710 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2017
    1. the novel toward the end.

      Interested to know more about this growing investment in the literature.

    2. Newkirk (1997) identifies a paradox about personal narratives—that their therapeutic value may lie in our refusal to treat them as “directly therapeutic” (p. 20). I did not ask Abraham to think about what he was writing as much as how he was writing and which strategies he was using to interpret and convey meaning

      The goals for Abraham seem both appropriate and non-traditional.

    3. Abraham was also gang-affiliated and had had negative encounters with police.

      This alone can lead to a student becoming severely labelled. The relative privilege that Abraham seems to enjoy in this school setting is, in many ways, the opposite of what students in his circumstances feel.

    4. If Abraham was uncooperative, the whole class would feel it, and our relation-ship gave me the leverage I needed to redirect him publicly without sparking an argument—at least, most of the time.

      Abraham's connection to school and learning seems precarious. The teens in the class can become taxed by these negotiations the same way a teacher can.

    5. so I learned to structure his feedback based on a constant risks-benefits assessment of whether it would have the desired effect or make me lose my leverage

      Different than grading or scoring as we traditionally understand it, LaMay views feedback structures as relationship dependent in the way that people who have spouses and children understand that they are.

    6. one of several students who were eligible to spend a period each day in the resource room for extra academic support.

      I want to hear more about this eligibility and the privilege it carries. It strikes me as an agentive approach to supporting someone who might struggle with literacy.

    7. conflict

      The words "conflict" and "reading" loom large in this chapter for me. It is really fascinating how LaMay gets smarter about herself and her teaching as a result of this conflict. At the same time, her approach as a teacher of writing invites Abraham to get smarter about himself and his learning needs.

    8. He was adamant that he needed relationships with teachers in order to learn from them, and he would not work for teachers he did not like. When I asked him if he could learn from a teacher who he did not really know, he answered, “Well personally I can’t . . . I won’t. I won’t let myself.

      This is a common refrain from students who are challenged with life circumstances that present risk factors for schooling, I've learned. The relationships with adults in school can take on a primacy that directly impacts their decisions about which classes to engage in. "I'll do Mr __'s work but I'm not doing Mr _'s." What is so striking about this piece is LaMay's refusal to label Abraham or dismiss him on the basis of his behaviors.

    9. our student-teacher relationship was evidence of our common skill in reading

      This is such an important sentence to me for a few reasons. First, it identifies that in this precarious relationship between teacher and student, the reading that is most vital is the ability to read each other's intentions. Second, in the relationship between high school English teacher and marginalized student with challenging life circumstances, LaMay asserts that they share a common skill in reading. That strikes me as a way of revaluing the literacy that Abraham brings. He's a relationship reader, engaging with only with the teachers he trusts.

    1. After reading the article, “Greek Mythology: Sources,”

      Can you link to this article? I'd be interested to see what you've been reading.

    1. Personally, I use Hypothesis to closely read online texts, to examine and think, and to bounce ideas off the text to others in the margins, who help push my own thinking forward or force me to re-examine my beliefs and ideas.

      When you put multimedia in the margins, you make explicit some really interesting things, too, like the way ideas are intertextual, and the way images can capture a reader's response in nuanced ways that written text cannot. Your posts model for other readers that texts have multiple meanings which are shaped by a reader's context.

    2. writers should not be held hostage to the potential aspects of technology.

      We see politicians these days getting shouted down in town hall meetings. Those public figures, too, have to contend with the context of their chosen interaction with an audience. Putting ideas out into the world carries risk.

    3. Still, as much I can see the point of protest, another part of me (maybe the naive part of me, that voice that says look to potential and possibilities with digital writing) thinks, if you post something to the world via the Web, you can expect (hope/intend) that maybe someone will want to read what you wrote and maybe react to your words.

  2. Apr 2017
    1. In complex systems, patterns emerge due to multiple interactions between agents and by accident. Although they may appear coherent in retrospect, but are not in advance. “Best practice” style management approaches thus do not take into account the context-bound interactions in new and complex environments (Snowden, 2003).

      The concept of best practices is traditionally a cornerstone of teacher education, school management, and instructional leadership. Since schools are complex systems, it is regrettable that the dominant management style can neglect the context-bound interactions in schools. The multiple interactions between agents are readily observable and also where our most talented stakeholders excel.

    1. While some, like Mo and Nash, desire to positively “represent” Islam and Muslims, not all youth share this desire, particularly given the harsh criticism to which those with a public presence are often subjected from both within and outside their communities. Selina explained that though her “faith is a big part” of her environmental activism, this is not something she wants to “tell the outside world.”

      The risks of posting online are greater for American Muslims, yet it seems as though there is a huge need for the Muslim community to combat popular perceptions and the popular media's portrayal of them.

    2. “imagined audience might be entirely different from the actual readers of a profile, blog post, or tweet”

      I want to know more about this. Specifically, is it an imagined audience or an intended audience? We are all learning about what it means to have a kind of incidental audience online, where our posts might reach lurkers who are receptive to messages and different peer groups who are less receptive.

    3. She recalled, “None of our communication would be online. None of it.” Tanya admitted that she sometimes felt that the groups’ avoidance of the internet bordered on paranoia because, “Who really cares about us, right? Who is really watching a bunch of misfit kids doing activism during college?” To her, the Irvine11 case drove home the reality that “they really are!” Someone “is really watching us!”

      The data trail their activism leaves is so easily mined and spun. There is active surveillance and retroactive monitoring, where any footprint might be used against a young activist.

    4. In other words, networked communication allows American Muslim youth to bypass complex and historically fragmented organizational structures in moments that call for quick and efficient action around current issues. Such mobilization is enabled through preexisting, but previously politically “latent” networks. Kadir offered a perspective on this “model change”: The institutions…(the mosque and the MSA and the national organizations…) have a lot of baggage (cultural, sectarian and ideological). The [American Muslim] community is very fragmented as a result of it. For people who want to get work done, going through institutions is very problematic on certain issues….[For a] very quick response and grassroots organizing, I find it very tempting to resort to new media. The circulation of media becomes the life force of these new media networks.

      New media allows the formation of more nimble networks unencumbered by historical fragmentation or traditional, paternal hierarchies.

    5. She explained that Imams and heads of organizations say, “We need to get our youth to vote, to become informed voters and do all these things,” even as “no youth” have a seat “at the table” where this discussion is taking place.

      I take from this comment that youth voice is a necessary ingredient in conversations that hope to advance youth participation in politics.

    6. She finds the internet gave them access to experiences unavailable “in their daily life,” but it also brought “risk of exposure” (127–130). As a consequence, they found themselves putting up or removing online content depending on the emotional and political climate in their geographically local communities.

      This dynamic feels true for me, too. The political climate in my geographically local context influences the way I participate in online networks.

    7. We find that American Muslims take “action” through an even broader range of activities, many of them situated on the cultural end of the spectrum of participatory politics. Young American Muslims use social media to establish and maintain networks. They turn to their networks to share stories they create and appropriate. At times, they also mobilize these networks to achieve civic goals.

      It seems to me that those interested in anti-racism or opposing the intimidation of American Muslims could seek to diversify their social and learning networks to ensure that the efforts of young American Muslims are heard and amplified.

    8. According to a 2011 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center, 55 percent of the American Muslim respondents to a 2011 said they felt that living as an American Muslim had become “more difficult” since 9/11. Twenty-five percent reported that their local mosque had been the “target of controversy or outright hostility.” Despite the high level of animosity toward American Muslims suggested by these data, the same study found “no indication of increased alienation or anger” among American Muslims toward the United States.

      I expect that being a target of hostility just comes with the territory for American Muslims. Though it has become harder for them since 9/11, they are accustomed to this kind of treatment.

    9. I was like, “Really?” Apparently, there are still real problems there and they are really hard to overcome. It’s very frustrating when like something like 9/11 happens and there’s a few radicals who say, “Yeah, we’re Muslims that’s why we are doing this,” and everyone believe them. Whereas, the guy who flew the plane into a building in Austin because he was mad at the IRS and no one’s like, “Wow, Christians are horrible because of that.”

      I find myself wanting to fault our media for this in large part. Still, I have to accept that our commercial media responds to clicks, viewers and subscribers. Our cultural norms and our interests drive the demand. What does it say about us that our media focuses on Islamic terrorism at the same time it seeks to avoid labelling hate crimes committed by whites as terrorism at all, let alone Christian terrorism or white terrorism? How do we surface the hypocrisy in the interest of inclusion?

    10. American Muslims need to accept being American as much as they claim their religious beliefs. In Dr. Hathout’s words, “Home is not where my grandparents are buried; it is where my grandchildren will live.”

      I can see how American Muslims might struggle to accept being American as part of their identities. It seems so important that all Americans be resolute in our commitment to religious freedom and acceptance in order to continually help Muslims integrate and thrive here.

  3. Mar 2017
    1. if we have to learn with each other we should also learn about each other

      These lines in the poem offer an important contrast to the teacher's view above, where he aimed to clean students up and give them a better life. In this student's view, the teacher is also part of the learning community and shares in the challenging task, which is to "learn about each other so we can bring each other up."

    2. Recognizing the neoindigeneity of youth requires acknowledgement of the soul wounds that teaching practices inflict upon them.

      This is a call for empathy on the part of the teacher, and for vulnerability. How can teachers establish a professional distance from "practices," so we can see their effects and impacts?

    3. “cleaning these kids up and giving them a better life.”

      This is a distortion of the real task in front of the teacher which is, as Embid explained above "to get students engaged in science." This type of a distorted mission also opens the door to all kinds of dubious "best practices" which usually amount to strategies for controlling students, instead of relationship building.

    4. The reality is that we privilege people who look and act like us, and perceive those who don’t as different and, frequently, inferior. In urban schools, and especially for those who haven’t had previous experience in urban contexts or with youth of color, educators learn “best practices” from “experts” in the field, deemed as such because they have degrees, write articles, and meet other criteria that do not have anything to do with their work within urban communities.

      Early career teachers in any school face an incredibly steep learning curve and what they say about students reveals the challenges they perceive. In their struggle to meet the myriad demands of the complex role, they label students "distracted," "unprepared," or "entitled." In an urban school, these challenges and the subsequent labelling exist in a multicultural context fraught with mistrust. The privileged teacher struggling as a learner develops coping strategies out of the tools that present themselves: referrals, suspensions, authority and rules.

    5. “I’m always ready for that lady’s class and she gets me suspended because she doesn’t know what she’s doing. She sees what she wants to see.” As we talked more, I mentioned that the teacher said she never had her books with her for class. She responded that a friend shares her books with her and lends her something to write with whenever she needs it. For her, that made it obvious that she was prepared to learn. She then mentioned that she was always on time for class. “I’m always at the door when that bell rings. I’m always there.” The student saw herself as prepared and on time, but the teacher did not see the student the way she saw herself.

      This piece is powerful in part because the student voices convey an unmistakeable perception that the teacher is unfair and, in the student's mind, incompetent. It is important that teachers consider these marginalized perspectives especially in circumstances like this, where the different viewpoints reveal a cultural gap.

    1. Entrained thinking is a danger in complicated contexts, too, but it is the experts (rather than the leaders) who are prone to it, and they tend to dominate the domain. When this problem occurs, innovative suggestions by nonexperts may be overlooked or dismissed, resulting in lost opportunities. The experts have, after all, invested in building their knowledge, and they are unlikely to tolerate controversial ideas. If the context has shifted, however, the leader may need access to those maverick concepts.

      Literacy leaders exemplify this.

    2. This approach is not easy and often requires expertise: A motorist may know that something is wrong with his car because the engine is knocking, but he has to take it to a mechanic to diagnose the problem.

      What is wrong with my car? What is wrong with literacy approaches? What is wrong with our approach to STEM education?

    3. Since both managers and employees have access to the information necessary for dealing with the situation in this domain, a command-and-control style for setting parameters works best.

      This is helpful in framing a question that will tell us if we're in a simple domain. Do both stakeholder groups have access to the information necessary for dealing with a situation? If yes, then the problem might be simple.

  4. Feb 2017
  5. www.youthvoices.live www.youthvoices.live
    1. Protesting is a way women have been doing to get their point across and what they believe they should be treated at all times for all they have done for this country.

      Reread for clarity.

      One way I might revise this sentence:

      Through protest, women have been expressing the belief that _.

    2. Women feel like president has discriminated since they get pregnant and don’t actually work full time.

      Reread for clarity.

    3. President Trump have

      Subject- verb agreement. President Trump has

    4.  Women have been discriminated for just being a women.

      Reread for clarity.

    1. Hector, You have a nuanced claim that seems to come in the second half of your paper when you are presenting your solution. If you express your claim clearly at the beginning you will more clearly convey your purpose.

      I think your use of evidence is sophisticated throughout, and you've distinguished between your ideas and the ideas of the authors and texts you cite. However, in your third paragraph, I wondered if the situation you describe comes from your knowledge of the topic, or if you are paraphrasing from a source.

      I'm interested in the supports you used because I know you are using a tutor for help and I think that is working.

    2. The worst part of it is that users believe all there is in the web and go day after day sharing, commenting, and publishing all their “knowledge” about it and helps create a big wave of misleading content.

      Unclear. Also, try changing semicolons to periods to improve clarity. See what you, or a peer, thinks.

      Can you end this paragraph with your strong opinion on the topic? Can you also communicate that you understand the complexity of the topic while you are expressing your opinion?

    3. This clearly shows

      Nice- This phrase lets me know you are done presenting your evidence and moving to presenting your reasoning.

    4. whom

      change to "who"

    5. Also, according to a report by J.M. Berger for George Washington University’s Program on Extremism, the Twitter accounts of white nationalists and neo-Nazis have grown by 600 percent since 2012.

      This is evidence.

    6. In other words

      Nice way to transition to a rephrasing of the quote.

    1. In Chapters 1 through 5, we go into the classroom as we guide students through the inquiry process week by week, including lessons and handouts.

      Since I own the book, I appreciate the attention to detail the authors have paid here. Teachers interested in stretching their practice or teachers new to the profession benefit from these models. Our conversation here in the margins based on the preface highlights possibilities and rationale. The chapters that follow help teachers feel prepared for leaps in practice they seek to make.

    2. These skills are transferable to other projects they will do in school and in other contexts and are critical to college, career, and civic readiness.

      The purpose behind researching in school goes far beyond a single paper. I think it is essential to focus on skill development and the transferability of those skills.

    3. we—as teachers, researchers, and writers ourselves— enjoy the research process, a stance that can empower our students as they become researchers, too.

      As essential as research is nowadays, modelling that the process is interest-driven and enjoyable is equally essential. In my classroom, I try to connect research with engaging debate opportunities, so that there is a payoff to note taking.

    4. While this book is based on our work within Dawn’s high school classroom, throughout the text we offer what Swenson and Mitchell (2006) have called “extensions and adaptations” to help readers identify what “would be necessary for the lesson to work as well with diverse groups of students in other contexts and/or that might enrich the demonstration in its current context” (p. 6).

      I think these suggestions about how to extend and adapt provide important framing for how interested teachers might experiment in their local contexts. I'm reminded so often that teachers are interested in what works in their communities, schools and classrooms. Dawn's and Troy's experimentation should foster other experiments, and adaptations should abound.

    5. This model is based on evidence that the most resilient, adaptive, and effective learning involves individual interest as well as social support to overcome adversity and provide recognition.

      The CL principles seem so important in a conversation about research because authentic research doesn't happen in isolation. The problems worth solving and the questions worth answering demand cross-content collaboration.

    6. 2. Digital writing work demands collaboration in a class that is

      The collaborative demands of writing can sometimes be lost on students, whether the task is digital or good old fashioned paper and pencil. I blogged about this recently and tried to compare revision groups to the drills soccer players need to develop their skills.

    7. In this unique moment, where we feel substantive changes could happen for teaching and learning, we are committed to connect students through language and help them learn how to read and write their worlds.

      To me, this stance is important for teachers because it communicates a positive sense of agency. The cultural changes with technology present challenges, to be sure, but they also open up possibilities for inquiry and discovery.

    1. Be sure to acknowledge competing views. Include a minimum of one piece of evidence from two sources to support your claim, as well as evidence for a competing view, in your response.

      Additional demand- Competing views piece doesn't factor into the controlling idea.

    1. The rifle was a beautiful German thing

      The rifle is beautiful.

    2. No one had the guts to raise a riot

      This line stands out to me because it reveals that the narrator doesn't see the colonial occupation of Burma as something that physically threatens the safety of Burmese dissenters. He thinks that the citizens are weak because they don't fight back. He doesn't consider that a riot would be quickly dispatched by the European occupying force.

    3. In the end the sneering yellow faces of young men that met me everywhere, the insults hooted after me when I was at a safe distance, got badly on my nerves.

      The skin color of the Burmese is coupled with the image of sneering faces. These Burmese "hoot." Orwell's choice of verbs here indirectly compares the occupied people with unruly bar patrons, or rowdy sports fans.

    4. All this was perplexing and upsetting.

      Perplexing because he doesn't see his privilege or power as threatening. He believes the propaganda he's been sold and thinks of himself as a savior.

    5. I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing

      Yet he goes to work every day as an imperialist.

    6. all these oppressed me with an intolerable sense of guilt.

      Doesn't see himself as complicit, or as the oppressor.

    7. still less did I know that it is a great deal better than the younger empires that are going to supplant it.

      What evil empire will supplant the one he belongs to? Is it evil because it denies him membership, or because the propaganda of the new empire doesn't grant him the moral authority to police occupied people?

    8. the real motives for which despotic governments act

      This ought to be good.

    9. .44 Winchester and much too small to kill an elephant, but I thought the noise might be useful in terrorem.

      The uneducated soldier makes a highly educated decision about the size of the gun he needs to incite terror.

    10. I could feel their two thousand wills pressing me forward, irresistibly. And it was at this moment, as I stood there with the rifle in my hands, that I first grasped the hollowness, the futility of the white man's dominion in the East.

      His inability to empathize has probably skewed his "radar" for what their wills want him to do.

    11. he shall spend his life in trying to impress the ‘natives’

      Impress, not understand. Not work with.

    12. Besides, legally I had done the right thing, for a mad elephant has to be killed, like a mad dog, if its owner fails to control it.

      The three perspectives he considers are:

      1. legal
      2. the elder's
      3. his peers Natural law doesn't enter in. Nor does the idea that the elephant could be left alone to graze and breed.
    13. I was very glad that the coolie had been killed; it put me legally in the right and it gave me a sufficient pretext for shooting the elephant.

      Here is the operative sentence.

  6. Jan 2017
    1. Showing up to work, attending class, completing homework and trying my best at sports practice are expected of me, not worthy of an award.

      This may be the only concrete example from her life that this author uses.

      I call this "anecdotal evidence."

    2. I believe that we should change how we reward children. Trophies should be given out for first, second and third; participation should be recognized, but celebrated with words and a pat on the back rather than a trophy.

      This is her solution. Her claim also states the problem in this case.

    3. If every soccer player receives a trophy for merely showing up to practice and playing in games, the truly exceptional players are slighted.

      I think this is reasoning after all.

    4. Trophies used to be awarded only to winners, but are now little more than party favors: reminders of an experience, not tokens of true achievement.

      This is a sub-claim. The argument seems to be in the fashion of "That was then, this is now." Which is a common framing for an argument.

    5. Trophies for all convey an inaccurate and potentially dangerous life message to children: We are all winners.

      Even though I have trophies and ribbons, certificates and plaques, all they do for me is remind me of the experiences I had on little league teams.

    6. These are the foundations of a long path to potential success, a success that is not guaranteed no matter how much effort I put in.

      This is her reasoning.

    7. This is a nuanced claim because the author is going to argue that trophies send a dangerous message and she is going to argue what message they send. She has to prove both.

    8. Outside the protected bubble of childhood, not everyone is a winner.

      Who has a protective bubble? Not everyone's childhood comes complete with a protective bubble. My mom raised four kids. In high school, I paid for my own car and track cleats by bussing tables. I knew, as a young athlete enamoured with my chosen sport, that a 4:21 mile time would enable me to go to a division 1 track program. No amount of participation trophies or certificates clouded my perception of what I was able to do.

    9. We begin to expect awards and praise for just showing up — to class, practice, after-school jobs — leaving us woefully unprepared for reality.

      Wrong. I was smart enough to know that when I made JV in basketball as a 8th grader, I probably would never play varsity. The trophies and ribbons didn't confuse me. i wasn't stupid then and I'm not stupid now.

    10. Today the dozens of trophies, ribbons and medals sit in a corner of my room, collecting dust. They do not mean much to me because I know that identical awards sit in other children’s rooms all over town and probably in millions of other homes across the country.

      I also have 3-5 trophies and ribbons and they don't mean anything to me.

    1. This author sees a problem with the priority we give to recognizing participation. She says that if we want resilient kids, we should stop trying to soften the experience of winning and losing. Her solution is to educate parents with studies about child psychology.

    2. And for kids with low self-esteem, undeserved praise doesn’t help them, either. Research has found that kids with low self-esteem believe they can’t live up to their own hype, so they withdraw even further.

      This is more evidence. I am familiar with research about praise, which is important.

    3. In a longitudinal study, when parents regularly overpraised their children’s performances, their children were more likely to be narcissistic two years later.

      More scientific evidence. I would have to follow the link and read the study to see how applicable this is to my debate.

    4. We must focus on process and progress, not results and rewards.

      I agree with this. I don't think participation trophies are evil but I also don't think they are important.

    5. (In a study of Gold Medal Olympians, they said a previous loss was key to their championships.)

      This is more scientific evidence. I would have to read the study to know how relevant it is to this debate.

    6. Thus letting kids lose, or not take home the trophy, isn’t about embarrassing children. It’s about teaching them it can take a long time to get good at something, and that’s all right.

      This is reasoning.

    7. This is a destructive message

      I agree this is a destructive message.

    8. If children always receive a trophy – regardless of effort or achievement – we’re teaching kids that losing is so terrible that we can never let it happen.

      I disagree that participation trophies send this type of message. I think kids learn at a very early age about winning and losing and they learn that losing is okay at home by the age of 3 or 4.

    9. Therefore, instead of blowing a team’s budget on participation trophies, spend that money on kids’ and coaches’ skill development. Or donate the money to kids who can’t afford the basic equipment they need to develop their own skills.

      This strikes me as a compelling argument: the idea that money spent on crappy trophies could be better spent on equipment or coaching that would improve performance. The argument here seems to be that the impact of the trophy is negligible at best, and possibly negative.

    10. Some claim that constant awards improve children’s self-esteem, and, once kids have high self-esteem, they’ll achieve more.

      Are these the claims on the other side of the argument? If not, this is an example of a "straw man."

    11. A recent study found if parents thought failure was debilitating, their kids adopted that perspective. If parents believed overcoming failure and mistakes made you stronger, then their children believed it, too.

      Who studied this connection between parenting and attitudes about failing? What methods did they use?

    1. Numerous foreign-born individuals have been convicted or implicated in terrorism-related crimes since September 11, 2001, including foreign nationals who entered the United States after receiving visitor, student, or employment visas, or who entered through the United States refugee resettlement program.

      The failure to use statistics here is noteworthy. I found this in the FBI's archives.

      Here is that source: https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/testimony/the-terrorist-threat-confronting-the-united-states

    2. Perhaps in no instance was that more apparent than the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, when State Department policy prevented consular officers from properly scrutinizing the visa applications of several of the 19 foreign nationals who went on to murder nearly 3,000 Americans.

      Can we fact check this claim? He seems to have found a convenient scapegoat for 9/11 even while conservative hawks have opposed any Muslim ban.

    3. The executive order also bans entry of those fleeing from war-torn Syria indefinitely.

      Media outlets are asking why some Muslim countries were not subject to the ban, hypothesizing that Trump's business interests explain the criteria.

    1. The occupation supplies the child with a genuine motive; it gives him experience at first hand; it brings him into contact with realities. It does all this, but in addition it is liberalized throughout by translation into its historic values and scientific equivalencies.

      I want this to mean that civic occupation will bring students in contact with political realities. Can we co-investigate what it means that, "all politics is local" even as global events unfold before us on social media?

    2. Where the school work consists in simply learning lessons, mutual assistance, instead of being the most natural form of coöperation and association, becomes a clandestine effort to relieve one’s neighbor of his proper duties. Where active work is going on all this is changed. Helping others, instead of being a form of charity which impoverishes the recipient, is simply an aid in setting free the powers and furthering the impulse of the one helped.

      The factory model of schooling persists but I believe that even the smallest moves toward authenticity can promote social learning and collaboration.

    3. Even as to its feebler beginnings, this change is not much more than a century old; in many of its most important aspects it falls within the short span of those now living.

      This can also be said of our flattening world and the 21st century skills it demands. Even as pedagogues might long for a simpler time, we have been witness to so many social and technological changes just in the 12 years I've been in education, that we should know that our schools have to also change.

    4. The modification going on in the method and curriculum of education is as much a product of the changed social situation, and as much an effort to meet the needs of the new society that is forming, as are changes in modes of industry and commerce.

      When we employ approaches that draw upon design thinking, or personalized learning- just to name a few innovations- how can we better emphasize that these types of reform efforts or shifts in methods are not due to systemic failures but necessary because of cultural shifts and changes?

    5. Join the Marginal Syllabus online this Wednesday, January 25th at 6p ET (3p PT) for an annotation flash mob-as-conversation with Christina Cantrill, Associate Director of National Programs for the National Writing Project. The Marginal Syllabus convenes conversations with educators about issues of equity in teaching, learning, and education. Throughout the 2016-17 school year, the Marginal Syllabus is fostering a participatory and open experiment in professional learning for all educators to join critical conversations about education and equity. On Wednesday, January 25th at 6p ET (3p PT) Christina and some of the participants in her ED677 course at Arcadia University will read and mark up this text, the first chapter from John Dewey's classic book The School and Society. Visit Marginal Syllabus resources for additional information, including directions for using the Hypothes.is platform.

    1. "No human being is illegal.

      At the beginning of the speech, Davis said that racism is a dying culture. I'd like to believe this is true but I also know that Trump supporters at the polls were either willing to overlook his overtly racist statements, or they embraced him for his racism- often termed "political incorrectness." In either case, anti-racists must explore what an anti-racist platform would look like. The sentence I've highlighted is a great place to start in drafting such a platform.

      We have a long way to go and so much work to do.


    1. In the German case, the negative biological and ultimately commercial consequences of the stripped-down forest became painfully obvious only after the second rotation of conifers had been planted. "It took about one century for them [the negative consequences] to show up clearly. Many of the pure stands grew excellently in the first generation but already showed an amazing retrogression in the second generation. The reason for this is a very complex one and only a simplified explanation can be given.... Then the whole nutrient cycle got out of order and eventually was nearly stopped.... Anyway, the drop of one or two site classes [used for grading the quality of timber] during two or three generations of pure spruce is a well known and frequently observed fact. This represents a production loss of 20 to 30 percent."

      Yet, orchards, where there is no deforestation are managed environments. This doesn't help with the problem of deforestation but also might be instructive about how to conduct experiments.

    2. The vocabulary used to organize nature typically betrays the overriding interests of its human users. In fact, utilitarian discourse replaces the term "nature" with the term "natural resources," focusing on those aspects of nature that can be appropriated for human use.

      We probably focus on the discrete parts of the system because it is easier than studying the system and dealing with a more daunting data set.

    3. In state "fiscal forestry," however, the actual tree with its vast number of possible uses was replaced by an abstract tree representing a volume of lumber or firewood. If the princely conception of the forest was still utilitarian, it was surely a utilitarianism confined to the direct needs of the state. From a naturalist's perspective, nearly everything was missing from the state's narrow frame of reference. Gone was the vast majority of flora: grasses, flowers, lichens, ferns, mosses, shrubs, and vines. Gone, too, were reptiles, birds, amphibians, and innumerable species of insects. Gone were most species of fauna, except those that interested the crown's gamekeepers.

      Coincidentally, I just read the novel Barkskins, by Annie Proulx, which is historical fiction about the timber industry in pre-colonial and colonial North America. The novel covers a lot of territory, so to speak, but she compares the timber practices in the US to the tightly managed timber practices in Germany, and the most complex forest environment on earth, the Amazon rainforest.

    1. Today, measurements of school performance have become so commonplace that they are an assumed part of education debates. As new forms of data are easier to collect and analyze, drawing on and interacting with information to measure the impact of programs and to inform decision-making and policy has emerged as a key strategy to foster improvement in public schools.

      This argument really falls flat. Asking schools to not generate data seems akin to the meme of the ill-informed senior who demands that government keep its damned hands of his Medicaid. Schools produce data the way students chew gum and affix that gum to the bottom of desks after the gum loses flavor. Certainly the accountability movement has fostered a love of spreadsheets and quantifiable data of all sorts that can be unhealthy. Still, schools generate data every time a teacher takes roll or grades papers. The records we create and steward are in service of a school improvement movement that I like to think predates high stakes testing. Some of my favorite people in education are researchers who get out from behind their keyboards, venture into public schools, and generate...you guessed it... data.

    1. These kids dedicate time, effort and enthusiasm, and they deserve to have something tangible to make them feel that their participation was worthwhile.

      This is an argument that resonates with me. The evidence in this article seems anecdotal.

  7. Dec 2016
    1. Decolonizing I kinda love and hate this term. I love it because it recognizes that some issues are remnants of colonization. That’s different from coloniality, which is more like things that are still happening now, outside the political land-stealing that was colonial history. In any case, decolonizing is cool, except when I really think about it really hard and I realize what Homi Bhabha reminds us of: the current individual in Egypt or India isn’t someone who has a “pure” self to go back to that’s different from their “colonized” self.

      "...decolonizing is cool, except when I really think about it really hard..."

      I love how the informality of this prose, this blog, belies the powerful press on a learning community's thinking.

    2. Terms like diversity, inclusivity, marginality, marginalization, subaltern, dominant, coloniality, colonizing, decolonizing, postcolonial, disadvantaged, privilege, even intersectionality (or what I sometimes termed semi-privilege, before I knew it was called intersectionality).

      I have a snarky joke I recycle over and over at work when I think things are going sideways, or when things feel unproductive by my high standards. As an example, our central office uses "reciprocal accountability agreements" to coordinate the work with schools. When the conversations around these "agreements" reveal gaps in agreement and the absence of "reciprocity," it tickles my funny bone to say, "That was a great meeting but I worry about what we're doing to the words 'reciprocal' and 'agreement.' English is an evolving language, you know, and those words might mean something entirely different when we are done with them."

      -laugh track here-

      This is my version of educator sarcasm. It helps no one and I think it is a bad habit on my part, but I persist.

      I've also used this joke about "professional development" and "professional learning communities."

      I'm aware that when I initiate equity conversations, educators from other walks of life might comment on my efforts with their own spin on my joke. What am I, a privileged white dude from suburban Denver, doing to important words like equity, or diversity?

      -laugh track here-

      This call for a conversation about terms is vital because I think we all- snarkiness aside- have a role to play in how these words inform and shape the learning of educational tinkerers. All jokes aside, we have a chance to leave these words better than we found them.

    3. The main thrust of this post has been brewing in my head for months now.

      Fun to think of these emerging ideas as drafts. How many mental drafts before an idea flows onto a blog post?

    1. This is great, we all seemed to agree, yet one of us cautioned, “Without that connection with his mentor, though, this playlist might not have even got past the first XP.”

      In some of the assessment work I've done which involved looking closely at the youth submissions in response to playlists, I found it important to ask, "How might these playlists be warm demanders?"

      Reading this post now, I think that a student like Mary might read our playlists as "warm" opportunities because of the creative outlet and social connection she sees. A student like Precious may not see the social connections as safe, nor will she see the demands of the playlists as an opportunity without the help of a mentor or knowledgeable other.

    1. An important post that deals with some of the competency discussions at the center of badging efforts.

    2. But the consensus view in psychology is that these skills are gained mainly through broad knowledge of a domain.

      It is important to understand where Hirsch was coming from and what he was arguing for. - He was coming from the political right and he was arguing for a cultural canon, of sorts, that privileged the skills his generation attained and the knowledge his generation deemed most important.

      As we seek to make meaning of the way the web and digital tools are shifting our culture, I remember Frank Smith's charge that education had backed the wrong horse by choosing psychological research methods to understand learning. In an important essay titled, "How Education Backed the Wrong Horse," Smith argues in favor of anthropological efforts. He would support the cross institutional project approach because of the the empirically observable value of the 'deep dives' the author has led. Challenges from the psychologists viewpoint have less value because of the context-dependent nature of learning.

    1. For example, we might simply ask that each participant refrain from using hashtags as a final thought because that is a form of sarcasm or punchline that can be misconstrued or shut down honest debate or agreeable disagreement.

      We could ask respondents to reply to any comment that they read twice because of tone to use "ouch" as a tag or a textual response. The offending respondent could respond with "oops" in order to preserve good will in an exchange of ideas.

      Finally, the first part of a flash mob might occur here, in the page notes, where norms could be quickly negotiated and agreed upon with a form of protocol.

    2. But what will those conversations look like to random people stumbling upon them?

      What do annotations in an edited volume of Shakespeare communicate to a struggling 9th grade reader? It strikes me that reader-text interactions always leave meaning negotiable, messy and interaction dependent.

      Does this question attempt to rubric-ize the notes we'd put in margins?

    3. Why mention this research project alongside your Ponder example? Because irrespective of their differences, both efforts constrain notions of open by positioning annotation as an individual task. Annotation is something a sole reader might do when reacting to a given text and in the service of a broader (and presumably more important) objective.

      In that way, using a digital, sharable sticky note matters. Anyone can make a mess with sticky notes and a more skilled respondent can support another's meaning making with sticky notes.

    4. What is annotation as a genre? I think what he observed in the annotations was a wide range of reader responses, some highly engaging, others less clearly so.

      This question seems like it should be more specific to disciplines. What is annotation in the legal world? How about for scientists? For beginning readers?

      If I'm annotating a text to make meaning, that's different than if I'm a prof annotating a historical text to provide relevant background. The two notes have only their "noteness" in common, I'd say.

    5. This is neat, though I personally don’t think it pushes students as critical readers as far as other uses of social annotation.

      Neatness matters for teachers who have to keep track of the artifacts students create as writers. If my students are doing great work but I can't see it, I'm disorganized as a teacher. In the online instructional space it is even more important that teachers can see a footprint. If a tool leaves it to chance whether a student's work will be found by the teacher or a stranger, it is a messy tool, from a teacher's perspective.

    6. Our flexibility goes against the templated idea of educational technology tools that dominate the scene. It’s very hard to quantify that datum generated from such a tool and thus very hard to sell it.

      I'd be interested to know how you test this theory, or hypothesis. What does user feedback look like? How is it analyzed?

    7. How did my experience, alongside a cohort of graduate learners, alter my definition of open?

      Great question because it shows how our language evolves as we learn in much the same way we do.

    8. closed educational resources

      Teachers ask for textbooks all the time and insist that student's online work stay inside a walled garden LMS. Profs, too. Empathic listening reveals that they are not novices but professionals with legitimate concerns.

    9. with the antithesis to be avoided or judged as possibly inferior

      Agreed that tone matters. Open standards are real things but the word open has been evolving since it was first uttered and it predates Linux and the Apache server.

    10. When you talk about open, I feel like what you mean is “public” or even “collaborative.”

      This is a conversation I heard as I worked with Karen Fasimpaur on various projects beginning with P2PU. She used to hold to a rigid conception of the word open that prevails in web design communities, before accepting more nuanced definitions of the word as she worked more with learners in open spaces.

    11. as we invite colleagues to join our conversation and further open the growing discourse to the public.

      The analytics of this article as inquiry are to some degree plain to interested readers. If a reader wants to test out the hypothesis that the conversation will be "interrupted," all they have to do is check the margins. I'm curious about the choice of the word interrupted, tho. Won't bookworms in these margins build on the conversation, the way kids in a sandbox build with what they find? Do annotations interrupt or do they make plain the reader-text interactions?

    12. We have each chosen specific keyword

      This reminds me of Paul Allison's LRNG playlist in which youth have to choose keywords associated with their own inquiry questions.

    1. a tool for bookworm activists

      I think this is my audience, which I believe to be small and niche, based on my experience with ed tech and educator's readiness to debate anything contentious in public spaces. Kevin Hodgson is my audience because he is willing to put himself out there online and offer pushback against even his colleague's claims. If an educator like Kevin takes up this type of practice, he becomes the hub of a nerdy activism effort directed at those who follow him and test the tools he plays with.

    1. Reagan and his colleagues were inspired by the rejected master’s thesis of novelist Kurt Vonnegut, which attempted to codify the emotional arcs of stories.They examined 1,327 stories from Project Gutenberg’s fiction collection — all English-language texts between 20,000 and 100,000 words — using three language processing filters. In the end, they found “broad support for the following six emotional arcs”:

      What is interesting to me is that this data analysis was built on Vonnegut's thesis. What can this tell us about algorithms, coder's bias, and confirmation bias?

    1. Ads from companies such as Choice Hotels, SoundCloud and Bose Corp. appear on sites with false or misleading news. Those companies are among thousands of brands that could appear on such sites based on a user’s browsing history or demographics.

      As industries struggle to adapt to our flattening world, companies who have been throwing advertising dollars at anyone who will promise them clicks and site views are inadvertently funding disinformation. And our president-elect is trying to undermine the credibility of the CIA and NSA.

    1. The selection of Betsy DeVos by President-elect Donald Trump as his education secretary nominee has been attacked by public school advocates who see her longtime support for school “choice” and private Catholic education as evidence that she does not support America’s public education system. In this post, that sentiment is explained by an educator who has written an open letter to DeVos.

      This nomination makes sense if you want to privatize education and further marginalize special needs students and language learners.

    2. The Gallup Poll says that the rate of parents who are satisfied with their public school is the highest in American history. We are also very proud that our public schools offer more services to students with low socioeconomic backgrounds and special education needs than ever before. Not to be redundant, but we are proud that we serve ALL of the students in our communities.

      Facts matter. Data matters. Strange how we never hear this type of data in public schools even though our school leaders are usually keenly aware of community satisfaction or lack thereof.

    1. Tillerson has mocked investments in renewable energy and has downplayed the effects of climate change. As secretary of state, he would be in a position that has been deeply involved in matters that affect Exxon and other oil and gas corporations. In the last few years, the State Department has forged an international drilling pact, promoted hydraulic fracking across the globe and negotiated climate and trade pacts that shape the fossil fuel economy

      This nomination makes sense if your goal is to partner with Russia to exploit all natural resources.

    1. I cocked my head at him and offered a sheepish smile that said, “Sorry, Marcus. I gotta take you. You broke a rule.” The smile must have done the trick, because he took a deep breath, straightened the books in his arms, and followed me. As we walked down the hallway, he began pointing out other boys with sagging pants.

      How quickly black youth forgive us for doing school to them, even when we're discriminating against them.

    1. Lead with your interests – be transparent about what you want to learn more about.

      ...as Holden and I are doing at marginalsyllab.us/conversations

    2. seventh and eighth grade literacy teacher at North Middle School

      This should read: "11th grade English teacher and instructional coach at Rangeview High School"

    1. As a result, we are developing a 2017-2018 general fund budget of approximately $319 million. This is a change from the 2016-17 budget of approximately $350 million, which will require us to reduce our budget by $31 million. This figure includes an expected reduction in school-based staffing due to our enrollment decline.

      Fiscally conservative-minded school leaders in my district point at spending practices and budgeting as the reason for the $31 million hole.

    2. We could annotate this publicly and invite all APS principals to join a hangout after.

    1. That is, the steady drumbeat of marketing surrounding the necessity of education technology largely serves to further ideologies of neoliberalism, individualism, late-stage capitalism, outsourcing, surveillance, speed, and commodity fetishism.

      This sentence resonates with me and should lead to a syllabus that is required reading for anyone in ed tech in public schools.

  8. Nov 2016
    1. It’s not outside, and nor are we. Sign those petitions, promote those tweets, push those facebook notifications, comment on my post (please comment on my post!). They’re what keep us going and give us hope. But go outside as well. Join a party, join a movement, join your union, join a protest.

      Yes! Participate! Protest! Fight for someone, anyone less fortunate than you- they're everywhere- as an antidote to frustration and despair.

    2. But as this article indicates, some who are left behind turn against the  vulnerable rather than the responsible.

      They have turned against both in this case.

    3. Today, the energy of disruption comes from the real elite, as a desire for the unfettered exercise of power and capital. A desire for disorder, so people look for strong leadership. It comes from a love of the free market, where alternative ideas can flourish in any corner they like so long as they can be monetised. Capitalism needs instability so there can be new markets.

      I'm interested in responses to this. I agree about the desire for unfettered exercise of power and capital. Is it fair to say capitalism resists regulation? Does capitalism resist real movements in the public interest?

    4. The establishment is us – it is the embodiment of our history and culture, and that includes major victories for progress as well as the enduring power of markets and elites.

      This resonates with me. Who isn't establishment? Who is marginal in this framing?

    5. You’ll notice that I use the word ‘public’ a lot. Public institutions have not always been quick to respond to change, especially change at the speed that the tech industry can generate. But public institutions are under attack in the western world, from local authority education services to the judiciary and the rule of law. Supposing we tear them all down: what are we offering in their place? Crowd-funded welfare? A vote-on, vote-off celebrity supreme court? Public institutions provide the context in which we in education can innovate, build networks, and generate local solutions. In which there is space to do some of our work openly. In which we can organise against some of the institutions – let’s say copyright law, or the dead hold of the publishing industry – that genuinely hold back progress.

    6. If we weaken the public institutions that – however flawed – are our only hope for democratising access to opportunity, we give up on living in a fair society.

      Powerful. Also, because we weaken the public institutions that democratize opportunity, we continue to live in a profoundly unfair society.

    7. I’m talking about the unthinking, unfailingly positive use of the words ‘Disruption!’ ‘Transformation!‘ and ‘Innovation!‘.  The eternal referencing of Illych’s ‘deschooling’ meme – an essential diagnosis of what goes wrong for individuals when their learning is standardised, credentialised  and consumerised, but a poor analysis of what we should do about it collectively.

      This speaks to complacency of ed tech enthusiasts who trumpet the affordances of new tools and new features on old tools without recognizing the web as contested space where commercial interests reign.

    8. we have to build organisations that are going to persist with that goal

      Agreed... and our knowledge of the web and its affordances is leverage. Can those of us with progressive aspirations see the challenges our democracy is currently faced with as a test of our digital citizenship skills?

    9. The internet offers perhaps our first, best chance in history to distribute those social goods universally. (Worth mentioning here an earlier blog post I wrote about digital citizenship education). Let’s remember that was the promise. Not the freedom to order white goods in the small hours, or to spit bile below the line when any liberal (especially non-white, especially female) person feels empowered to speak.

      This seems to suggest the Internet as an inherently good tool that is being misused. I see it as a neutral, flexible, and social tool that amplifies. Can we understand the Internet as a contested space now?

    10. When the barrier to access is lowered to zero, other kinds of inequality determine who will benefit.

      This line strikes me. Access to what? Though this piece hasn't dealt with ed tech much yet, I'm curious about what access has been lowered to zero? I think that the promise of the Internet is, as always, depends on the perspective of the subjective user. If we think access to information or platforms is universal, we're not looking closely enough.

    11. But today I feel brave enough to peep through my fingers at something else we share, beyond our humanity: I’m going to wonder whether there is any role that educational technology might have played, or played differently, and what our responsibilities are now that the festival of democracy that the internet promised has descended into a circus of unreason.

      This resonates with me. I needed a few days and interactions with friends and loved ones before I was ready to talk intelligibly about the election and its implications. For me, politics is secondary to articulating a stance I'm taking about anti-racism. I want to declare that I am anti-racist and I want to learn more about how to be effectively anti-racist.

    1. Once Clinton conceded the race to Trump, many Flint residents became uneasy.

      One of my favorite books is John Irving's A Prayer for Owen Meany. The narrator tells the story of Owen, his tiny childhood friend who speaks in a raspy but booming voice, but he does so in retrospect, while living in Canada as an expatriot. The plotline of the childhood friend is interspersed with real newspaper headlines about the Reagan administration. The narrator's response to each of the headlines about Reagan pretty well captions what has been going through my head since Tuesday.

    2. The New York businessman visited Flint in mid-September, touring the city’s inactive water treatment plant and vowing to fix the water problem “quickly and effectively.” Trump mentioned the city frequently in stump speeches, calling it in the past week a “troubled place” and blaming the contamination on unnamed “incompetent politicians.”

      Nervous and anxious about my country's election of a racist, I wish I could find solace in statements he's made that I agree with.

    1. The book was a phenomenal success, spending forty-eight weeks on the Times best-seller list, thirteen of them at No. 1. More than a million copies have been bought, generating several million dollars in royalties. The book expanded Trump’s renown far beyond New York City, making him an emblem of the successful tycoon. Edward Kosner, the former editor and publisher of New York, where Schwartz worked as a writer at the time, says, “Tony created Trump. He’s Dr. Frankenstein.”

      The Art of the Deal will be an important text for the next four years because it is an origin story for the myth of President Trump as a capitalist hero. It almost begs for a mash-up of The Art of the Deal interspersed with texts about Nazi blitzkrieg warfare.

    1. confidence

      Hard to build for whom? I appreciate Maha's voice about the messages we send women about digital tools. I imagine it is much harder to build confidence as a women doing something that has been historically perceived as a man's domain.

  9. Oct 2016
    1. To extend the metaphor to teaching: Like yoga practitioners, teachers who are committed to professional growth also take up stances (or poses) toward their practice, and reflect on areas in which they wobble with the intent of attaining flow—those provisional moments that mark progress in their teaching. In the sections that follow, we unpack the meaning of each of these terms one at a time, show how they work together by drawing on classroom examples, and then make suggestions for steps you can take to enact P/W/F cycles in your own teaching. Before we do that, though, we want to point out three essential features of the model.

      This reminds me of the analogies Dr Yemi Stembridge makes about teaching and yoga. I think there is also something to say about how veteran yogis might make flow look easy and that newcomers need to know the habits of mind and practice in order to develop.

    2. who routinely complained that the latter set was irrelevant; they just wanted to get on with learning

      I would love to hear more about this and what the authors think this means for the future of teacher preparation. I've heard Antero mention this in presentation as well. As someone who works with new teachers who have the desire to teach across cultures but often struggle with the cultural differences that play out, I wonder if this kind of prep instruction might help teachers avoid the trap of labelling students.

    3. Because we were (and are) equally committed to the “why” behind the “how” of pedagogical practices in the English Language Arts classroom, however, we also assigned a parallel set of texts that were primarily the-oretical in nature, like Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) and excerpts from bell hooks’s Teaching to Transgress (1994) and Allan Johnson’s Privilege, Power, and Difference (2001). Jo

      These texts provide a vital critical lens through which we must read the "practical" texts listed above. We can no longer accept purported "best practices" as such. We have to think about the marginalized communities we serve and we have to interrogate the historical failure of "best practices" to close equity gaps.

    1. This theme, of slowing down to look closely at the world  –or “slow looking” – has become increasingly important to our team. So it’s fair to ask: What do we mean by slow looking? The answer is simple (but not, we hope, simplistic): Slow looking means taking the time to carefully observe more than meets the eye at first glance. It implies lingering, looking long, being generous, almost lavish, with one’s attentional focus, in order to see beyond first impressions.

      Carrie James from Project Zero shared this excerpt from Tishman's post.

      My reaction: Being generous with one's attentional focus strikes me as a mindful act of gratitude.

    1. We paired world class game makers with Alaska Native storytellers and elders to create a game which delves deeply into the traditional lore of the Iñupiat people to present an experience like no other.

      Interested to learn more about this game, Never Alone, referenced in the #2016DML keynote.

    1. A study about marshmallows said that people who can put off desires have more long term success. More recently, a study showed that the more we are able put off desires, the more access we will have to relationships with each other and adults.

      This line in particular might need revision. "A study about marshmallows said..."

      At a time when the Common Core standards demand that we develop students' use of evidence, this stands out as a school policy with a very weak use of evidence, attempting to stretch well cited psychology research far beyond its real implications. It is noteworthy how convenient this policy is for adults averse to change.

      Also, the Common Core standards demand that we support our students with digital writing but this policy, with its claims about digital tools and learning, effectively argues against digital writing. That, too, seems convenient for adults averse to change.

    2. This will make it harder for parents and family to support our learning and help us through hard times.

      This photograph won the World Press Photo of the Year award in 2014. The men in the picture are African migrants standing on a shoreline in Djibouti City hoping to use a cell signal from neighboring Somalia in order to connect with their relatives. It just seemed to belong here in the margins as this school writes about its concerns for parents and families.

      Speaking of minority parents and families, another issue of equity is that Latino and African American families are more likely to use cell phones at home for Internet access than their white counterparts, who are more likely to have broadband access. By vilifying cell phones, the school unwittingly condemns the mode of access that most of the families they serve use.

      In "Mobile Phones and America's Learning Divide," S Craig Watkins from the University of Texas at Austin- an education researcher- poses powerful inquiry questions about mobile devices and their potential for closing achievement gaps. Here's hoping that this school identifies inquiry questions to supplant the over-reaching and poorly supported claims of this policy. Watkins' work should be required reading for these (unnamed) authors. They can ban cell phones all they want but citing popular press and tangential research to do so is a dubious act for a learning institution in the 21st Century.

    3. This article talks about three effects of using cell phones a lot: addiction, obsession, phobia.

      Here, too, a learning organization has cited a popular magazine instead of education research.

      I would recommend reading the important text, "Psycholinguistics of Literacy in a Flat World,"by Alice Horning.

    4. ( https://goo.gl/Mvs80X, https://goo.gl/Yl4iKS , https://goo.gl/d8jECG , http://goo.gl/O5Uyyi)

      Here we see an example of particularly poor hyperlinking: the author has used a Google URL shortener in a space where the character count doesn't matter. This serves to confuse the reader about the sources cited. This should be revised to preserve the original web addresses of the sources cited and to help the reader establish the credibility of these claims.

  10. Sep 2016
    1. cognitive functioning and learning

      I think the sources used in this policy are questionable because they are popular media articles making claims about learning. It is interesting to me that a learning institution would cite the Huffington Post, for example, when real educational research, and researchers are at their disposal. Here's just one example.

    1. I have provided a clear break down of course expectations

      The best of which, arguably, is pictured below. I pulled this screenshot from the grading information in the mini-mooc work.

    2. Playing it safe is not going to yield the opportunities that will make a difference. Off-script is when you don’t quite know where you are going, but you have the courage to commit to the journey knowing that it is the process itself that will hold the worth. Breaking outside of conventional form is where excitement lies.  Being an effective educator cannot remain a quest to be a master with a masterful product.  Rather, it is dynamic performance and a practice.

      Mia's powerful voice at the end leads me to wonder how her voice helped promote these agentive student moves.

    3. the space for emergence

      I wonder what emerged for Mia in her own practice? Was there more questioning? Did she play a project manager's role at all?

    4. They organized themselves into five small groups around five central concerns: Race and Identity; Race and Popular Culture (especially the role of humor); Race in the Classroom; Race in the International Context; and Race and the Politics of Language.

      I'm interested in the teacher moves here because I'm curious about where Mia's attention was and how that empowered students to drive the work.

    5. A refined and nuanced sense of self was an unforeseen outcome, and I couldn’t be more pleased that this outcome emerged. Perhaps the most telling comment was when one student wrote, “This is the most important work I have done for any class in my entire education.”

    6. In final self assessments for the class, students wrote extensively about how surprised they were at how much they learned from their own classmates. They wrote eloquently about their increased sense of empathy. They also marvelled at how they were able to gain new digital confidence, as their instinct for self directed learning (i.e. just google it!) became a newfound form of self-reliance. My students also wrote about how much they thought about this class outside of class. They wrote about how they realized they were talking with many other people in their lives about the issues we grappled with in class.

      This sounds like the instructor's payoff for the patient waiting game she had to play at the project's outset.

    7. A prescribed series of academic readings and writings on theories of race seemed to fall short of that urgency.

      This leads me to believe that contemporary events demanded at least an update of that syllabus. I wonder if the energy of conversations like #blacklivesmatter, #educolor and the like suggested the dramatic shift in instructional approach that involved listening, importantly.

    8. How has it been written and rewritten in our society?

      This is a historically rich topic and also a topic that can lead to inquiry into current events and contemporary tools. It suggests a few pathways at least, so I'm curious to know what emerged when Mia left behind a syllabus in favor of something potentially messier and arguably more promising.

    9. I took a deep breath as I listened, watched, reassured, and guided my students. I often tried to step out of the way, and it was not easy. Eventually, they formulated an inspired vision of authentic learning. And, with time, perseverance, and collaboration, they realized that vision, despite the fact that there was no path marked for them to get there.

      These lines remind me that the moves teachers make toward student-centered learning usually require some faith, patience and at least a small amount of nail biting on the part of the teacher.

    1. Since the costs of earning a degree at your university are not differential, and refunds are not offered for unused services, take advantage of all resources available.

      How might this become the focus of first year students? Just knowing what the resources are and how students use them is invaluable knowledge for learners.

  11. Aug 2016
    1. general failure to acknowledge that redlining was a conscious policy.

      There's a vicious cycle suggested here where schools with disproportionate discipline data will become consumers for filters while schools where students aren't routinely referred, suspended and expelled will become consumers for STEM programs. Michelle Alexander writes about how the new Jim Crow laws don't have racially explicit language. Instead, they have neutral language that disproportionately impacts communities of color.

    2. Digital redlining takes place when policymakers and designers make conscious choices about what kinds of tech and education are "good enough" for certain populations but also happens through the failure to interrogate policy and design.

      One example in the k-12 space is Nettrekker, a safe search tool that relies so heavily on crowdsourced vetting of results that it doesn't act like a real search engine. In the name of safety, teachers provide students with an experience so protected that only the most general searches produce results.

    3. how it’s regulated, and how good it is.

      Bandwidth as an key consideration when we talk about access.

    4. This issue speaks to us because we see the consequences of such practices on a daily basis, not only in education but in the world of post-industrial inequities.

      This inequity is really hard to demonstrate to those who haven't had to enter the workforce during the digital age.

    5. Her college's acceptable-use policy is likely to exclude her from P2P services.

      I've heard IT people determine that Tumblr is a porn site. In the instance in my memory, their only view of Tumblr was the one a filtering software gave them. It presented them a view of the blog platform that highlighted only inappropriate posts. As I asked for access to a Tumblr post related to academics, I noted that the person I was appealing to thought I wanted porn unblocked for schools. I just wanted to read an academic's informal reflections.

    1. One notable feature of the test is its use of texts representing a range of complexities to better determine whether students are ready for the reading challenge posed by college courses and workforce training programs. On each assessment, one passage will be drawn from a U.S. founding document (a text such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, or the Bill of Rights) or a text that is part of the Great Global Conversation (a text such as one by Lincoln or King, or by an author from outside the United States writing on a topic such as freedom, justice, or liberty).

      What are the characteristics of the complexity range?

    1. Table 2: Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix with Curricular Examples: Applying Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels to Bloom’s Cognitive Process Dimensions

      @DrYemiS points us to Hess's cognitive rigor matrix as a key support for understanding rigor as a theme of culturally responsive education.

  12. Jul 2016
    1. Get on your feet and step outside to find and catch wild Pokémon. Explore cities and towns around where you live and even around the globe to capture as many Pokémon as you can. As you move around, your smartphone will vibrate to let you know you're near a Pokémon. Once you've encountered a Pokémon, take aim on your smartphone's touch screen and throw a Poké Ball to catch it. Be careful when you try to catch it, or it might run away! Also look for PokéStops located at interesting places, such as public art installations, historical markers, and monuments, where you can collect more Poké Balls and other items.

      How is this similar to geocaching? I just learned to geocache a couple of days ago and this feels very similar. While I bring background knowledge about geocaching, mobile phones and the Pokemon card game, Hailey brings deep knowledge of the card game, the tv show and other video games. She has also had thousands of conversations at school- mostly with boys- about Pokemon. She brings deep background about the mythology and backstory.

    1. Now, if you are me? You were moved by that. And I can explain why. Because I played a lot of Ingress in a major city. I got to see people make the most friends they've ever had in their life, learning what teamwork is, sometimes for the first time in their life. You become part of a massive positive feelings engine. It's a great game. Yes, it's technical as hell. But it's so great. And you meet so many new people. I can't even begin to count how many Ingress marriages there have been. 7 milllion active players all over the world. That's Blizzard Entertainment level numbers. Now, Imagine how well something that isn't technical that's tied to one of the most popular gaming franchises of all time is going to do.

      This type of commentary by someone who saw #PokemonGO's potential while playing Ingress leads me to think about the concept of Reading Ladders.

      PokemonGO might be higher on the metaphorical ladder because the story is built on a popular mythical cartoon and video game.

    1. This is an essay published as part of a collection in which authors explained their love of reading and writing. I might ask students to study this essay as a mentor text from which the can identify craft elements to strengthen personal essays.

      One way:

      1. Read through one time just to make meaning of Alexie's text. Respond using our codes: !, ?, or ...
      2. Read through "like a writer" looking at the way Alexie crafted the essay, as well as the paragraphs or sentences within.
    1. One approach to marking up fiction: Read the first 7 paragraphs and capture your thoughts in the margins.

      Code them as follows:

      ? questions that arise for you ! text or thoughts that strike you as important ... clarifications that occur as you read.

      Follow up: Use your notes to begin a Says|Means|Matters chart OR... find your best note and draft a response paragraph.

    2. Perhaps he did not feel old enough, qualified enough, for anything more serious than my mother’s jewelry.

      Read to here.

    1. I would love to know whether it could or already does constitute a separate path, a countervailing force within the establishment institution.

      This morning Trump's tweets and Wikileaks' DNC email bombshell are in the news. Different than a separate path, these informal media become central to the popular media's efforts. As the 800 lb gorilla of informal media enters the room, he becomes central to the story at the same time he's throwing his weight around and taking up more and more space.

    2. We are all potential hyperlocal policymakers and the adjacent possibility here is that fat and untapped channel of policymaking that could rise up from the everyday field of ‘classroom’ work.

      The anytime, anywhere affordances of the web and digital tools mean that teachers who can't attend policy meetings can influence those conversations.

      Students interested in civic opportunities that are geographically inaccessible can participate in social media channels where they can organize efforts and amplify messages.

    3. Elite print still wins.

      This characterization of a contest between the elite print vs informal publishing frames the issue poorly. Instead we need to understand how the informal meshes with the formal and how a savvy reader leverages both to gain knowledge. The rising importance of informal publishing has much to teach us if we don't get stuck looking at a non-existent horse race.

    4. And I want to be able to trust them so I am so burdened with fact checking them.

      What kinds of citations and resource citing earns this trust? This post, that embeds and responds to an article, makes plain Terry's thinking about a mainstream media article, which is sufficient to earn my trust. It is important to note that the original research is "gated," meaning that the LSE piece and this blog enjoy a life of circulation that the inaccessible formal research won't

    5. In other words, this is a clarion trumpet blast for readers and writers to become expert readers and writers. If this is not a supreme justification for liberal arts principles and values I don’t know what is.

      More than a call to become something, this recognizes the importance of these inexpert voices woven together in online networks. It is an acknowledgement of the power of informal writing and reading that education minimizes or maligns.

    6. I came across this in my RSS feed (Inoreader) and could not help but see adjacent possibilities flash before me. Duncan Green makes an open invitation to anyone out there who could be seen as big time, informal policy experts. I see his blog post as a call to our students at university (and younger) to become expert in at least some aspect of their discipline (or their lives) as it applies to social policy.

      Informal policy expert is a vital concept- it should accompany the rise of informal publishing and commentary. How can identity be understood as expertise?

    1. To be even clearer, there is no way to read these continual killings as anything but racist.

      What is more, the killing is part of a larger picture of white supremacy that has been written as law in our country, evidenced by this excerpt from The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander

    2. How do we move beyond the language of personal responsibility to supporting students to hold our officers accountable when, as a society, we are clearly failing at doing so?

      My first thought on this is to bring policy ideas to these conversations that usually start with thoughts and prayers. Ask each other, "Do we all agree these ideas would begin to get at the issue?"

    3. As a DML community, we cannot pretend that our actions (and inaction) function within a bubble isolated from a world of systemic violence.

      What is more, the experiments educators conduct must also work to combat this system. We need to understand the diverse learners we educate as underserved, not underachieving. Our measures of success should solidly balance community-readiness as well as college and career readiness.

    4. I am also questioning the words I am writing, the lessons I am teaching, and the ways my work in this community intersects with the life-and-death needs of youth I work for. I am hoping you are doing the same.

      I find myself asking how I can do more. I've learned so much about these issues in the last few years but I realize that my efforts to understand and discuss these issues don't satisfy my conscience and don't change a system. If I see this racism so plainly, just seeing it and commenting is on it isn't enough for me as a father or an educator.

    1. When trade is introduced, some people will be able to accumulate "capital" much more quickly. And the players who will benefit the most will be those with wealth -- the real-world funds to buy in-game items to get more Pokémon -- and the connections to trade them.

      This inequity already exists in the game with the in-app purchases for coins. I appreciate the article because it highlights inequity but I'm wondering how many authors are writing about the game without a familiarity of the game content.

    2. “Justice issues are huge,” says Castronova. “As a game player, nothing is more frustrating to me than to go into this environment where everyone is going to start out completely the same, and then you find out someone is getting ahead because their dad is a dentist.”

      The competition dynamics right now are tuned for wealthy. Some questions I want to ask are: Who can play? Who can engage in the fitness aspects and goals? Who can collect cards and access the text complexity in the game?

    3. In China, perhaps 100,000 people worked farming virtual gold and selling it for real money in World of Warcraft, one of the world’s biggest online games. Many games ban the sale of in-game items for real money, but it can happen anyway in black markets.

      If systems replicate in games then they are also mirrored in games and can be studied through games.

    4. “A multiplayer game environment is a dream come true for an economist,” Yanis Varoufakis, the Greek finance minister who worked as an in-house economist for an online game, once said. “In a video game world, all the data are there. It's like being God, who has access to everything and to what every member of the social economy is doing.”

      Also a dream come true for community health experts interested in prevention, and marketing experts, I would guess, interested in in-app purchases.

    5. “Every economic theory that’s true from the history of economics is true inside game economies,” Castronova said. That means that researchers can use economic theories to explain what's happening in a game, as well as use games to test such theories. Games may seem unrealistic, Castronova says, but “a rat maze is also not realistic, but you learn a lot about cognition through rat mazes.

      This speaks to the importance of surfacing those economic theories for learners playing a game.