620 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. collective action produces global behavior

      This distinction is key to developing appropriate data systems for schools. What data can we put in front of teachers locally in order to produce the system results we want to see globally? Schools repeatedly try to put a zoomed in view of their global data system in front of teachers in the interest of having teachers take "ownership" of the global data. By zooming in on data that is not meant to be accurate, predictable, or actionable at the student level, we give teachers a terrible form of student-level data, like zooming in on a low-quality picture and seeing big blurry pixels. Then, we ask them to ascribe meaning to the bad data which is naturally going to be unreliable. Behind suits and ties we insist this is the data that teachers should care about because this is the data the state holds us accountable for, all the while teachers learn to mistrust this data.

    2. “I was interested in systems where individuals who are unable to assess the global situation still work together in a coordinated way,” she says now. “And they manage to do it using only local information.”

      What local information do teachers have at their disposal to help them assess global school systems and performance? How can we strengthen that data?

    3. We see emergent behavior in systems like ant colonies when the individual agents in the system pay attention to their immediate neighbors rather than wait for orders from above.

      What kind of emergent behaviors can we observe in a group of teachers when the framing for PLC expectations is broad and ill-structured?

    4. meager vocabulary

      Good to frame vocabulary this broadly and conceptually. What is their "vocabulary" and what vocabulary is needed for educators to self organize in PLC settings?

    5. All of which raises the question, if evolution didn’t see fit to endow ants with the computational powers of the human brain, how did they become such a dominant presence on the planet?

      This raises a key question about distributed cognition and sustainability.

  2. Mar 2018
    1. Most refugees have escaped extreme conflict and persecution abroad, but they may have little understanding of inequality in the United States. Schools should emphasize learning about America’s history of racism and oppression, because students may face the consequences of that history in their daily lives. Teachers can also give young people more active opportunities to engage with inequality, so that students are prepared to challenge discrimination as adults.

      This is a thread that runs through Pedagogy of the Oppressed and much of the Youth Action Research work that fascinates me.

    2. More broadly, Moussa’s school did not prepare him for the marginalization he would experience as a black, poor, non-Christian, non-native-born person in the United States. Moussa felt vulnerable.

      How can teachers help develop agency in students like Moussa while also showing them that there are paths to a non-traditional but manageable post-secondary education? This question can inform text selection in humanities classes and broader pedagogy design.

    3. Teachers have to be wary of the “false hope” that being successful in school will translate equally into livelihood opportunities for all students, according to a new paper by international education policy expert Sarah Dryden-Peterson and doctoral student Celia Reddick.

      This was a frustration of mine watching the new PBS documentary American Creed. There is a scene (19:00-23:00) in which a principal in a Tulsa elementary school talks about how her Native American students can grow up to be whatever they want at the same time she explains how many of the schools' families are trapped in a cycle of poverty, drug abuse, and incarceration. How long will that message ring true for these students given their surroundings? The principal, a Native American woman herself, is "living her American dream," in large part because her family owned land and struck oil.

    1. Valerie Kinloch

      (pictured here) I pulled this photo from her profile at Ohio State here.

    2. Mahiri (2004)

      (Pictured here) I pulled his photo from his profile at Cal Berkeley here.

    3. Malcolm X

    4. e Robertson Treatment, 201

    5. According to Robinson, executive director of ColorofChange.org, “Repeated exposure to unbalanced and distorted portrayals of Black people in media leads to the development of implicit biases against them” (“Not to Be Trust-ed,” 2015, p. 3). For example, patterns in portrayals of Black people in the media can (1) promote antagonism toward the Black community, (2) promote exaggerated views of Black people related to criminality and violence, and (3) reduce attention to structural and other big-picture factors that affect the Black community, such as racial inequalities (“Media Representations and Impact,” 2012).

      We've had a number of readers respond to this text but no notes yet about these three tangible ways traditional media narratives about Black people cause harm. To annotate this with an anti-racist focus, educators could surface examples of how they see the impacts of these with students in varied contexts.

    6. Pedagogies of healing and critical media literacy are important, especially in the wake of racial violence when mainstream media work to stigmatize, characterize, and marginalize Black youth by projecting them as dangerous Others

      The first line reminds me of the authors' description of the background of this piece. https://youtu.be/N5NVySOiu1U

    7. In other words, the same racist brutality toward Black citizens that we see happening on the streets across the United States mirrors the violence toward Black students that is happening in our nation’s academic streets.

      The shooting of Terence Crutcher in Tulsa, OK. always stands out to me as a particularly evil example, in part because of the media that arose from it. There is audio taken from a police helicopter before Crutcher was shot in which a man with a southern drawl describes Crutcher as a "bad dude." At that point in the video all the police officer who was mic'ed up could see was that Crutcher was tall and black. Watching from my own chair in Denver, I was moved to blog the following:

      And the cover up is such a familiar narrative that we can hear this helicopter pilot starting the cover up story even before Terence Crutcher was shot. From his arial vantage point, a white man with a badge describes Crutcher, who had his hands in the air, as a "bad dude" who is probably "on something." The officer who shot Crutcher is being described by some in the Tulsa police and by her attorney as a "drug recognition expert." Instead of calling this murder the way we can all see it, this murder is being quickly reframed as the shooting of a "bad dude" by a "drug recognition expert."

      Even as I angrily blogged, I didn't make the important connection that these authors do, the connection to the way Black students will feel in the weeks after a shooting as their community seeks justice and school marches on. These authors ask "What's next for the students?" This morning I found an article about Black student responses in a Tulsa school to the same shooting. I find them haunting:

      “Why did they have to kill him? Why were they afraid of him? Why does (Crutcher’s daughter) have to live life without a father? What will she do at father-daughter dances? Who will walk her down the aisle? Why did no one help him after he was shot? Hasn’t this happened before? Can we write her cards? Can we protest?” Lee wrote. “One girl closes our group by sharing: ‘I wish white people could give us a chance. We can all come together and get along. We can all be united.’ 

      It is important to note that the healing referenced in the title isn't just for Black people. Our culture needs healing when these murders happen and our media channels tell a story that indicts everyone in the passive audience.

    8. “debasement of Black humanity, utter indifference to Black suffering, and the denial of Black people’s right to exist”

      This is a powerful expression of the way white supremacy relies on the degradation of Black people. The examples that follow in the piece are plucked directly from huge media channels that reach a broad audience. I'm so thankful for the authors for sharing this type of work in a less than "mainstream" channel of another sort- the Journal of English Education.

    9. https://twitter.com/marclamonthill/status/658766053204324352

      Here's a link tot the tweet referenced in case folks want to retweet it or follow Mark Lamont Hill. https://twitter.com/marclamonthill/status/658766053204324352

    10. Adichie, C. N. (2009, October 7). TED Talks. The danger in a single story. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg

      This is one of the first texts my students and I read in English class. I see its placement here as powerful in this list of references. I know the authors developed this list intentionally to send a message about what texts count in Critical Media Literacy. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg

  3. Feb 2018
    1. Accuracy Motivation and Judgments of Truth Claims

      Here's a question that stems from my own work with students and research: How might playful approaches to the teaching of argument foster this type of motivation? Or, how might a Credible Hulk badge and playlist to support the development of this type of motivation?

    2. Instead, the deliberate distribu-tion of misinformation by some politicians, political organizations, and inter-est groups is common (Hochschild & Einstein, 2015; Lewandowsky, Ecker,Seifert, Schwarz, & Cook, 2012)

      This issue has become branded by the most recent presidential election but I think it is important to see that "fake news" is not a recent, or Russian invention.

    3. When assessing exposure to media literacy, we asked youth if educators haddiscussed how important it was to evaluate evidence that backs up opinions(emphasizing the norm of accuracy motivation) and if they had providedskills (or capacities) that would help them judge the accuracy of informationthey find online (emphasizing the need for skills). It would be wise to testadditional ways to promote the norm of accuracy motivation as well asthe skills or capacities to act productively in response to this motivation.

      Evaluation of evidence is something we can practice with and model for students as we work through reading and writing processes.

    4. In particular, in a polarized environment, judgments of truth claims areoften shaped more by whether or not individuals’ prior perspectives on theissue align with the claims than by how well informed the individuals are ortheir capacities to reason (Lavine, Johnston, & Steenbergen, 2012; Taber &Lodge, 2006).

      Fascinating the way bias ties into the reading process.

    5. To cite one stark example, in 1960, roughly 5%of Republicans and Democrats said they would be ‘‘displeased’’ if their childmarried someone from the other party.

      What are the implications of this on trust in our schools?

    1. To every politician who is taking donations from the NRA, shame on you. Crowd chants, shame on you.

      Amazing that the NRA still has such influence despite their tone deaf responses to school shootings. It isn't surprising to me that the gun debate still persists, but the staying power of the NRA as an organization is shocking.

    1. Two guys had opinions but a woman said their opinions were bad and they should not be allowed to have opinions because they were not certified opinion-havers like her. The end.

      Here are some facts that the Washington Post might have included: Two black men who are social icons and community leaders commented on a presidency marked by lies, and the stupidity of a president who mistakenly believed Frederick Douglass is still alive. The response of a conservative journalist was to question their intelligence and belittle their work by painting the entrepreneurs as dumb physical laborers.

  4. Jan 2018
    1. The purpose of democracy is to empower individual citizens and give them sufficient control over their lives to protect themselves from domi-nation.

      You can write about this line.

      (One possible response frame: The purpose of democracy is to __.)

    2. As I worked my way through the text with those students, I realized for the first time in my own life that the Declaration makes a coherent philosophical argument.

      You can write about this line.

      (One possible response frame: As I worked through _ with my students, I realized for the first time in my own life _.)

    3. Yet if you had peeked in on us, what would you have seen? By and large all we were doing was reading texts closely, and discussing them.

      You can write about these lines.

      (One possible response frame: If you had peeked in on us, what would you have seen? By and large all we were doing was __.)

    4. re-gifted

      Crazy, contemporary word choice.

    5. If the pattern of books published on the Declarationis any indication, we have developed the habit of thinking about the Declarationmainly as an event, an episode in the dramatic unfolding of the American Revolution. But it makes a cogent philosophical case for political equal-ity, a case that democratic citizens desperately need to understand.

      This is a call to action for cult of pedagogy folks like me. As a teacher of English, I'm inspired by the notion that this foundational text needs new reading because the readings to date have a shortcoming, and because our citizens have a real-life need to understand.

    6. are among the most fundamental mysteries of human life

      Not a "best practice," not something scalable for the purposes of spreadsheet data, the learner's growth is a mystery that only the learner can help us solve. If we try to quantify the learning we talk about learning in the language of accountants and auditors. When we avoid the temptation to oversimplify assessment and instead get curious about what changes readers and writers, the job of teaching gives rise to infinite inquiry possibilities.

    7. Or are they merely symbols? My night students’ lives overran with death—from gunshots and overdoses and chronic disease and battery. They were indeed haunted. My day stu-dents, many of them well-heeled and all of them well-insured, were still mostly too young to understand what it means to carry the past around within you.

      The risk factors her night students endure are assets that help them make meaning of the text better than her more privileged day students. Asset focused teaching.

    8. We scrutinized single words. When Antigone, in Sophocles’s play from fifth-century Athens, decides to stand up to King Creon and bury her brother, the chorus describes her as making laws for herself. She is autonomous, they say, which is simply Greek for “making your own laws.”

      This definition of autonomy is an important one for education leaders to think about for so many reasons. It reminds me of last month's reading authored by Linda Christensen, where we read about how teachers actually have more space than we occupy. Some teachers see autonomy where others feel confined.

    1. Those denials echo the same ones that frustrated Dr. King in 1963 as he sat in a Birmingham jail cell and wrote, “Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will.”

      How do people of goodwill combat their shallow understandings? How might the affordances of the open web help promote greater understanding?

    2. Racist is not a fixed category like “not racist,” which is steeped denial. Only racists say they are not racist. Only the racist lives by the heartbeat of denial.The antiracist lives by the opposite heartbeat, one that rarely and irregularly sounds in America — the heartbeat of confession.

      The confession that comes the easiest for me is the admission of my profound blindspots and the ignorance that comes with privilege.

    3. A new vocabulary emerged, allowing users to evade admissions of racism. It still holds fast after all these years. The vocabulary list includes these: law and order. War on drugs. Model minority. Reverse discrimination. Race-neutral. Welfare queen. Handout. Tough on crime. Personal responsibility. Black-on-black crime. Achievement gap. No excuses. Race card. Colorblind. Post-racial. Illegal immigrant. Obamacare. War on Cops. Blue Lives Matter. All Lives Matter. Entitlements. Voter fraud. Economic anxiety.

      This vocabulary list comes with an associated set of skewed arguments that stand in the way of social progress on seemingly race neutral grounds. "Blue Lives Matter" doesn't explicitly posit that black lives don't matter. Instead, it sneakily changes the subject.

    1. to go to jail togethe


    2. we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation (Yes) into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.

    3. We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.

      Can we find hope in the recent rejection of racism by the state of Alabama? Surely King would notice the role of black women voters in rejecting a racist pedophile.

    4. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

      This line reads not as a threat, but as foreshadowing about the reckoning we must do as a country that has always struggled with its goal of being a melting pot.

    5. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment.

      Our nation dies one death after another for overlooking the urgency of inequity.

    6. But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt.

      This line is so important today because of the state of our justice department and because of the way bankers have descended on Washington to solidify the inequality in our country. The conservative response to our public's cry that we have a racist president is, "Look at the economy!" King saw the connection between the banks and justice.

    7. In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check.

      The notion that King came to the capital to cash a check reminds me of Coates' call for reparations: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/ Reparations are not just important for black people in America, but for all Americans to atone for the original sins of this country which is still in search of ways to achieve the greatness its founders envisioned.

    8. But one hundred years later (All right), the Negro still is not free.

      Important for us to think critically each year on this day about the ways this is still true. How have we not lived up to the spirit of the Emancipation Proclamation?

  5. Dec 2017
    1. happening in the world and the way it affects my students’ lives—sometimes in obvious ways like the impact of gentrification on our community,

      The relevance of this kind of curricular planning appeals to me. I was reminded of how important Linda's work is when I saw a news story in my own community about a company's insensitivity about the issue of gentrification and how it led to civic action on social media, as well as some genuine civic unrest in Denver. The New York Times saw fit to report it.

    2. These days I attempt to teach a critical literacy that equips students to “read” power relationships at the same time it imparts academic skills.

      It always stands out to me when teachers frame reading in ways that apply to understanding the world. This kind of framing makes everyone a reader, and highlights how reading strategies are thinking strategies.

    3. When I stopped attending to test scores and started listening to the music of my students’ voices and seeing them as “more than a score,” I increased my capacity to engage them. I knew what didn’t work, but I still didn’t know what did work.

      When we focus on test scores, what are the things that go out of focus for us?

    1. This is highly problematic, because those lists are, in the first place, limiting a teacher’s role to some cognitive and routine tasks that indeed could be done by a computer, and completely ignoring the educational research that suggests the importance of having an adult or more knowledgeable peer supporting a young person’s process of knowledge construction.

      Great point. I love this talk by Dave Snowden on the subject which illustrates issues with the way tech companies think about human systems. https://youtu.be/KAH7o9u5HwY

    2. Teaching writing is about helping learners express themselves clearly and effectively with other human beings. What value is there in a machine giving students feedback?

      I personally think there is a lot of value in having machines ask writers if they've omitted punctuation, created a sentence fragment, or misspelled a word. Spell check, in my view, probably helps language learners acquire vocabulary. I've written about why I think it is okay to leave grading to the machines. http://onewheeljoe.blogspot.com/2012/05/leave-essay-grading-to-machines.html

  6. Nov 2017
    1. Answering it in the morning may differ from the evening. Answering it after a particular conversation on that topic is different from answering it out if the blue.

      I've been learning about this issue with respect to the school culture surveys mandated by the state here in Colorado.You point out how responses can be highly variable based on things like the time of day. It is also important to note how the results of surveys are so malleable in the hands of leaders- the statistics and expert reporting produced with statistics from surveys can be rationalized, interpreted, and dismissed by leaders with ease. Dave Snowden proposes surveys that ask participants to share water cooler stories, or story fragments which they then answer survey questions about. Messing with this approach in the last few months with teachers and students, I've noticed a distinct difference between what people write in open ended comment boxes and what they offer when asked for a story. The stories, in my view, have more utility. Here's an example of a survey that makes story capture central.

    1. Three powerful myths persist in our narratives around education technology.

      What would teachers interested in techquity say about this?

    1. Here the examples are numerous, such as the Teach for America program, which seeks out recent graduates of elite colleges to temporarily join the teaching corps in the toughest schools; or the district-financed leadership academies, which select aspiring principals partly because they lack experience in education; or the recent installation (and removal) of Cathleen Black, a magazine publisher with virtually no experience in education, as chancellor of the New York City public school system.

      In APS we've worked for years under superintendents with military and legal backgrounds who were new to K12 schooling. They both seemed to play an external facilitator's role.

    2. The principal is likewise a hands-on “super teacher” whose primary job is to be involved in the day-to-day business of instructional practice.

      It is fascinating to me how principals are viewed in implementation efforts, and with respect to teacher support and development.

      This recent article from NPR, which received a round of attention on social media, frames principals as former teachers who accept diminished roles in return for larger salaries. I thought this article painted an idealized view of teachers and their role in the school, and a distorted view of the principal's role that complemented the rosy conception of teaching.

    1. Best practices in civic education—as synthesized by a part-nership of business, foundation, and research groups—include formal instruction in government and civics, discussion of controversial social issues, service learning, and participation in school governance (Gould, 2011).

      So important the way these authors challenge contemporary "best practices." This connects back to another piece co-authored by Antero Garcia featured in last year's #marginalsyllabus which pointed out the way notions of best practice are problematic. Here's an annotation about from that text.

    2. we find it important to highlight its potential to instigate sociopolitical innovation

      For all the frequent grumbles about the passivity of most forms of Twitter activism, this was a moment in which the form fit perfectly with the message: The goal of #MeToo, as Milano’s friend told her, was simply to give people a sense of “the magnitude of the problem.”

      excerpted from The Movement of #MeToo by Sophie Gilbert

    3. In looking at youth socialization, engagement, and forms of shared governance in interest-driven spaces like online gaming and fandom communities, Mimi Ito etal. (2015) describes the value of understanding the “little p” politics that youth engage in regularly (p. 162).

      It seems important to me that educators actively value "little p" politics. Youth who haven't engaged in traditionally valued forms of civic participation bring background from spaces like Minecraft servers, where they encounter things like:

    1. But if you’re looking for a little bit more of a serious approach you wont have to wait much longer.

      Sounds like he's interested in sharing a new approach to badging that is unrestrained by the open standards that he sees as limiting?

    2. The vast majority of “badging” has turned into social engagement tracking tools, where conference organisers can issue badges for attendance, and indeed event attendance is the most common trend.

      This seems an accurate description of the current state of badging.

      1. Can we understand this as important data about learner interests and experience?
      2. Can we contrast this with the "minority" outlier examples that demonstrate how badges might do

    3. It’s a quirky engagement tool which looks nice, but very very rarely tells me anything about your actual competencies or skills.

      Does this mean that badges are a quirky engagement tool that don't reveal anything about competencies or skills? It occurs to me that they might if

      1. Expert assessment identified with descriptive accuracy the evidence that led to a learner earning a badge.
      2. The evidence attached to a badge was an artifact that illustrated a learner's skills and competencies.

  7. Oct 2017
    1. This is strikes me as a great start. I really appreciate the purpose behind your game and I believe this game could influence a broad audience and promote empathy. As I was reading, I found myself thinking through the decisions you’ve outlines and Joy’s predicament. I’m a cancer survivor myself- I was diagnosed with stage 3 colon cancer a few years back. I’m fully cured now but the experience was, as you seem to know, a life changing event.

      Overall, your game seems realistic already and does seem like it would foster empathy toward Joy. It also shows that cancer can impact anyone at any stage in life. Basically, I would encourage you to think through and explain in more detail Joy’s symptoms before treatment, her prognosis, and her closest peer relationships, like friends, or boyfriends. As with any writing, more specificity will likely make this game stronger. Also, those details will make the game more educational for the audience.

      As I was reading, I made notes using a tool called hypothes.is, which allowed me to give feedback “in line.” I hope my feedback doesn’t sound too critical because I really like the way this game is shaping up but it engaged me to the point that I wanted to think critically about the design. It is all intended constructively and I hope it reflects my excitement about your game. Here are those marginal notes:

    2. She is supposed to have her first chemotherapy in a month BUT she has to quit anything that makes her make a lot of physical effort in order to not faint at anytime and her case would get worse so joy has the choice to either :

      This sounds realistic in that a doctor's timeline for treatment forces patients to share devastating news with groups of people who will react in different ways.

      I also know that some patients consider delaying or denying treatment, which are realistic decisions.

      This scenario also sounds like Joy has symptoms because she risks fainting before treatment starts. Chemotherapy will definitely make her weak. As a reader, I'm wondering what Joy is experiencing physically already. You might also put leukemia symptoms here to make this choice more illustrative of Joy's predicament.

    3. Im still thinking of the rest of the story so to be continued … p.s this game isn’t intending to make you depressed ; I just want everyone to feel the daily and detailed struggle that they never though of that a cancer patient go through .. Cancer patients actually think that they see death everyday because the cure for their illness actually could make them die

      One key thing to think about:

      What is her prognosis? Doctors describe cancer in stages. Depending on the type of cancer and the stage, the patient will learn about their chances for a cure or, in other cases, they might learn they have no chance of a cure. In the cases where a patient has terminal cancer, the doctors offer treatments to prolong a patient's life.

    4. she is going to die already.

      Is this how she is feeling or is this her prognosis?

      One thought about this scenario is that she would probably try to carry on with her life or her regular routine during chemo until the side effects became too much. At that point, her social circle would really shrink. Maybe this choice makes more sense if she has a bad reaction to the first couple of treatments. That would allow you to share more information about what patients experience during chemo and the different reactions patients have, which doctors can't predict because everyone reacts to the drugs a little differently.

    5. BUT Joy didn’t want to tell her parents cause they always get pretty worried about anything ,but at the same time she didn’t want to lie Joy would go without telling them ( they would get upset if they knew and she doesn’t like to to make them sad ) Joy would take her friend with her( just to not go alone and have a good company ) Joy would tell her parents and they would with her.( they would be nervous until her result  appear )

      This choice makes her parents sound really nervous about everything since the checkup is probably routine. As a reader, I'm not sure why a checkup makes Joy so nervous, unless...

      What if Joy was feeling sick for a while before the checkup and was nervous about what the checkup might reveal? That would explain Joy's nervousness and it would be a good way to insert details about the symptoms that leukemia patients exhibit typically before diagnosis.

    6. Joy was too sad and depressed that she had no clue what to do; she knew she had to talk to her parents ,but she was afraid of their respond and she was sacred that they could get really depressed.

      The way Joy is feeling make this sound like a very realistic scenario. She would definitely be depressed, afraid and confused.

      I notice that this set of decisions all end up with the parents knowing or needing to know and that the decision here is a lot like the decision above.

      Also, it seems to highlight her desire to protect her parents more than the way she might feel isolated and confused by a flood of negative, scary information.

      Since this is the second decision that focuses on the parents, I might consider adding more information that makes this decision different than the one above.

      -Are her parents arguing about what Joy should do? -Are they demanding she move home? -Is her mother acting irrationally?

      Another idea that might make this distinct from the decision above is to perhaps include a best friend, or a boyfriend- someone who might be able to support.

    7. Joy is a part of basketball team and she is one of the best players and her team always counts on her

      I notice that you've thought about Joy's interests and how she relates with her peers.

      I wonder what they count on her for. Does she take charge during games and calm the team? Does she arrange team outings?

    1. We will not tolerate design for addiction, deception, or control. We must design tools that we would love our loved ones to use. We must question our intent

      It seems that there are some forces we want to counteract, namely technologies that capitalize on addiction, deception or control. Some opposing intentions might be:

      1. developing user agency and attentional awareness
      2. supporting understanding of evolving systems
      3. democratization

    1. “As new citizen media from protests and conflicts is uploaded and shared across the web, emerging and existing platforms must prove they are committed to hosting valuable citizen-generated content with attention to its safekeeping and integrity, careful archiving of media in a way that is searchable and accessible, and no monetary cost to promote visibility.

      This activism plays out in large part on commercial channels and it seems like the platform providers don't have to prove this at all. Instead, all they have to do is maintain their industry dominance and marginalized folks will have to compromise their data and privacy while playing by the rules of Silicon Valley.

    2. Our romanticization of these digital freedom fighters makes it harder for us to make sense of the conflicting reports we receive about the long-term impact of these social change movements.

      Our news cycles and the narratives we craft to fit inside the cycles demonstrate that we might not have the attention span to understand the continuing struggles and the slow ebb and flow of change. Power structures don't crumble under the weight of new media, rather they respond with counter measures.

    3. One might argue that her work was always political insofar as providing beauty tips for brown women calls into question what counts as beauty in our culture.

      It is definitely important that she has the agency, as a woman of color, to create a media channel where she can reach a broad audience.

  8. Sep 2017
    1. “How do we use the internet to become better people?”

      How can my network broaden and diversify? is a powerful question. How can I learn about other cultural perspectives?

    2. A heterosexual cis student resolves (individually) to follow 20 trans leaders on Twitter and retweet two things they say a week (with the student possibly using a pseudonymous account not tied to their identity). Other students examine their own bubbles and do similar things.

      In a small group discussion we all agreed that we prefer the latter. I think the possibility of amplifying other voices, marginalized voices is a powerful thing. I don't know that the notion of staying silent resonates with me, though. I want youth to be able to say, "This is what I believe," and then listen with curiosity to how others respond.

    1. What appeals to the white working class is ennobled. What appeals to black workers, and all others outside the tribe, is dastardly identitarianism. All politics are identity politics—except the politics of white people, the politics of the bloody heirloom.

      This paragraph is an important commentary about the emergent notion that identity politics ails the political left.

    2. Black workers suffer because it was and is our lot. But when white workers suffer, something in nature has gone awry. And so an opioid epidemic among mostly white people is greeted with calls for compassion and treatment, as all epidemics should be, while a crack epidemic among mostly black people is greeted with scorn and mandatory minimums

      So true. The suffering of midwestern whites is the catalyst for the reactionary election.

    3. Indeed, there is a kind of theater at work in which Trump’s presidency is pawned off as a product of the white working class as opposed to a product of an entire whiteness that includes the very authors doing the pawning. The motive is clear: escapism. To accept that the bloody heirloom remains potent even now, some five decades after Martin Luther King Jr. was gunned down on a Memphis balcony—even after a black president; indeed, strengthened by the fact of that black president—is to accept that racism remains, as it has since 1776, at the heart of this country’s political life. The idea of acceptance frustrates the left.

      There is a kind of extravagance about the election of Trump, so irresponsible given his lack of experience, policy ideas and moral standing. White America blames working class whites in the mid-west for his ascension, then tunes in daily to watch the reality show the American government has become. TV is winning. Whites are consolidating what was an already fearsome power, and minority groups take turns fearing for their standing in our nation and their very safety.

    1. Thanks to the sanitized images of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the civil rights movement that dominate our nation’s classrooms and our national discourse, many Americans imagine that protests organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and countless local organizations fighting for justice did not fall victim to violent outbreaks

      King's image and the civil rights movement are sanitized to make them more palatable for white society. How can contemporary teachers present a more realistic account of King and the movement to empower modern day activism?

  9. Jul 2017
    1. How this relates to the digital, is that after we finish each story, my daughter is often curious and asks questions about the person. When I don’t know the answer, we Google (or DuckDuckGo) it together, and she also likes to see photographs of the women. She has learned that knowledge need not ever stop at the pages of a book, but it can sure be a great starting point.

      My oldest daughter loves the Warriors series by Erin Hunter, which is fantasy fiction about some anthropomorphized cats. She was interested to learn that "Erin Hunter" is a pseudonym for a team of women who write this series and the related branches with dogs and bears as characters. Recently we found a YouTube series where a group of youth had created video recreations of the stories. Hailey was thrilled to see the video sets because she has built the camp several times with Legos. (Note that episode 1 has almost 400,000 views with tutorials and links to how the cats were made.) She learned that the writing of the book series and the creation of the fan videos are both collaborative projects. https://youtu.be/R7fm-_cuxfA

    2. is “Good Night Stories for Rebel Girls.”

      I clicked through to read more about this one and found some youth testimonials. https://youtu.be/uMi2EWODdDo

    1. I had some thoughts about the new doctor and classroom implications:

      White Privilege will read Roo as white in the Hunger Games, and Patriarchal Society will read Dr Who as whoever he needs the Dr to be. When his reading is challenged, White Privilege will rage online for days before he'll look back to see if Roo was really black, probably because the story he internalized is so validating that he doesn't dare look. There is little chance Patriarchal Society will reread Dr Who for signs of femininity when the Internet is right there and it is so much easier to rage against whatever machine you don't like. Who has time to read closely when the social justice warriors are trying to steal your favorite characters?

    1. Why would anyone take a university course entitled “Writing Race & Ethnicity?” Inherent in the title of the course itself is an urgency about matters of the real world. Why does race matter? How has it been written and rewritten in our society? What conversations can we have to improve our understanding of each other? How can we include new voices in such conversations? Considering our headlines and the real challenges regarding race that we face together, I knew deep down that the course needed to connect to the world as we know it in more explicit ways. A prescribed series of academic readings and writings on theories of race seemed to fall short of that urgency.

      This paragraph might deepen someone's interest in this text, Mia's work, and also spark participation in the conversation in the margins.

    1. Soon, newsrooms, educators and organizations will be able to adapt the game to their own needs — it's open source. Teachers can ask students to select news stories to input into the game as a way to challenge their classmates.

      This is a valuable idea because of the way students move from being game players to game masters, and are engaged in critical literacy. I could easily see a students' selections taking a social justice bent related to race relations in the US.

    1. Such people lived then, had lived before, and will, probably, ever have a place on this planet; and their course, in respect to any great change, (no matter how great the good to be attained, or the wrong to be redressed by it), may be calculated with as much precision as can be the course of the stars. They hate all changes, but silver, gold and copper change! Of this sort of change they are always strongly in favor.

      Powerful societal elites, he claims, will always exist. Their concern lies with their finances rather than justice.

    2. To side with the right, against the wrong, with the weak against the strong, and with the oppressed against the oppressor! here lies the merit, and the one which, of all others, seems unfashionable in our day. The cause of liberty may be stabbed by the men who glory in the deeds of your fathers. But, to proceed.

      He attempts to align with his audience by reminding them of their recent status as oppressed people who were weak in relationship to their government.

  10. Jun 2017
    1. This blog was recommended reading in my Sensemaker course.

    2. The approach we used was Cognitive Edge’s SenseMaker®, which allowed us to deeply scan for changes in attitudes and beliefs beyond mere observation of changed behaviours.

      The stories of the constituents as well as their self-assigned meta data is evidence of changing attitudes and beliefs.

    1. A hypothesis could be that LPPs are in part a result of participants multitasking and joining a variety of communities, being involved in them to the degrees that satisfy their own immediate goals.

      This paints a picture of a very active lurker who is a really active learner but inactive from a community participation perspective.

    2. An individual joined because of a course at university [Participant 18], and previous participation in a previous version of CLMOOC seemed to indicate motivation for keeping up a certain level of participation in CLMOOC 2016. The uniqueness of the course itself was another motivating factor. For instance, Participant 6 writes: “The change from ‘Course’ to ‘Collaboration’ for the final C was crucial. Everything that’s good in CLMOOC flows from truly embodying the deep meaning of that change. There have been other attempts – DS106, for example – but none were truly open and egalitarian the way CLMOOC has always been...”


    3. if they are in read-only or consumption mode.

      These are really active labels for lurking which suggest that learning is likely occurring for these folks, which I believe to be true.

    4. Feel part [of the community], but [they are] not sure [if they are] worthy” [Participant 16]. Another participant indicated that they “feel as though [they are] on the edge, where there is a central core of people who appear to know each other really well, and an enormous group like [them] dabbling around the edges” [Participant 13].

      These two points suggest to me that the informal tone and frequent posting of active contributors can raise a barrier to entry for some. The feeling that everyone knows each other is both concerning from an organizing perspective and a mark of strong community development. Hmmm....

    5. In addition, some participants have strong feelings about how they engage in using social media and this can result in them behaving as an LPP on some platforms.

      This section also indicates to me that the people surveyed had a level of familiarity with the digital tools required and that the distributed nature of #clmooc - the way it occurred across platforms- didn't limit participation. I wonder if that is a fair conclusion or an area that the survey didn't address?

    6. that the main concern of lurkers appears to be a loss of privacy.

      First time posters in #clmooc often reported nervousness or a lack of confidence in what they were posting. They didn't want to be contributing incorrectly.

    7. This might suggest a need for learners to have the freedom to lurk, and to determine for themselves what interactions are valuable, and which ones are not. Walker et al. (2010) suggest that in order for lurkers to modulate their behaviours and go from not posting to posting in the context of an online class, the instructor, or the facilitators of the class, needs to provide appropriate external motivators, in other words provide an answer to the common question of “what’s in it for me?”.

      This is both a design consideration and an acknowledgement that all learners have agency and the ability to disengage and opt out. Based on my experience leading online work, and my interest in complexity theory, I think it might be useful to determine a set of "worst practices" for fostering community participation in order to establish an ethos for leaders and to allow for novel discovery, which the introduction of "best practices" can discourage.

    8. They further elaborate that lurkers have different motivations and behaviours as compared to individuals who are posters in a community.

      Understanding the motivations of learners is really vital. The digital footprint of online collaboration allows us to study interactions and ask questions about motivation.

    9. this unquestioned assumption of non-participation

      Agreed. I'm glad this research seeks to hear from them.

    10. active participants

      I'm interested in how the research defines "active." I'll be interested to find out if lurkers reject the notion that they are inactive as opposed to private, or locally networked.

    11. lurkers

    12. “memorably active participants, moderately active participants”, and “lurking participants”

      They're active from the perspective of the network analyst or from the perspective of the active participant.

    13. lurking is a complex behaviour

      Therefore, you must probe, sense and respond to lead lurkers, per the Cynefin Framework.

    14. We then analysed the data by using social network and content analyses and interpreted the research findings using the concept Community of Practice, with the Pareto Principle used to delimit types of learner.

      Pareto Principle Community of Practice

    15. definitions from the lurkers of what they thought lurking was

      I think this is fascinating that you contacted lurkers and important that you asked them to define the term. Still, this begs the question, do they cease to be lurkers as soon as they respond to your solicitation? If they responded, how lurky are they really?

    16. we used a mixed methods approach

  11. May 2017
    1. From my perspective, I felt that Abraham pushed me to the top of my teaching game

      The stance the teacher takes relative to her work with students is both positive and in keeping with a view of the school as a learning organization.

    2. potential incarceration of young people like Abraham

      This is why our systems must constantly search for ways to be more supportive and flexible.

    3. They aim to teach a simplistic form of cause and effect, in that students should come to see how their misbehavior causes consequences in the “real world.”

      High schoolers in particular have heard this all before.

    4. Abraham and I were both stubborn, and we were masters at targeting each other’s weak spots.

      Readers reading.

    5. Our conflict and its escalation in class would usually follow a storyline that went something like this: Abraham would say something to me or emit an attitude that I interpreted as dismissive of me or my teaching. I would take this personally and push back by being a victim and putting emotional distance between us to communicate that my feelings were hurt. He would take this personally and get angry. He would then begin to challenge me directly or make comments under his breath. I would take this personally and not know what to do, at which point my flight response would kick in and I would try to resist the urge to send him out of class. Catching myself here was important

      From a teacher's perspective, this feels so much like work avoidance but it is never really that simple.

    6. Abraham’s academic work was key to his narrative’s revision, and in his essays, he conveyed awareness that painful experience can profoundly impact how we give and receive love.

    7. These one-on-one sessions were valuable from an academic and behavioral standpoint. I grew to appreciate the sharpness of Abraham’s mind, and I also learned that it could be a challenge to get him to produce anything of quality.

      This is the point we can arrive at with students. It is great when we have the tools to strip away the parts of school that might be getting in the way. There are systems constraints, for sure, but this chapter reveals that the real constraints are relationship constraints.

    8. the novel toward the end.

      Interested to know more about this growing investment in the literature.

    9. Newkirk (1997) identifies a paradox about personal narratives—that their therapeutic value may lie in our refusal to treat them as “directly therapeutic” (p. 20). I did not ask Abraham to think about what he was writing as much as how he was writing and which strategies he was using to interpret and convey meaning

      The goals for Abraham seem both appropriate and non-traditional.

    10. Abraham was also gang-affiliated and had had negative encounters with police.

      This alone can lead to a student becoming severely labelled. The relative privilege that Abraham seems to enjoy in this school setting is, in many ways, the opposite of what students in his circumstances feel.

    11. If Abraham was uncooperative, the whole class would feel it, and our relation-ship gave me the leverage I needed to redirect him publicly without sparking an argument—at least, most of the time.

      Abraham's connection to school and learning seems precarious. The teens in the class can become taxed by these negotiations the same way a teacher can.

    12. so I learned to structure his feedback based on a constant risks-benefits assessment of whether it would have the desired effect or make me lose my leverage

      Different than grading or scoring as we traditionally understand it, LaMay views feedback structures as relationship dependent in the way that people who have spouses and children understand that they are.

    13. one of several students who were eligible to spend a period each day in the resource room for extra academic support.

      I want to hear more about this eligibility and the privilege it carries. It strikes me as an agentive approach to supporting someone who might struggle with literacy.

    14. conflict

      The words "conflict" and "reading" loom large in this chapter for me. It is really fascinating how LaMay gets smarter about herself and her teaching as a result of this conflict. At the same time, her approach as a teacher of writing invites Abraham to get smarter about himself and his learning needs.

    15. He was adamant that he needed relationships with teachers in order to learn from them, and he would not work for teachers he did not like. When I asked him if he could learn from a teacher who he did not really know, he answered, “Well personally I can’t . . . I won’t. I won’t let myself.

      This is a common refrain from students who are challenged with life circumstances that present risk factors for schooling, I've learned. The relationships with adults in school can take on a primacy that directly impacts their decisions about which classes to engage in. "I'll do Mr __'s work but I'm not doing Mr _'s." What is so striking about this piece is LaMay's refusal to label Abraham or dismiss him on the basis of his behaviors.

    16. our student-teacher relationship was evidence of our common skill in reading

      This is such an important sentence to me for a few reasons. First, it identifies that in this precarious relationship between teacher and student, the reading that is most vital is the ability to read each other's intentions. Second, in the relationship between high school English teacher and marginalized student with challenging life circumstances, LaMay asserts that they share a common skill in reading. That strikes me as a way of revaluing the literacy that Abraham brings. He's a relationship reader, engaging with only with the teachers he trusts.

    1. After reading the article, “Greek Mythology: Sources,”

      Can you link to this article? I'd be interested to see what you've been reading.

    1. Personally, I use Hypothesis to closely read online texts, to examine and think, and to bounce ideas off the text to others in the margins, who help push my own thinking forward or force me to re-examine my beliefs and ideas.

      When you put multimedia in the margins, you make explicit some really interesting things, too, like the way ideas are intertextual, and the way images can capture a reader's response in nuanced ways that written text cannot. Your posts model for other readers that texts have multiple meanings which are shaped by a reader's context.

    2. writers should not be held hostage to the potential aspects of technology.

      We see politicians these days getting shouted down in town hall meetings. Those public figures, too, have to contend with the context of their chosen interaction with an audience. Putting ideas out into the world carries risk.

    3. Still, as much I can see the point of protest, another part of me (maybe the naive part of me, that voice that says look to potential and possibilities with digital writing) thinks, if you post something to the world via the Web, you can expect (hope/intend) that maybe someone will want to read what you wrote and maybe react to your words.

  12. Apr 2017
    1. In complex systems, patterns emerge due to multiple interactions between agents and by accident. Although they may appear coherent in retrospect, but are not in advance. “Best practice” style management approaches thus do not take into account the context-bound interactions in new and complex environments (Snowden, 2003).

      The concept of best practices is traditionally a cornerstone of teacher education, school management, and instructional leadership. Since schools are complex systems, it is regrettable that the dominant management style can neglect the context-bound interactions in schools. The multiple interactions between agents are readily observable and also where our most talented stakeholders excel.

    1. While some, like Mo and Nash, desire to positively “represent” Islam and Muslims, not all youth share this desire, particularly given the harsh criticism to which those with a public presence are often subjected from both within and outside their communities. Selina explained that though her “faith is a big part” of her environmental activism, this is not something she wants to “tell the outside world.”

      The risks of posting online are greater for American Muslims, yet it seems as though there is a huge need for the Muslim community to combat popular perceptions and the popular media's portrayal of them.

    2. “imagined audience might be entirely different from the actual readers of a profile, blog post, or tweet”

      I want to know more about this. Specifically, is it an imagined audience or an intended audience? We are all learning about what it means to have a kind of incidental audience online, where our posts might reach lurkers who are receptive to messages and different peer groups who are less receptive.

    3. She recalled, “None of our communication would be online. None of it.” Tanya admitted that she sometimes felt that the groups’ avoidance of the internet bordered on paranoia because, “Who really cares about us, right? Who is really watching a bunch of misfit kids doing activism during college?” To her, the Irvine11 case drove home the reality that “they really are!” Someone “is really watching us!”

      The data trail their activism leaves is so easily mined and spun. There is active surveillance and retroactive monitoring, where any footprint might be used against a young activist.

    4. In other words, networked communication allows American Muslim youth to bypass complex and historically fragmented organizational structures in moments that call for quick and efficient action around current issues. Such mobilization is enabled through preexisting, but previously politically “latent” networks. Kadir offered a perspective on this “model change”: The institutions…(the mosque and the MSA and the national organizations…) have a lot of baggage (cultural, sectarian and ideological). The [American Muslim] community is very fragmented as a result of it. For people who want to get work done, going through institutions is very problematic on certain issues….[For a] very quick response and grassroots organizing, I find it very tempting to resort to new media. The circulation of media becomes the life force of these new media networks.

      New media allows the formation of more nimble networks unencumbered by historical fragmentation or traditional, paternal hierarchies.

    5. She explained that Imams and heads of organizations say, “We need to get our youth to vote, to become informed voters and do all these things,” even as “no youth” have a seat “at the table” where this discussion is taking place.

      I take from this comment that youth voice is a necessary ingredient in conversations that hope to advance youth participation in politics.

    6. She finds the internet gave them access to experiences unavailable “in their daily life,” but it also brought “risk of exposure” (127–130). As a consequence, they found themselves putting up or removing online content depending on the emotional and political climate in their geographically local communities.

      This dynamic feels true for me, too. The political climate in my geographically local context influences the way I participate in online networks.

    7. We find that American Muslims take “action” through an even broader range of activities, many of them situated on the cultural end of the spectrum of participatory politics. Young American Muslims use social media to establish and maintain networks. They turn to their networks to share stories they create and appropriate. At times, they also mobilize these networks to achieve civic goals.

      It seems to me that those interested in anti-racism or opposing the intimidation of American Muslims could seek to diversify their social and learning networks to ensure that the efforts of young American Muslims are heard and amplified.

    8. According to a 2011 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center, 55 percent of the American Muslim respondents to a 2011 said they felt that living as an American Muslim had become “more difficult” since 9/11. Twenty-five percent reported that their local mosque had been the “target of controversy or outright hostility.” Despite the high level of animosity toward American Muslims suggested by these data, the same study found “no indication of increased alienation or anger” among American Muslims toward the United States.

      I expect that being a target of hostility just comes with the territory for American Muslims. Though it has become harder for them since 9/11, they are accustomed to this kind of treatment.

    9. I was like, “Really?” Apparently, there are still real problems there and they are really hard to overcome. It’s very frustrating when like something like 9/11 happens and there’s a few radicals who say, “Yeah, we’re Muslims that’s why we are doing this,” and everyone believe them. Whereas, the guy who flew the plane into a building in Austin because he was mad at the IRS and no one’s like, “Wow, Christians are horrible because of that.”

      I find myself wanting to fault our media for this in large part. Still, I have to accept that our commercial media responds to clicks, viewers and subscribers. Our cultural norms and our interests drive the demand. What does it say about us that our media focuses on Islamic terrorism at the same time it seeks to avoid labelling hate crimes committed by whites as terrorism at all, let alone Christian terrorism or white terrorism? How do we surface the hypocrisy in the interest of inclusion?

    10. American Muslims need to accept being American as much as they claim their religious beliefs. In Dr. Hathout’s words, “Home is not where my grandparents are buried; it is where my grandchildren will live.”

      I can see how American Muslims might struggle to accept being American as part of their identities. It seems so important that all Americans be resolute in our commitment to religious freedom and acceptance in order to continually help Muslims integrate and thrive here.

  13. Mar 2017
    1. if we have to learn with each other we should also learn about each other

      These lines in the poem offer an important contrast to the teacher's view above, where he aimed to clean students up and give them a better life. In this student's view, the teacher is also part of the learning community and shares in the challenging task, which is to "learn about each other so we can bring each other up."

    2. Recognizing the neoindigeneity of youth requires acknowledgement of the soul wounds that teaching practices inflict upon them.

      This is a call for empathy on the part of the teacher, and for vulnerability. How can teachers establish a professional distance from "practices," so we can see their effects and impacts?

    3. “cleaning these kids up and giving them a better life.”

      This is a distortion of the real task in front of the teacher which is, as Embid explained above "to get students engaged in science." This type of a distorted mission also opens the door to all kinds of dubious "best practices" which usually amount to strategies for controlling students, instead of relationship building.

    4. The reality is that we privilege people who look and act like us, and perceive those who don’t as different and, frequently, inferior. In urban schools, and especially for those who haven’t had previous experience in urban contexts or with youth of color, educators learn “best practices” from “experts” in the field, deemed as such because they have degrees, write articles, and meet other criteria that do not have anything to do with their work within urban communities.

      Early career teachers in any school face an incredibly steep learning curve and what they say about students reveals the challenges they perceive. In their struggle to meet the myriad demands of the complex role, they label students "distracted," "unprepared," or "entitled." In an urban school, these challenges and the subsequent labelling exist in a multicultural context fraught with mistrust. The privileged teacher struggling as a learner develops coping strategies out of the tools that present themselves: referrals, suspensions, authority and rules.

    5. “I’m always ready for that lady’s class and she gets me suspended because she doesn’t know what she’s doing. She sees what she wants to see.” As we talked more, I mentioned that the teacher said she never had her books with her for class. She responded that a friend shares her books with her and lends her something to write with whenever she needs it. For her, that made it obvious that she was prepared to learn. She then mentioned that she was always on time for class. “I’m always at the door when that bell rings. I’m always there.” The student saw herself as prepared and on time, but the teacher did not see the student the way she saw herself.

      This piece is powerful in part because the student voices convey an unmistakeable perception that the teacher is unfair and, in the student's mind, incompetent. It is important that teachers consider these marginalized perspectives especially in circumstances like this, where the different viewpoints reveal a cultural gap.

    1. Entrained thinking is a danger in complicated contexts, too, but it is the experts (rather than the leaders) who are prone to it, and they tend to dominate the domain. When this problem occurs, innovative suggestions by nonexperts may be overlooked or dismissed, resulting in lost opportunities. The experts have, after all, invested in building their knowledge, and they are unlikely to tolerate controversial ideas. If the context has shifted, however, the leader may need access to those maverick concepts.

      Literacy leaders exemplify this.

    2. This approach is not easy and often requires expertise: A motorist may know that something is wrong with his car because the engine is knocking, but he has to take it to a mechanic to diagnose the problem.

      What is wrong with my car? What is wrong with literacy approaches? What is wrong with our approach to STEM education?

    3. Indeed, those with years of experience also have deep insight into how the work should be done. Leaders should create a communication channel—an anonymous one, if necessary—that allows dissenters to provide early warnings about complacency.

      What are these simple situations in a school? What are the communication channels that will help us provide early warnings about complacency?

      I'm thinking about schedule building at RHS and how information gathered from students and campus monitors can help us see holes. The assumption I'm making is that the counseling department is being complacent because they see these problems in simpler terms than they should.

    4. Since both managers and employees have access to the information necessary for dealing with the situation in this domain, a command-and-control style for setting parameters works best.

      This is helpful in framing a question that will tell us if we're in a simple domain. Do both stakeholder groups have access to the information necessary for dealing with a situation? If yes, then the problem might be simple.

    5. Since the complex domain is much more prevalent in the business world than most leaders realize—and requires different, often counterintuitive, responses—we concentrate particularly on that context

      This is probably because dealing with complicated and simple problems is much more straightforward, and leaders can provide people with simple answers that satisfy. If everyone wants problems to be simpler, we all have a confirmation bias about presenting problems this way. Math instruction is really helpful here. How often do teachers simplify a complicated math problem for students so that both the teachers and the students have a more gratifying experience? There is a kind of agony for teachers to see students take an approach that will lead to a wrong answer and some frustration. For students, the uncertainty that comes with not having a simple formula when they approach a problem is something that can cause them a heightened fear of failure.

  14. Feb 2017
  15. www.youthvoices.live www.youthvoices.live
    1. Protesting is a way women have been doing to get their point across and what they believe they should be treated at all times for all they have done for this country.

      Reread for clarity.

      One way I might revise this sentence:

      Through protest, women have been expressing the belief that _.

    2. Women feel like president has discriminated since they get pregnant and don’t actually work full time.

      Reread for clarity.

    3. President Trump have

      Subject- verb agreement. President Trump has

    4.  Women have been discriminated for just being a women.

      Reread for clarity.

    1. Hector, You have a nuanced claim that seems to come in the second half of your paper when you are presenting your solution. If you express your claim clearly at the beginning you will more clearly convey your purpose.

      I think your use of evidence is sophisticated throughout, and you've distinguished between your ideas and the ideas of the authors and texts you cite. However, in your third paragraph, I wondered if the situation you describe comes from your knowledge of the topic, or if you are paraphrasing from a source.

      I'm interested in the supports you used because I know you are using a tutor for help and I think that is working.

    2. The worst part of it is that users believe all there is in the web and go day after day sharing, commenting, and publishing all their “knowledge” about it and helps create a big wave of misleading content.

      Unclear. Also, try changing semicolons to periods to improve clarity. See what you, or a peer, thinks.

      Can you end this paragraph with your strong opinion on the topic? Can you also communicate that you understand the complexity of the topic while you are expressing your opinion?

    3. This clearly shows

      Nice- This phrase lets me know you are done presenting your evidence and moving to presenting your reasoning.

    4. whom

      change to "who"

    5. Also, according to a report by J.M. Berger for George Washington University’s Program on Extremism, the Twitter accounts of white nationalists and neo-Nazis have grown by 600 percent since 2012.

      This is evidence.

    6. In other words

      Nice way to transition to a rephrasing of the quote.

    1. In Chapters 1 through 5, we go into the classroom as we guide students through the inquiry process week by week, including lessons and handouts.

      Since I own the book, I appreciate the attention to detail the authors have paid here. Teachers interested in stretching their practice or teachers new to the profession benefit from these models. Our conversation here in the margins based on the preface highlights possibilities and rationale. The chapters that follow help teachers feel prepared for leaps in practice they seek to make.

    2. These skills are transferable to other projects they will do in school and in other contexts and are critical to college, career, and civic readiness.

      The purpose behind researching in school goes far beyond a single paper. I think it is essential to focus on skill development and the transferability of those skills.

    3. we—as teachers, researchers, and writers ourselves— enjoy the research process, a stance that can empower our students as they become researchers, too.

      As essential as research is nowadays, modelling that the process is interest-driven and enjoyable is equally essential. In my classroom, I try to connect research with engaging debate opportunities, so that there is a payoff to note taking.

    4. While this book is based on our work within Dawn’s high school classroom, throughout the text we offer what Swenson and Mitchell (2006) have called “extensions and adaptations” to help readers identify what “would be necessary for the lesson to work as well with diverse groups of students in other contexts and/or that might enrich the demonstration in its current context” (p. 6).

      I think these suggestions about how to extend and adapt provide important framing for how interested teachers might experiment in their local contexts. I'm reminded so often that teachers are interested in what works in their communities, schools and classrooms. Dawn's and Troy's experimentation should foster other experiments, and adaptations should abound.

    5. This model is based on evidence that the most resilient, adaptive, and effective learning involves individual interest as well as social support to overcome adversity and provide recognition.

      The CL principles seem so important in a conversation about research because authentic research doesn't happen in isolation. The problems worth solving and the questions worth answering demand cross-content collaboration.

    6. 2. Digital writing work demands collaboration in a class that is

      The collaborative demands of writing can sometimes be lost on students, whether the task is digital or good old fashioned paper and pencil. I blogged about this recently and tried to compare revision groups to the drills soccer players need to develop their skills.

    7. In this unique moment, where we feel substantive changes could happen for teaching and learning, we are committed to connect students through language and help them learn how to read and write their worlds.

      To me, this stance is important for teachers because it communicates a positive sense of agency. The cultural changes with technology present challenges, to be sure, but they also open up possibilities for inquiry and discovery.

    1. Be sure to acknowledge competing views. Include a minimum of one piece of evidence from two sources to support your claim, as well as evidence for a competing view, in your response.

      Additional demand- Competing views piece doesn't factor into the controlling idea.

    1. The rifle was a beautiful German thing

      The rifle is beautiful.

    2. No one had the guts to raise a riot

      This line stands out to me because it reveals that the narrator doesn't see the colonial occupation of Burma as something that physically threatens the safety of Burmese dissenters. He thinks that the citizens are weak because they don't fight back. He doesn't consider that a riot would be quickly dispatched by the European occupying force.

    3. In the end the sneering yellow faces of young men that met me everywhere, the insults hooted after me when I was at a safe distance, got badly on my nerves.

      The skin color of the Burmese is coupled with the image of sneering faces. These Burmese "hoot." Orwell's choice of verbs here indirectly compares the occupied people with unruly bar patrons, or rowdy sports fans.

    4. All this was perplexing and upsetting.

      Perplexing because he doesn't see his privilege or power as threatening. He believes the propaganda he's been sold and thinks of himself as a savior.

    5. I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing

      Yet he goes to work every day as an imperialist.

    6. all these oppressed me with an intolerable sense of guilt.

      Doesn't see himself as complicit, or as the oppressor.

    7. still less did I know that it is a great deal better than the younger empires that are going to supplant it.

      What evil empire will supplant the one he belongs to? Is it evil because it denies him membership, or because the propaganda of the new empire doesn't grant him the moral authority to police occupied people?

    8. the real motives for which despotic governments act

      This ought to be good.

    9. .44 Winchester and much too small to kill an elephant, but I thought the noise might be useful in terrorem.

      The uneducated soldier makes a highly educated decision about the size of the gun he needs to incite terror.

    10. I could feel their two thousand wills pressing me forward, irresistibly. And it was at this moment, as I stood there with the rifle in my hands, that I first grasped the hollowness, the futility of the white man's dominion in the East.

      His inability to empathize has probably skewed his "radar" for what their wills want him to do.

    11. he shall spend his life in trying to impress the ‘natives’

      Impress, not understand. Not work with.

    12. Besides, legally I had done the right thing, for a mad elephant has to be killed, like a mad dog, if its owner fails to control it.

      The three perspectives he considers are:

      1. legal
      2. the elder's
      3. his peers Natural law doesn't enter in. Nor does the idea that the elephant could be left alone to graze and breed.

    13. I was very glad that the coolie had been killed; it put me legally in the right and it gave me a sufficient pretext for shooting the elephant.

      Here is the operative sentence.

  16. Jan 2017
    1. Showing up to work, attending class, completing homework and trying my best at sports practice are expected of me, not worthy of an award.

      This may be the only concrete example from her life that this author uses.

      I call this "anecdotal evidence."

    2. I believe that we should change how we reward children. Trophies should be given out for first, second and third; participation should be recognized, but celebrated with words and a pat on the back rather than a trophy.

      This is her solution. Her claim also states the problem in this case.

    3. If every soccer player receives a trophy for merely showing up to practice and playing in games, the truly exceptional players are slighted.

      I think this is reasoning after all.

    4. Trophies used to be awarded only to winners, but are now little more than party favors: reminders of an experience, not tokens of true achievement.

      This is a sub-claim. The argument seems to be in the fashion of "That was then, this is now." Which is a common framing for an argument.

    5. Trophies for all convey an inaccurate and potentially dangerous life message to children: We are all winners.

      Even though I have trophies and ribbons, certificates and plaques, all they do for me is remind me of the experiences I had on little league teams.

    6. These are the foundations of a long path to potential success, a success that is not guaranteed no matter how much effort I put in.

      This is her reasoning.

    7. This is a nuanced claim because the author is going to argue that trophies send a dangerous message and she is going to argue what message they send. She has to prove both.

    1. This author sees a problem with the priority we give to recognizing participation. She says that if we want resilient kids, we should stop trying to soften the experience of winning and losing. Her solution is to educate parents with studies about child psychology.

    2. And for kids with low self-esteem, undeserved praise doesn’t help them, either. Research has found that kids with low self-esteem believe they can’t live up to their own hype, so they withdraw even further.

      This is more evidence. I am familiar with research about praise, which is important.

    3. In a longitudinal study, when parents regularly overpraised their children’s performances, their children were more likely to be narcissistic two years later.

      More scientific evidence. I would have to follow the link and read the study to see how applicable this is to my debate.

    4. We must focus on process and progress, not results and rewards.

      I agree with this. I don't think participation trophies are evil but I also don't think they are important.

    5. (In a study of Gold Medal Olympians, they said a previous loss was key to their championships.)

      This is more scientific evidence. I would have to read the study to know how relevant it is to this debate.

    6. Thus letting kids lose, or not take home the trophy, isn’t about embarrassing children. It’s about teaching them it can take a long time to get good at something, and that’s all right.

      This is reasoning.

    7. This is a destructive message

      I agree this is a destructive message.

    8. If children always receive a trophy – regardless of effort or achievement – we’re teaching kids that losing is so terrible that we can never let it happen.

      I disagree that participation trophies send this type of message. I think kids learn at a very early age about winning and losing and they learn that losing is okay at home by the age of 3 or 4.

    1. Numerous foreign-born individuals have been convicted or implicated in terrorism-related crimes since September 11, 2001, including foreign nationals who entered the United States after receiving visitor, student, or employment visas, or who entered through the United States refugee resettlement program.

      The failure to use statistics here is noteworthy. I found this in the FBI's archives.

      Here is that source: https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/testimony/the-terrorist-threat-confronting-the-united-states

    2. Perhaps in no instance was that more apparent than the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, when State Department policy prevented consular officers from properly scrutinizing the visa applications of several of the 19 foreign nationals who went on to murder nearly 3,000 Americans.

      Can we fact check this claim? He seems to have found a convenient scapegoat for 9/11 even while conservative hawks have opposed any Muslim ban.

    3. The executive order also bans entry of those fleeing from war-torn Syria indefinitely.

      Media outlets are asking why some Muslim countries were not subject to the ban, hypothesizing that Trump's business interests explain the criteria.

    1. The occupation supplies the child with a genuine motive; it gives him experience at first hand; it brings him into contact with realities. It does all this, but in addition it is liberalized throughout by translation into its historic values and scientific equivalencies.

      I want this to mean that civic occupation will bring students in contact with political realities. Can we co-investigate what it means that, "all politics is local" even as global events unfold before us on social media?

    2. Where the school work consists in simply learning lessons, mutual assistance, instead of being the most natural form of coöperation and association, becomes a clandestine effort to relieve one’s neighbor of his proper duties. Where active work is going on all this is changed. Helping others, instead of being a form of charity which impoverishes the recipient, is simply an aid in setting free the powers and furthering the impulse of the one helped.

      The factory model of schooling persists but I believe that even the smallest moves toward authenticity can promote social learning and collaboration.

    3. Even as to its feebler beginnings, this change is not much more than a century old; in many of its most important aspects it falls within the short span of those now living.

      This can also be said of our flattening world and the 21st century skills it demands. Even as pedagogues might long for a simpler time, we have been witness to so many social and technological changes just in the 12 years I've been in education, that we should know that our schools have to also change.

    4. The modification going on in the method and curriculum of education is as much a product of the changed social situation, and as much an effort to meet the needs of the new society that is forming, as are changes in modes of industry and commerce.

      When we employ approaches that draw upon design thinking, or personalized learning- just to name a few innovations- how can we better emphasize that these types of reform efforts or shifts in methods are not due to systemic failures but necessary because of cultural shifts and changes?

    5. Join the Marginal Syllabus online this Wednesday, January 25th at 6p ET (3p PT) for an annotation flash mob-as-conversation with Christina Cantrill, Associate Director of National Programs for the National Writing Project. The Marginal Syllabus convenes conversations with educators about issues of equity in teaching, learning, and education. Throughout the 2016-17 school year, the Marginal Syllabus is fostering a participatory and open experiment in professional learning for all educators to join critical conversations about education and equity. On Wednesday, January 25th at 6p ET (3p PT) Christina and some of the participants in her ED677 course at Arcadia University will read and mark up this text, the first chapter from John Dewey's classic book The School and Society. Visit Marginal Syllabus resources for additional information, including directions for using the Hypothes.is platform.

    1. "No human being is illegal.

      At the beginning of the speech, Davis said that racism is a dying culture. I'd like to believe this is true but I also know that Trump supporters at the polls were either willing to overlook his overtly racist statements, or they embraced him for his racism- often termed "political incorrectness." In either case, anti-racists must explore what an anti-racist platform would look like. The sentence I've highlighted is a great place to start in drafting such a platform.

      We have a long way to go and so much work to do.


    1. In the German case, the negative biological and ultimately commercial consequences of the stripped-down forest became painfully obvious only after the second rotation of conifers had been planted. "It took about one century for them [the negative consequences] to show up clearly. Many of the pure stands grew excellently in the first generation but already showed an amazing retrogression in the second generation. The reason for this is a very complex one and only a simplified explanation can be given.... Then the whole nutrient cycle got out of order and eventually was nearly stopped.... Anyway, the drop of one or two site classes [used for grading the quality of timber] during two or three generations of pure spruce is a well known and frequently observed fact. This represents a production loss of 20 to 30 percent."

      Yet, orchards, where there is no deforestation are managed environments. This doesn't help with the problem of deforestation but also might be instructive about how to conduct experiments.

    2. The vocabulary used to organize nature typically betrays the overriding interests of its human users. In fact, utilitarian discourse replaces the term "nature" with the term "natural resources," focusing on those aspects of nature that can be appropriated for human use.

      We probably focus on the discrete parts of the system because it is easier than studying the system and dealing with a more daunting data set.

    3. In state "fiscal forestry," however, the actual tree with its vast number of possible uses was replaced by an abstract tree representing a volume of lumber or firewood. If the princely conception of the forest was still utilitarian, it was surely a utilitarianism confined to the direct needs of the state. From a naturalist's perspective, nearly everything was missing from the state's narrow frame of reference. Gone was the vast majority of flora: grasses, flowers, lichens, ferns, mosses, shrubs, and vines. Gone, too, were reptiles, birds, amphibians, and innumerable species of insects. Gone were most species of fauna, except those that interested the crown's gamekeepers.

      Coincidentally, I just read the novel Barkskins, by Annie Proulx, which is historical fiction about the timber industry in pre-colonial and colonial North America. The novel covers a lot of territory, so to speak, but she compares the timber practices in the US to the tightly managed timber practices in Germany, and the most complex forest environment on earth, the Amazon rainforest.