32 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
    1. Educating the community, including students, teachers, administrative staff and parents, to prevent and address HIB of students;

      One of the most important ways to prevent HIB within schools is to educate the community about these types of incidences, consequences, etc. Although educating the community of updated HIB information is just one responsibility of the student safety team, it is one of the most important tasks that the SST can do to prevent severe incidences in schools.

    2. headaches, dizziness and stomachaches

      Especially at the elementary level, it is important to dig deeper into what is going on with a student if they are constantly complaining about these physical problems. The teacher may just send the student to the nurse to take care of their illness, but the illness may actually be caused by an act of bullying, intimidation, or violence. Therefore, teachers should be aware of the students that constantly complaining of physical problems.

    3. Bullyingis not a conflictbetween students or among groups of students. Conflictis a mutuallycompetitive or opposing action or engagement, including a disagreement, an argument ora fightwhich is a normal part of human development

      I think it is very important for students to understand the difference between conflict and bullying. Many students may dismiss their bullying behavior by claiming that they were just having an argument or disagreement with another student, when in fact that was not the case. Therefore, students need to understand when the argument or disagreement is not mutual and that they can be at risk of and H.I.B. investigation.

  2. Jun 2018
    1. Madeline Hunter conceptualized the interplay of effective instructional practices with the theories of motivation, reinforcement and the transfer of learning in the 1980s. She understood the complexity of teaching and integrated research-based teaching practices and brain theories with schoolhouse practicalities. Her methodology was popularized to an extreme in the 80s and 90s and later berated because it seemed too repetitively mechanical and overdone. In the rush to reform, the clarity and directness of Dr. Hunter’s methodologies were set aside for newer trends, especially trends that de-emphasized the importance of the teacher and emphasized the perceived needs of the learner. Interestingly, the current political mandates for improving the achievement of all children in U.S. schools is returning Madeline Hunter’s instructional practices to the front of the classroom. In his 2011 book, Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning, Mike Schmoker expounds on the values of Hunter’s methodologies.

      Hunter understood the complexity of teaching and integrated research based teaching practices. Her methods were set aside for newer trends but recently returned. (Compared to Dewey who liked clear and simple instruction that challenged children.)

    1. Hunter defined teaching as a series of decisions that take place in three realms: content, learning behaviors of students, and teacher behaviors. Content refers to the specific information, skill, or process that is appropriate for students at a particular time. Content decisions are based upon students' prior knowledge and how it relates to future instruction; simple understandings must precede more complex understandings. Decisions regarding learning behaviors indicate how a student will learn and show evidence of that learning. Because there is no best way for all students to learn, a variety of learning behaviors is usually more effective than one. Evidence of learning must be perceivable by the teacher to ensure that learning has occurred. The third area of decision-making, teacher behavior, refers to the use of principles of learning–validated by research–that enhance student achievement. <!-- google_ad_client = "ca-pub-4803409109489353"; google_ad_width = 728; google_ad_height = 90; google_ad_format = "728x90_as"; google_ad_type = "text_image"; google_ad_channel = "5066729692+9901418216"; google_color_border = "FFFFFF"; google_color_bg = "FFFFFF"; google_color_link = "000099"; google_color_url = "999999"; google_color_text = "000000"; //--> In order to successfully implement Hunter's methods, teachers undergo extensive professional development that conveys the types of decisions they must make. Training includes viewing videotapes that demonstrate effective decision-making in the classroom, and the Teaching Appraisal for Instructional Improvement Instrument (TAIII), administered by a trained observer or coach, which diagnoses and prescribes teacher behaviors to increase the likelihood of student learning.

      Teaching as a series that takes place in three realms: content, learning behaviors of students, and teacher behaviors. Content refers to the specific information, skill, or process that is appropriate for students at a particular time.

    1. As the quote below highlights, teaching is not just about engaging students in content. It is also about ensuring students have the resources necessary to understand. Student learning and understanding can be gauged more accurately through a backward design approach since it leverages what students will need to know and understand during the design process in order to progress. “In teaching students for understanding, we must grasp the key idea that we are coaches of their ability to play the ‘game’ of performing with understanding, not tellers of our understanding to them on the sidelines.”

      Benefits of Backward Design - Teaching is about ensuring students have the resources necessary to understand. This can work in a backward design approach since it leverages what students will needto know and understand during the design process in order to progress.

    2. The three stages of backward design:

      1. Identify desire results.
      2. Determine acceptable evidence.
      3. Plan learning experiences and instruction.
    1. What is learning? The ultimate purpose of education is to help students and their teachers create meaning in their lives. Teacher should challenge the taken for granted, the given and the bound and the restricted. How are skills and knowledge acquired? Education at its best is a process of teaching people to explore ideas about themselves and the world in which they live, to ask questions about the experience called living and to embrace ambiguity, to notice the unusual without fear and to look upon the ordinary with new eyes.

      The purpose of education is to help students and their teachers create meaning in their live. It is the process of teaching people to explore ideas about themselves.

    2. Greene's view on the goals of education is to help students realize their connection to and responsibility for their individual experience and to others in the world.

    1. Gardner’s theory has come under criticism from both psychologists and educators. These critics argue that Gardner’s definition of intelligence is too broad and that his eight different "intelligences" simply represent talents, personality traits, and abilities. Gardner’s theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research.Despite this, the theory of multiple intelligences enjoys considerable popularity with educators. Many teachers utilize multiple intelligences in their teaching philosophies and work to integrate Gardner’s theory into the classroom.

      Criticism of Gardner's theory indicates that his idea of "intelligence" is too broad.

    1. words (linguistic intelligence) numbers or logic (logical-mathematical intelligence) pictures (spatial intelligence) music (musical intelligence) self-reflection (intrapersonal intelligence) a physical experience (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence) a social experience (interpersonal intelligence), and/or an experience in the natural world. (naturalist intelligence)

      The theory of multiple intelligences tells helps a teacher know how to teach anything in different ways based on a student's classifying intelligence.

    1. The main conclusions reached by Vygotsky and Luria on the basis of this study were that informants who retain a traditional nonliterate culture and way of life tend to solve problems by using functional reasoning reflecting their everyday life practical experience and reject the possibility of looking at classification, generalization, or drawing conclusions from another; for example, more abstractive point of view.

      Vygotsky's study of possible historical changes in human cognition. The main conclusion explained.

    1. According to Freire, all forms of pedagogy represent a particular way of understanding society and a specific commitment to the future. Critical pedagogy, unlike dominant modes of teaching, insists that one of the fundamental tasks of educators is to make sure that the future points the way to a more socially just world, a world in which the discourses of critique and possibility in conjunction with the values of reason, freedom, and equality function to alter, as part of a broader democratic project, the grounds upon which life is lived.

      Critical pedagogy insists that one of the fundamental tasks of educators is to make sure that the future points to a more socially just world.

    1. How Bloom’s works with course level and lesson level objectives: Course level objectives are broad. You may only have 3-5 course level objectives. They would be difficult to measure directly because they overarch the topics of your entire course. Lesson level objectives are what we use to demonstrate that a student has mastery of the course level objectives. We do this by building lesson level objectives that build toward the course level objective. For example, a student might need to demonstrate mastery of 8 lesson level objectives in order to demonstrate mastery of one course level objective. Because the lesson level objectives directly support the course level objectives, they need to build up the Bloom’s taxonomy to help your students reach mastery of the course level objectives. Use Bloom’s Taxonomy to make sure that the verbs you choose for your lesson level objectives build up to the level of the verb that is in the course level objective. The lesson level verbs can be below or equal to the course level verb, but they CANNOT be higher in level. For example, your course level verb might be an Applying level verb, “illustrate.” Your lesson level verbs can be from any Bloom’s level that is equal or below this level (applying, understanding, or remembering).

      Bloom's taxonomy can be used to write successful lesson objectives. Lesson level objectives are what we use to demonstrate student mastery of the course level objective.

    1. Remember Recognizing Recalling Understand Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Apply Executing Implementing Analyze Differentiating Organizing Attributing Evaluate Checking Critiquing Create Generating Planning Producing

      Knowledge is the basis of the 6 cognitive processes in Bloom's revised taxonomy.

    1. Hirsch and fellow professors Joseph Kett and James Trefil provide a 64-page Appendix, "What Literate Americans Know". This consists of words, names, and phrases of all kinds. It might be sobering to learn how much or how little of this list is recognized by high-school students; university students, bureaucrats enforcing regulations; Congressmen writing laws. Note that this is not a sealed, official list; nor are students or citizens expected to be able to write a thesis on any of these. But they should recognize and understand these terms when they are read or heard.

      Hirsch created a list of words that we should know to be considered "culturally literate." Example terms provided here.

    1. Backward Design can be summarized as a process or model for designing instructional materials where the instructor or instructional designer focuses on the desired end results (i.e., the outcome) of a class or course instruction. Rather than beginning the planning process with a focus on supporting exercises, resources or long-used textbooks, the designer focuses on the learners and begins the design process by asking what learners should be able to understand and do after the provided instruction.

      Backward Design deals with viewing the intended outcome and working backwards through the exercise.

    1. Direct instruction and checking for understanding – This part involves quickly assessing whether students understand what has just been demonstrated or presented.

      Direct instruction model of teaching (I do, We do, You do) Teacher demonstrates, class tries, individual practice.

    1. According to this theory, "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains."

      We all learn in specific ways and if we understand ourselves then we can combine the different domains that benefit our personality to complete certain tasks.

    1. The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills (Bloom, 1956). This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories of cognitive an processes, starting from the simplest to the most complex

      There are different levels of cognitive development that play a role in intellectual abilities and skills. (6 categories)

    1. He really believes in the possibilities of modern education to improve individuals (and nations) and to transcend “gender, race, and class,” in the real prospect of equal educational opportunity in having access to the aggregated public goods of a civilization, mediated by the K–12 schools.

      Cultural literacy will allow us to surpass inequalities in schools.

    1. Many people mistake activity –the doing of things –with experiential education. Maxine Greene reminds us that experiential education is really an internal processby which people can “wake up” and construct a coherent world on one’s own quest for freedom and transformation by integrating a variety of perspectives and vantage points. This process can be accomplished through the coming together in community, through dialogue and the asking of questions, through interfacing with art and literature. It is when a person can truly get outside one’s own reality, using a uniquely human capacity for imagination that transformation can take place. In this way, a person starts with her or his own experience andthen, in the process of “waking up,” chooses to venture outside her or his own place and vantage point while constructing a more holistic image of one’s reality. The doing of things may provide a needed spark, but it is not an end in itself. At its base,experiential education is a constructivist process that takes place from the inside out, helping each individual make sense of her or his worl

      Experiences are an internal process.

    1. teractions, his elementary mental functions evolved into his “higher mental functions” or HMF. Unlike elementary mental functions, they are stimulated. They are taught, and they are learned in social settings or environments, and they often come with socia

      Stimulation plays a role in childhood education as they are taught through socializing and interacting in their environment.

    2. The process of learning also required him to work closely with other people besides his teachers, such as older students and classmates.

      Students learn best by interacting with others, as they playa role in society.

    1. The key is the relationship between student and teacher. In this approach to education the teacher‑student teaches the student-teachers.

      Problem-posing education proposes that teachers need to learn from their students as well. Teachers are not "all-knowing."

    2. “Education as the exercise of domination stimulates the credulity of students, with the ideological intent (often not perceived by educators) of indoctrinating them to adapt to the world of oppression”. “Banking education”, though, is precisely the method favoured in the West to teach almost everyone.

      Freire's critique of the banking system argues the domination teachers have over students, which leads to the idea of oppression.

    1. The young child’s natural inclination to touch and experience their world in a tactile manner explains why the world famous Montessori apparatus has such fascinating appeal to a child. 

      Sensory perception for learning.

    1. Montessori observed how children learned the language without anyone teaching them. This sparked her idea for the “absorbent mind”.

      Children learn without being taught through the ability to make their own choices rather than going through lessons.

    2. When the children are able to do things for themselves there is an increase in their self belief, self confidence and esteem that they may carry on throughout their life.

      Children learn best when they have the opportunity to do things themselves.

    1. Dewey aimed to integrate the school with society, and the processes of learning with the actual problems of life, by a thoroughgoing application of the principles and practices of democracy

      Believed democracy was a form of social intelligence in which people respect one another, and rely on the teaching and guidance of a student's social life and interests.

    2. Socially desirable qualities could not be brought forth in the child by pouring a ready made curriculum into a passive vessel. They could be most easily and fully developed by guiding the normal motor activities, irrepressible inquisitiveness and outgoing energies of the child along the lines of their greatest interest.

      Teacher can assist the child to respond to social influences around him or her.

    3. Children were to get from the public school whatever was missing in their lives elsewhere that was essential for their balanced development as members of a democratic country.

      School life should be equivalent to home life.