2 Matching Annotations
- May 2023
- Jul 2022
But educational applications are merely the beginning: the recent development ofgamification applies the mechanisms of game design to enhance focus and motivation for nearlyany kind of activity (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2011; Zichermann & Cunningham,2011). It is used in particular by businesses and organizations to goad people into performing tasksthat are useful for the organization—but not intrinsically rewarding for the individual. Examples areparticipating in surveys, filling in forms, or joining customer loyalty programs. While performingthese activities, respondents are given the kinds of points, “badges”, or bonuses that are used assymbolic rewards in games. This constant feedback motivates them to contribute additionally, so asto attain ever-higher total scores. Moreover, the more points they have gathered already, the lessthey are inclined to lose these points by prematurely stopping the activity—a psychological bias forcontinuity known as “sunk costs” (Garland & Newport, 1991).
Sunk costs are the time and other resource investments a participant has put into the game. Increasing reputation currency is also another motivator.