- Dec 2018
eople prefer to know who else is present in a shared space, and they usethis awareness to guide their work
Awareness, disclosure, and privacy concerns are key cognitive/perception needs to integrate into technologies. Social media and CMCs struggle with this knife edge a lot.
It's also seems to be a big factor in SBTF social coordination that leads to over-compensating and pluritemporal loading of interactions between volunteers.
- Aug 2018
create the effect of temporal symmetry, of the group sharing a moment, even though individual members clearly read the message at different moments.
description of temporal symmetry
The notion of temporal structuring views "real time" not as an inherent property of Internetbased activities, or an inevitable consequence of technology use, but as an enacted temporal structure, reflecting the decisions people have made about how they wish to structure their activities, both on or off the Internet. As an alternative to the idea of '·real time," Bennett and Wei II ( 1997) have suggested the notion of "real-enough time," proposing that people design their process and technology infrastructures to accommodate variable timing demands, which are contingent on task and context. We believe such "real-enough" temporal structures are important areas of further empirical investigation, allowing us to move beyond the fixation on a singular, objective "real time" to recognize the opportunities people have to (re)shape the range of temporal structures that shape their lives.
real time vs real-enough time
The notion of temporal structuring we have developed here suggests instead that people enact multiple, heterogeneous, and shifting temporal structures in all aspects of their lives.
people experience temporal structures as dynamic
Our empirical example also highlighted the value of achieving virtual temporal symmetry for members of a geographically dispersed community. As electronic media become increasingly central to organizational life, individuals may use asynchronous media in various ways to shape devices of virtual symmetry that help them coordinate across geographical distance and across multiple temporal structures. This suggests that when studying the use of electronic media, researchers should pay attention to the conditions in which virtual temporal symmetry may be enacted to coordinate distributed activities, and with what consequences. Interesting questions for empirical research include the following. As work groups in organizations become more geographically dispersed and/or more dependent on electronic media, do members enact virtual temporal symmetry for certain purposes? If so, for which types of purposes? And how? If not, how do such work groups achieve temporal coordination?
virtual coordination across geographic distance via electronic media and how it shapes/is shaped by temporal structures
By examining a community's repertoire of temporal structures, we can understand the variety of ways in which community members' actions (re)produce the different temporal structures they constitute through their ongoing practices
A good justification for the SBTF study.
The notion of temporal structuring focuses attention on what people actually do temporally in their practices, and how in such ongoing and situated activity they shape and are shaped by particular temporal structures. By examining when people do what they do in their practices, we can identify what temporal structures shape and are shaped (often concurrently) by members of a community; how these interact; whether they are interrelated, overlapping, and nested, or separate and distinct; and the extent to which they are compatible, complementary, or contradictory.
Different interaction patterns of temporal structures that are shaped by people and shape people's activities.
In all these cases, the notion of temporal structuring through ongoing practices helps us understand and bridge the temporal oppositions underlying the research literature. We tum now to an empirical example to demonstrate how this perspective can offer a new understanding of the temporal conditions and consequences of organizational life.
Succint summation of previous section and transition.
In practice, however. an open-ended or closed temporal orientation is not a stable property of occupational groups, but an emergent property of the temporal structures being enacted at a given moment by the groups' members.
describes how a group orients around an emergent property of temporal structures depending on context.
Orlikowski and Yates write later in this passage:
"Moreover, point of view and moment of observation may also affect the type of structuring observed."
Viewed from a practice perspective, the distinction between cyclic and linear time blurs because it depends on the observer's point of view and moment of observation. In particular cases, simply shifting the observer's vantage point (e.g., from the corporate suite to the factory floor) or changing the period of observation (e.g., from a week to a year) may make either the cyclic or the linear aspect of ongoing practices more salient.
Could it be that SBTF volunteers are situating themselves in time as a way to respond to a cyclic/linear tension? or a spatial tension?
An emphasis on the cyclic temporality of organizational life also underpins the work on entrainment, developed in the natural sciences and gaining currency in organization studies. Defined as "the adjustment of the pace or cycle of one activity to match or synchronize with that of another" (Ancona and Chong 1996, p. 251 ), entrainment has been used to account for a variety of organizational phenomena displaying coordinated or synchronized temporal cycles (Ancona and Chong 1996, Clark 1990, Gersick 1994, McGrath 1990).
In spite of the general movement from particular towards universal notions of time (Castells 1996, Giddens 1990, Zerubavel 1981 ), we can see that in use, all uni versa! temporal structures must be particularized to local contexts because they are enacted through the situated practices of specific community members in specific locations and time zones.
Cites Castells (networks), Giddens (structuration) and Zerubavel (semiotics) as moving away from particular time to more universal notions of real-time, 24-hour clock, and calendars, respectively.
Orlikowski and Yates argue that even universal notions need situated and contextual practices to make sense of time.
One such opposition is that between universal (global, standardized, acontextual) and particular (local, situated, contextspecific) time.
Orlikowski and Yates describe situated, contextual time as particular.
Table 1 Different Perspectives on Time in Organizations
Objective vs Subjective vs Practice-based perspectives in time
That is, people are purposive, knowledgeable, adaptive, and inventive actors who, while they are shaped by established temporal structures, can also choose (whether explicitly or implicitly) to (re)shape those temporal structures to accomplish their situated and dynamic ends.
People can enact their agency through practices, habits or planned intentions to change temporal structures against what frequently feels like an external time that operates independently.
scholars have begun to recognize the importance of what Nowotny (1992, p. 424) has termed pluritemporalism"the existence of a plurality of different modes of social time(s) which may exist side by side." Our structuring lens sees this not so much as the existence of multiple times, but as the ongoing constitution of multiple temporal structures in people"s everyday practices.
Cites Nowotny's pluritemporalism.
Orlikowski and Yates interpret this as enacting multiple temporal structures that are often interdependent and can also be in conflict. Raises the example of tensions between work and family temporal structures.
Like social structures in general (Giddens 1984 ), temporal structures simultaneously constrain and enable.
The paper provides an example of how work vacations and office schedules are restricted during certain seasons, and more open in other seasons.
While adopting one side or the other of this dichotomy may offer researchers analytic advantages in their temporal studies of organizations, difficulties arise when these positions are treated-not as conceptual tools-but as inherent properties of time. Focusing on one side or the other misses seeing how temporal structures emerge from and are embedded in the varied and ongoing social practices of people in different communities and historical periods, and at the same time how such temporal structures powerfully shape those practices in turn. By focusing on what organizational members actually do, our practice-based perspective on temporal structuring may offer new insights into how people construct and reconstruct the temporal conditions that shape their lives.
Nice summation of how practice-based experiences of time are not well-served by treating the objective-subjective dichotomy as properties of time.
Need for a different perspective to explore other emergent ways people engage with or experience time.
Thus temporal structures, like all social structures (Giddens 1984), are both the medium and the outcome of people's recurrent practices.
Wrapping Giddens' structuration theory into the concept of temporal structures.
This integration suggests that time is instantiated in organizational life through a process of temporal structuring,1 where people (re)produce (and occasionally change) temporal structures to orient their ongoing activities.
Succinct definition of temporal structures.
We contribute to this discussion within organizational research by offering an alternative third view-that time is experienced in organizational life through a process of temporal structuring that characterizes people's everyday engagement in the world. As part of this engagement, people produce and reproduce what can be seen to be temporal structures to guide, orient, and coordinate their ongoing activities.
How the concept of temporal structures fits in the literature.
emporal structures here are understood as both shaping and being shaped by ongoing human action, and thus as neither independent of human action (because shaped in action), nor fully determined by human action (because shaping that action). Such a view allows us to bridge the gap between objective and subjective understandings of time by recognizing the active role of people in shaping the temporal contours of their lives, while also acknowledging the way in which people's actions are shaped by structural conditions outside their immediate control.
Temporal structures definition
- linear time
- objective time
- structuration theory
- situated time
- subjective time
- social coordination
- real time
- spatial time
- temporal structures
- cyclical time
- writing tips
- Jul 2018
implies the virtual inseparability of semantics from syntactics, and, indeed, Saussure's followers are often quite appropriately called structuralists, as they view signs not so much in terms of their substantive "content" as in terms of the ways in which they are formally related to other signs (i.e., in terms of the structure of the symbolic system to which they belong). More specifically, they tend to focus particularly on the formal relation of opposition or contrast, because, "in any semiological system, whatever distin- guishes one sign from the oth
What is the SBTF structure? What differentiates it?
Do the temporal signs for data collection contrast/differ enough from the temporal signs for the crowd process to describe a single structure for digital humanitarian work?
Data time = desire for real time information where units of data have their own time contexts (meta data, periods, timelines, qualitative representations/metaphors, etc.)
Process time = acceptance that work time is always 24/7, urgent and feels like a step behind. The people who perform the process also have their own time contexts (personally situated time, trajectories, rhythms, horizons, etc.)