420 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2023
    1. Ivan Illich, in his brilliant study of medieval reading and the evolution of the book, In the Vineyard of the Text, noted how emerging textual technologies reconfigured how readers related to what they read. It is a complex, multifaceted argument and I won’t do justice to it here, but the heart of it is summed up in the title of Illich’s closing chapter, “From Book to Text.” After explaining what Illich meant by the that formulation, I’m going to suggest that we consider an analogous development: from photograph to image. Like the photography, writing is, as Plato understood, a mnemonic technology. The book or codex is only one form the technology has taken, but it is arguably the most important form owing to its storage capacity and portability. Contrast the book to, for instance, a carved stone tablet or a scroll and you’ll immediately recognize the brilliance of the design. But the matter of sorting and searching remained a significant problem until the twelfth century. It is then that new features appeared to improve the book’s accessibility and user-friendliness, among them chapter titles, pagination, and the alphabetized index. Now one cloud access particular passages without having to either read the whole work or, more to the point, either memorize the passages or their location in the book (illuminated manuscripts were designed to aide with the latter).

      Ivan Illich在他对中世纪阅读和书的演变的杰出研究中,在《In the Vineyard of the Text》中指出,新兴的文本技术是如何重新配置读者与他们所读的东西的关系的。这是一个复杂的、多方面的论点,它的核心被总结在Illich最后一章的标题中,"从书到文本"(From Book to Text)。在解释了Illich的这一表述的含义之后,建议我们考虑一个类似的发展:从照片到图像。

      就像摄影一样,正如柏拉图所理解的,写作是一种记忆技术。书籍或手抄本只是这种技术的一种形式,但由于其存储能力和便携性,它可以说是最重要的形式。将书与雕刻的石板或卷轴等进行对比,你会立即认识到设计的精妙之处。但直到12世纪,分类和搜索的问题仍然是一个重要的问题。就在那时,出现了一些新的功能,以改善书的可及性和用户友好性,其中包括章节标题、分页和按字母顺序排列的索引。现在,人们无需阅读整部作品,或者,更重要的是,记住这些段落或它们在书中的位置,就可以访问特定的段落。

  2. Sep 2022
  3. Nov 2021
  4. Oct 2021
    1. When transmitting personal speech, whether in the form of emails, text messages, video chats, or social media posts, Internet companies in general and social media companies in particular would be expected to act as common carriers. They would transmit our messages without prejudice, and they would be prohibited from exploiting the contents of those messages, or any related personal information, for commercial purposes. When an app needs to draw on personal data to perform a function requested by the user, it would operate as a closed-loop system, using the data only to provide the specified function. The privacy restrictions would also cover our conversations with chatbots like Alexa and Siri and our interactions with other automated systems such as Google’s search engine. Like the professional telegraph operators of old, the machines that “read” our correspondence would be expected to respect our privacy and dignity.

      在传递个人言论时,无论是电子邮件、短信、视频聊天还是社交媒体帖子,一般的互联网公司和尤其是社交媒体公司都将充当常见的载体。它们将无偏见地传输我们的信息,并禁止为商业目的利用这些信息的内容或任何相关个人信息。当应用程序需要利用用户的个人数据来执行用户要求的功能时,它会像一个闭环系统一样运行,只使用数据来提供指定的功能。隐私限制还包括我们与Alexa和Siri等聊天机器人的对话,以及我们与其他自动系统(如谷歌的搜索引擎)的互动。就像过去的专业电报员一样,“读”我们的信息的机器应该尊重我们的隐私和尊严。

    1. “Content is a word that was invented by people who want to create boxes that they can sell ads around, and they had to come up with a name for what goes in the box, and that word was “content.” In other words, if you’re using the word “content” that means you really don’t have a vision for what you’re making. Because creating good content requires specificity: It requires a point of view and strong writing and the right package to frame it, to catch someone’s attention, and to inspire trust.This is no easy task.”

      "内容 "这个词是由那些想创造盒子的人发明的,他们可以围绕盒子卖广告,他们必须为盒子里的东西想出一个名字,这个词就是 "内容"。

      换句话说,如果你使用 "内容 "这个词,这意味着你真的没有对你所做的东西有一个愿景。因为创造好的内容需要具体性。它需要一个观点和强有力的写作,以及正确的包装来框住它,吸引别人的注意力,并激发信任。这不是一件容易的事"。

    2. “Our task is not to find the maximum amount of content in a work of art… Our task is to cut back content so that we can see the thing at all.”

      苏珊·桑塔格 (Susan Sontag) 说:“我们的任务不是在艺术作品中找到最大量的内容……我们的任务是减少内容,以便我们能够看到事物。”

    1. Personal: Your data is yours. You can move it in, move it out, take it with you. The tool is also yours. You can use it as you like, and combine it with other tools.Multiplayer: Personal doesn’t have to mean solitary. One of the most interesting ways of thinking is thinking together. “Knowledge production is a group activity, not an individual one.” (Engelbart).Distributed: It’s a bummer that SaaS companies own most of our infrastructure for thought. I think it would be valuable if some of our infrastructure for thought was not-owned, or rather, owned by you, owned by everyone, interdependently, through some mix of federation, or p2p, maybe.Evolvable: Everyone thinks differently. I would like a tool with building blocks you can remix and evolve for new ways of thinking, new use-cases. An open-ended tool you can repurpose to your creative needs.
      • 个人的:你的数据是你的。你可以把它搬进去,搬出来,带着它。这个工具也是你的。你可以随心所欲地使用它,并将它与其他工具相结合。
      • 多人的。个人并不一定意味着孤独。最有趣的思考方式之一是共同思考。"知识生产是一种团体活动,而不是个人活动"。(Knowledge production is a group activity, not an individual one. Engelbart)。
      • 分布式的。SaaS公司拥有我们大部分的思想基础设施,这是一个无奈之举。如果我们的一些思想基础设施不是由你拥有的,而是由每个人拥有的,相互依赖的,通过某种混合的联盟,或者P2P,也许,可能会很有价值。
      • 可进化的。每个人的思考方式不同。希望有一个带有构建模块的工具,可以重新组合和发展新的思维方式。这是一个开放式的工具,你可以根据自己的创造性需求进行调整。
    2. In Tools for Conviviality, Ivan Illich describes a kind of tool that is shared in common, and which expands personal creative freedom and communal interdependence. He calls these convivial tools. Bicycles, libraries, and sewing machines can all be convivial tools.

      Ivan Illich在《Tools for Conviviality》中描述了一种共享的工具,它扩展了个人的创作自由和群体的相互依赖。他称这些为欢乐工具(convivial tools)。自行车、图书馆和缝纫机都可以成为欢乐工具(convivial tools)。

    1. Ideas are fragile. If they were resolved, they would not be ideas, they would be products. It takes determined effort not to be consumed by the problems of a new idea. Problems are easy to articulate and understand, and they take the oxygen. Steve focused on the actual ideas, however partial and unlikely.

      想法都是脆弱的。如果它们被解决了,它们就不再是想法,而是产品。要想不被一个新想法的问题所吞噬,需要坚定的努力。问题很容易表达和理解,而且它们需要氧气。史蒂夫专注于实际的想法,无论这些想法多么片面和不可能。

    1. Of what could art speak, indeed? If it adapts itself to what the majority of our society wants, art will be a meaningless recreation. If it blindly rejects that society, if the artist makes up his mind to take refuge in his dream, art will express nothing but a negation.

      但它究竟要表达的是什么呢?如果它想适应我们这个社会的要求。它就必须改弦易辙,如果它盲目地排斥这个社会的要求,如果艺术家决心把自己局限在象牙塔里,那这种艺术要表达的也只能是拒绝参与。

  5. Sep 2021
    1. Fyodorov’s most famous follower was Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, whose astronautic theory shaped the Russian (and later the Soviet) space program. A drawing in his 1883 manuscript Free Space might be the first depiction of humans in orbital weightlessness. Four figures float in a spherical spaceship, each pointed in a different direction, disoriented. Tsiolkovsky’s ship seems better equipped than its passengers to operate in a fully three-dimensional environment. It has engines at both ends of a primary spine and gyroscopes on the other two axes, so that it can spin round and fire rocket thrust in any direction. This basic design — primary thruster, secondary retro rockets, axial gyros for orientation — has been used by all crewed Russian and American spacecraft to date, including the International Space Station.

      康斯坦丁·齐奥尔科夫斯基 1883 年手稿《自由空间》(Free Space)中的一幅画可能是人类首次描绘人类在太空轨道的失重状态。四个人漂浮在球形宇宙飞船中,每个人都指向不同的方向。飞船的主轴两端都有发动机,另外两个轴上有陀螺仪,因此它可以旋转并向任何方向推动。迄今为止,所有载人的航天器都使用了这种基本设计——主推进器、二级火箭、用于定向的轴向陀螺仪。

    1. In 1931, the German cultural critic Walter Benjamin wrote an essay called “Unpacking My Library,” describing these relationships with cultural objects. In the essay, Benjamin narrates removing his book collection from dusty crates, untouched for years. The volumes are splayed loose on the floor, “not yet touched by the mild boredom of order,” all set to be rearranged on shelves once more. For Benjamin, the very possession of these books formed his identity as a reader, writer, and human being — even if he hadn’t read all of them. They sat proudly on his shelves as symbols, representing the knowledge that he still aspired to gain or the cities he had traveled, where he encountered a book in a previously unknown shop. Collecting books was his way of interacting with the world, of building a worldview.

      1931 年,瓦尔特·本雅明 (Walter Benjamin) 撰写了一篇名为“开箱整理我的藏书 ”的文章。在这篇文章中,本雅明叙述了从多年未动过的书箱中取出他的藏书。这些书在地板上散开,“还没有被无聊的秩序所触动”,所有这些都将再次重新排列在书架上。对于本雅明来说,拥有这些书就构成了他作为读者、作家和人类的身份——即使他没有阅读所有这些书。它们作为符号自豪地摆在他的书架上,代表着他仍然渴望获得的知识,或他旅行过的城市——在那里他在一家不为人知的书店遇到了一本书。收藏书籍是他与世界互动、建立世界观的方式。

    1. While we’re still in the early stages, AI tools have the potential to democratize content creation and empower human creators to focus on higher-level design and story-telling. Both the quantity and quality of UGC will improve as these tools are adopted. And over time, as AI models improve, the quality of emergent, AI-created content may one day even surpass the caliber of human-created content, paving the way for a shift in how we socialize and spend time in virtual worlds.

      虽然我们还处于初期阶段,AI工具仍有潜力让内容创作更亲民化,并帮助人类创作者聚焦于高级设计和剧情,随着这些工具的使用,UGC的质量和数量都会提升。随着时间的迁移,AI模型的提升,AI创作的即兴内容质量可能有一天甚至超过人类创作的内容,为我们在虚拟世界里社交和消耗更多时间铺平道路。

    1. “Just as the mail, the telegraph, the telephone, text and video are utilities for collaborative work, we believe Roblox and the metaverse will join these as essential tools for business communication,” Mr. Baszucki said. “Ultimately, someday we may even shop within Roblox.”

      “正如邮件、电报、电话、文本和视频是协作工作的实用工具,我们相信 Roblox 和元宇宙将加入这些作为商业交流的基本工具,”Baszucki 先生说。“最终,有一天我们甚至可以在 Roblox 内购物。”

    1. the last decade of social has been about simply putting videos, photos, and text up. And making this easy for anyone to publish. This has unlocked hundreds of billions of dollars of business value. I think it may not be enough to simply do more photos, text, and video. Instead, new platforms will emerge that let people author 3D content more easily — and maybe put it into a game. Or interactive content. Or NFTs. And of course audio. All of these new forms of media will probably look like toys at first, but they may catch on in a big way.

      “过去十年的社交只是简单地将视频、照片和文本放在一起。并使任何人都可以轻松发布。这已经释放了数千亿美元的商业价值。我认为仅仅发布更多的照片、文字和视频可能还不够。取而代之的是,新平台将会出现,让人们可以更轻松地创作 3D 内容——并可能将其放入游戏中。或互动内容。或 NFT。当然还有音频。所有这些新形式的媒体一开始可能看起来像玩具,但它们可能会大受欢迎。”

    1. If you're paying close attention, you might have noticed this phenomenon has an important corollary for platforms and publishers: no matter where you draw the line, your content moderation decisions will put you in a double-bind where you can't win. Double-bind content theory is that the edgiest content will be the one that garners the most attention, however by virtue of it being edgy it will have negative social outcomes and thus negatively impact business outcomes.

      如果你密切关注,你可能已经注意到这一现象对平台和出版商来说有一个重要的推论:无论你在哪里划线,你的内容审核决定将使你陷入双重困境,你无法获胜。双重束缚的内容理论是,最靠近边界的内容将是获得最多关注的内容,然而由于它靠近边界,它将产生负面的社会结果,从而对商业结果产生负面影响。

    2. “One of the biggest issues social networks face is that, when left unchecked, people will engage disproportionately with more sensationalist and provocative content. This is not a new phenomenon. It is widespread on cable news today and has been a staple of tabloids for more than a century. At scale it can undermine the quality of public discourse and lead to polarization. In our case, it can also degrade the quality of our services.

      社交网络面临的最大问题之一是,如果不加控制,人们会不成比例地参与更耸人听闻和挑衅性的内容。这不是一个新现象。它在今天的有线电视新闻中很普遍,一个多世纪以来一直是小报的主要内容。在规模上,它可以破坏公共对话的质量并导致两极分化。就我们而言,它也可能降低我们的服务质量。

  6. www.lootproject.com www.lootproject.com
    1. Loot is randomized adventurer gear generated and stored on chain. Stats, images, and other functionality are intentionally omitted for others to interpret. Feel free to use Loot in any way you want.

      Loot是随机生成的冒险者装备,并存储在区块链上。统计数字、图像和其他功能被有意省略,供他人解释。

      随意以任何您想要的方式使用 Loot。

    1. the metaverse as Zuckerberg describes it—a shared 3D space where we live and work and view advertising in an embodied internet—would be an actual nightmare if it were to be designed, built, or administered by Facebook, perhaps the most notoriously drab, misinformation-littered, and aesthetically unappealing environment on the web. 

      扎克伯格所描述的元宇宙——一个共享的 3D 空间,我们在其中生活和工作,并在其中查看广告——如果它由 Facebook 设计、建造或管理,这将是一场噩梦,也许网络上单调乏味、充斥着错误信息和审美上没有什么吸引力的环境。

    2. there is something inherently dystopian in a future where humans abandon the real world in favor of an escapist and consumerist-oriented fully immersive digital one. To want to spend any serious amount of time in a metaverse, it must be made more appealing than reality, a feat which can be accomplished in one of two ways—either the world outside is already shitty enough to drive you into a glitch-prone, murder-filled alternative, or the fantasy of becoming someone else is compelling enough to consume you totally. 

      在未来,人类会放弃现实世界,转而支持逃避现实和消费主义的完全身临其境的数字世界,这是一种天生的反乌托邦。想要在 Metaverse 中花费大量时间,它必须比现实更有吸引力,可以通过以下两种方式来实现:要么外面的世界已经糟糕到足以让你陷入困境的境地,或者成为另一个人的幻想足以令人信服地完全吞噬你。

    1. Tim Berners- Lee, founder of the World Wide Web, said: “The dream behind the Web is of a common information space in which we communicate by sharing information. Its universality is essential: the fact that a hypertext link can point to anything, be it personal, local or global, be it draft or highly polished.”

      万维网创始人Tim Berners-Lee (蒂姆·伯纳斯-李)说:“万维网背后的梦想是一个共同的信息空间,我们可以在其中通过共享信息进行交流。它的普遍性是必不可少的:超文本链接可以指向任何东西,无论是个人的、本地的还是全球的,无论是草稿的还是成品。”

  7. Aug 2021
    1. “In our vision, metaverse platforms will connect people from different life experiences with new and interesting ideas,” Roblox CEO David Baszucki wrote in the prospectus. “We believe these connections will help build empathy by safely immersing people in different perspectives, where they will hear diverse viewpoints. And someday, as the metaverse supports a broader range of positive educational and social experiences, we hope this can expand opportunities for all people around the world.”

      Roblox 首席执行官 David Baszucki 在招股说明书中写道:“在我们的愿景中,Metaverse 平台将把来自不同生活经历的人们与新的有趣想法联系起来。” “我们相信,这些联系将有助于建立同理心,让人们安全地沉浸在不同的观点中,在那里他们将听到不同的观点。有一天,随着 Metaverse 支持更广泛的积极教育和社交体验,我们希望这可以为世界各地的所有人扩大机会。”

    1. Epic has stated that its goal is to allow all IP owners and companies to build on top of its platform to the fullest.

      Epic 表示,其目标是让所有知识产权所有者和公司充分利用其平台进行构建。

    1. mountain biking is the physical embodiment of the concept of mindfulness: it requires you to be in the moment, because if your attention wanders, the consequences can be severe. For that short hour or two on the trail, I am how people are meant to be—free. Biking helps me momentarily forget that I’ve spent years wrestling with anxiety and depression.

      山地自行车是正念概念的物理体现:它要求你活在当下,因为如果你的注意力分散,后果可能会很严重。在路上那短短的一两个小时里,我就是人们应该拥有的——自由。骑自行车让我暂时忘记了我多年来一直在与焦虑和抑郁作斗争。

    1. Facebook isn’t the first company to come up with the idea of VR-powered office meetings. Spatial, which Recode’s Adam Clark Estes wrote about last year, offers a lot of the same features as Workrooms, raising familiar questions about whether Facebook is copying some of its smaller competitors.

      不过Facebook并不是第一个提出VR驱动办公会议想法的公司,Recode的亚当·克拉克·埃斯特斯去年撰文的《空间》提供了许多与Horizon Workrooms相同的功能,这引发了人们对于Facebook是否在复制一些规模较小的竞争对手的猜测。

    1. In 1963, the computer science luminary J.C.R. Licklider wrote a memo to his colleagues in which he envisioned a proto-internet that he called the “Intergalactic Computing Network.” The name was facetious, but it also linked Licklider’s computing vision to the overwhelming excitement around Cold War era space exploration and the sense of human possibility that came with it.

      1963 年,计算机科学界的杰出人物 JCR Licklider 写了一份备忘录给他的同事,他设想了一个原型互联网,他称之为“星际计算网络”。这个名字很滑稽,但它也将 Licklider 的计算愿景与围绕冷战时代太空探索的压倒性兴奋以及随之而来的人类可能性联系起来。

    1. If you're trying to write an 80,000 word novel and you only write 80,000 words, it might be acceptable. But if you wrote 300,000 or 400,000 words and cut that back to 80,000, it’s almost certain that it would be a better novel.

      如果你想写一部8万字的小说,而你只写了 8 万字,这可能是可以接受的。但如果你写了 30 万或 40 万字,并将其削减到 8 万字,几乎可以肯定,这将是一部更好的小说。

    2. For me, a walk is a tool or platform upon which I can build, sort of like an operating system. When I become fully immersed in ‘walk mode’ the operating system begins to hum along, becoming almost autonomous, and I find the experience of this incredibly empowering. It just feels like the world and my place within it vibrates at a higher, more finely tuned level. I realize this sounds somewhat insane, and I suppose that’s true—but a long walk contains within it the act of losing your mind: the long hours, the endless kilometers. On a properly executed long walk, it feels like the world pops from HD to 4K in terms of detail and texture, if that makes any sense.

      对我来说,徒步是一个工具或平台,我可以在上面建造,有点像一个操作系统。当我完全沉浸在「行走模式」时,操作系统开始嗡嗡作响,变得几乎是自主的,我发现这种体验令人难以置信地有力量。它只是感觉世界和我在其中的位置在一个更高的、更精细的水平上振动。

      我意识到这听起来有点疯狂,我想这是真的,但长途跋涉包含了失去理智的行为:漫长的时间,无尽的公里数。在一次适当的长距离步行中,感觉世界在细节和纹理方面从高清跳到了4K,如果这有任何意义的话。

  8. Jul 2021
    1. The Metaverse is often mis-described as virtual reality. This is like saying the mobile internet is the iPhone. The iPhone isn’t the mobile internet; it’s the consumer hardware and app plat