about how to solve it when the same problem hits them again.

    57. at MICHIGAN STATE UNIV LIBRARIES on August 22, 2008

      In an effort to keep my annotations more organized and removing the redundancy of writing a page note, I'll be using these footnotes at the bottom of the page for my annotations.

      The last full paragraph on this page identifies Schryer's primary focus. First, the record-keeping of certain fields affect the socialization (communication?) within communities. Second, genre identifies the "work and ideology of social and ideological action." I currently don't have any idea what that means, so I will come back to that.

    58. "Yet Bakhtin also suggests that speech genres are "changeable, flexible, and plastic.""(Schryer 213). What does this writer mean by "plastic?" How are speech genres "plastic?" https://bu.digication.com/UHCST111HI_2010_09-12/Review_of_The_Problem_of_Speech_Genres/published ^This link states the definition of a speech genre.The writer states in the link, "that there are diverse spheres of communication, and the generally stable utterances within each sphere constitute speech genres."(Bakhtin). It states that a speech genre is not just a simple genre, but its what in each "sphere" that holds a speech genre. Speech genres are different than other type of genres.

    59. pg200, Dialogue This is an example of prescriptive language versus descriptive language. While descriptive language is the language that people speak and use naturally, prescriptive language is language that people associate with rules and order.

    60. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/genre ^ This link provides a broad definition of genre. Genre is a category of a composition, like music or literature, that are then grouped with each other based on the similarities that they have.

    61. "Contradictions always exist. It is through contradictions, in fact, that change occurs. This sense of complexity and creative contradiction is reflected in the term transformativity. Genres are, in fact, characterized by transformativity."(Schryer 210). ^This quote states that genre is characterized by the way it changes. Genre belongs in different groups, and it changes based on the groups that they belong to.

    62. Page 209 "genres are sites for the centrifugal and centripetal forces that struggle to maintain and yet renew discourse practices"

    63. Pg. 208 Bazerman defined genre as "a sociopsychological category which we use to recognize and construct typified actions within typified situations. It is a way of creating order in the ever-fluid symbolic world." I find this definition to be interesting and quite accurate because "social actors" want to run wild when it comes to their art because there are so many subcategories they can immerse themselves in but the information that they're dealing with is so important and vital to society that there needs to be a common language or guidelines that allow for easy interpreting of that information.

    64. Page 208, "Miller realized that if genre were conceived as conventional 'ways of acting together' then the concept did not lend itself to taxonomy 'for genres change, evolve, and decay''

    65. I found it contradictory how Miller wanted "to make of rhetorical genre a stable classifying concept" when the definition of genre has this concept of it being a "in the now" and continuously adapting and changing notion. pg. 208

    66. It's interesting how genre is defined as "reoccurring and in the now" when those who are only currently present in the situation can actually interpret it and give it significance. Pg. 207

    67. Pg. 207 "recurrent, significant, and action reflects key insights into the nature of genre"

    68. Page 207, "a genre represents a series of texts sharing features at the levels of content, form, and style"

    69. Page 206, Smith suggested that textual practices {record keeping} remove from the individuals who use them much freedom of action and expression. Records not only constitute organizations but are also constituted by them and function as mechanisms of control. I find her statement to be truthful because the genre of medical record keeping provides rules and guidelines that prevent doctors from going off tangent which can lead to having a miscommunication (i.e. overlooking certain symptoms) that can potentially lead to serious consequences (i.e. misdiagnose).

    70. "a genre is an emic phenomenon."(Schryer 207). ^The link above provides a definition of an emic. The word emic in this sentence means that genre is a person's perception of it. Whoever studies genre is bound to question it's explanation.

    71. Page 205, Record keeping according to Smith "the forms that externalize social consciousness in social practices, objectify reasoning, knowledge, memory, decision-making, judgement, evaluation..." From this I can infer that record keeping is a mode of communication between doctors that has turned into a language of its own.

    72. "a genre represents a series of texts sharing features at the levels of content, form, and style."(Schryer 207). ^This is a more detailed definition of genre.

    73. I believe that there is nothing wrong with labeling record keeping as a genre. Record keeping is a category of writing; it is writing something down so you can remember it or taking notes that someone says that you think is important. I don't understand why this article states that there is a problem with stating record keeping as a genre. Maybe it is because that this article was written such a long time ago that in that time record keeping was not thought of as a genre.

    74. "This article argues that record keeping is a central discursive practice in disciplines such as psychiatry, social work, and medicine."(Schryer 204). ^ I believe that this is not the case. People all over the world keep some kind of record keeping, everyone just has different kinds of it. For example, when students go to school, they write notes from the lectures or things that their teachers say that they think are important to them. I believe that this is a type of record keeping.

    75. ..."triangulation as a central concern for qualitative researchers. It is through triangulation, or detailed cross- checking and cross- referencing, that valid generalizations emerge from ethnographic research."(Schryer 201). ^This is a definition of triangulation.

    76. Physicians and researchers use multimodal modes of communication when studying doctor and patient interactions, such as studying videotaping of these interactions rather than just reviewing the medical records taken during the interactions.

    77. "Terms", according to McLaughlin, "commit us to particular values, and if we are aware of these commitments, we can take the position we inhabit."

    78. "We grasp the meaning and structure of a literary work only through its relation to archetype" on genre

    79. "...genre is composed of a constellation of recognizable forms bound together by an internal dynamic." Miller (1984)

    80. "objectively neutral styles presuppose something like an identity of the addressee and the speaker, a unity of their viewpoints, but this identity and unity are purchased at the price of almost complete forfeiture of expression"


    81. coherent style allowed for rapid communication and efficient problem solving

    82. Page 205-206, according to Pettinari, medical records, besides providing a means of communication and planning, actually come to represent patients themselves. I found this statement very interesting and accurate because most doctors review your medical records and identify you by your previous diagnoses, even before they actually meet you face to face. The future of your health essentially depends on how well your doctor comprehends the genre of your medical record.

    83. Using POVMR doctors are able to access records using key words from their own hospitals and hospitals around the country. Offers more and better research

    84. Genres are evolving and function as ideological vehicles that represent the values of certain groups within the speech community and not others.

    85. Going off our conversation on Tuesday, veterinarians are using different modes to record their data. Visual and oral signals are written down for further study when dealing with animals in the field.

    86. "the concept of genre, when viewed from rhetorical, dialectical, and dialogic perspectives, can illuminate much of the work and ideology of such textual practices (i.e. medical field)" page 204

    87. Psychiatry, social work, and medicine are powerful communities that affect us all, so therefore there record keeping practices/methods are dire to how shaping our society. For example, if a new method of record keeping came to the discovery of a link between depression and lack of socializing, then that can have a huge impact on diagnosing patients with similar symptoms or even the type of treatments involved.

    88. Page 204, "Why examine record keeping at all? Is the concept of 'genre' an accurate or useful way to theorize about these texts? Is genre a useful way to talk about the ways of speaking and writing characteristic of discourse communities?" When discussing genre, the main purpose is trying to figure out what will work according to certain conventions that you look for to identify what type of document it is. Genre is always in the now, continuously moving. Record keeping is a form of genre that continues to adapt and change according to its purpose or the type of information that is gathered. Especially medical records, because information from patients is constantly updating and being analyzed differently which involves proper organization.

    89. On page 204, Schryer realizes that Dr. L viewed literacy in terms of writing exams but did not see that the keeping of medical records was also a form of literacy. But yet, Dr. L nor other members of the college really knew how much writing their students did. I find this contradictory because how can you claim that your students lack literacy skills when perhaps it's your own fault that they're aren't practicing their writing skills. What if the professors are assigning assignments that don't involve a lot of writing? Dr. L did state that he prefers short answer exams. If the assignments don't involve a lot of writing, then how can professors blame students for their lack of writing? Ironic.

    90. On page 202, Schryer begins to organize his notes using "traditional ethnographic style" while also distinguishing observational ( more fact based) from analytical (more opinionated based) notes. From then he was able to subcategorize those notes (according to specific comments and documents) from which he realized how important medical record keeping was. I found this interesting because there are so many ways a note about a patient can be organized, with each category giving the information a distinctive meaning. So maybe this initial discovery in itself is Schryer expressing or forseshadowing how the organization involved in medical record keeping is related to that of utilizing your literacy skills to compose a report.

    91. According to page 201-202, Dr. L states that he believes his students are lacking literacy skills and that it's especially obvious in their lab reports. He claims that most of their reports lack literacy because they connect key words to each other through drawing arrows instead of actually writing out in sentences how they're connected. I find this notion invalid because learning can be done through multimodal communication which isn't just limited to writing. Using symbols and pictures (like drawing arrows to connect words) are considered to be valid means to communicate a notion.

    92. reading this article helps me understand the importance of the consultation/study they received by the author. The school will better understand the student's issues that they should or should not address and where they can improve.

    93. referring to p. 204 2nd paragraph; the professors don't understand their students and how much they have to go through and to add on proper english writing on top of what they already have to learn would probably overwhelm them whereas the professors were most likely trained well in english writing because of the many years of school and training they've had to perfect their skills.

    94. In the beginning of the article, where there is dialogue between Dr. L and the researcher and Dr. L is "appalled by the techniques students use in answering questions..."

      Dr. L doesn't seem to understand why students write in such ways and I think it has to do with the fact that students aren't as inclined to put a lot of work into their writing because it takes much more time when you can get it done easily with the just the bare minimum.