81 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. Purity of the DNA extracted from various environmental samples was confirmed by subjecting the extracted DNA to restriction digestion. DNA was digested with Sau3AI (New England Biolabs). One μg of metagenomic DNA in 20 μL reaction mixture was treated with 0.5 U of Sau3AI and incubated at 37 °Cfor 10 min. The reaction was terminated at 80 °C for 20 min and the digested DNA was fractionated on 1.2 % (w/v) agarose gel.
    2. Restriction digestion
    3. as well as commercial methods (MN kit, Germany; Mo-Bio kit, CA, USA; Zymo soil DNA kit, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocols and compared in terms of DNA yield and purity.
    4. The soil DNA from Pantnagar and Lonar soil samples were also extracted by various manual (Desai and Madamwar, 2007; Agarwal et al., 2001; Yamamoto et al., 1998
    5. Comparison of yield and purity of crude DNA
    6. Various strains of Escherchia coli (DH5α, XL1Blue, DH10B) were used as hosts for the propagation of recombinant vectors. In addition, Bacillus subtilis was used as a host for the expression of xylanase gene from the recombinant vector pWHMxyl. Different vectors used in this investigation are listed in
    7. BACTERIAL STRAINS
    1. All the peptides used in this study were synthesized by solid phase method on an automated peptide synthesizer (Applied Biosystems, Model 431A), using F-moc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) chemistry on a p-hydroxymethyl phenoxymethyl polystyrene resin (Nova Biochem). For the peptide synthesis, 0.1 mmol of the resin was used and deprotected using 20% piperidine in N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP). Subsequently 0.5nmol of the first amino acid was added and coupling was performed usmg DCC-HoBt (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-hydroxybezotriazole) ester formation method. All other amino acids were coupled by DCC ester coupling. Amino acids and solutions required for peptide synthesis were procured from Nova Biochem and Applied Biosystems, respectively. After completion of synthesis, deprotection was carried out in 20% piperidine/DMF. Finally, the resin was shrunk using ether and dried under vacuum for a minimum of four hours. The cleavage was performed in dark using 94% TF A, 5% anisole, EDT and water accompanied by continuous stirring for two hours. The resin was then filtered and washed with DCM and the solution was evaporated on a rotary evaporator (Buchi, Switzerland) till only a small quantity of DCM/cleavage mixture is left. Cold anhydrous diethyl ether was added to the filtrate to aid in the separation of scavengers from the mixture. The peptides were then extracted with water using a separating funnel. Extraction was followed by evaporation of residual diethyl ether on the rotary evaporator. Total aqueous layer was then frozen as a thin film and lyophilized.
    2. Procedure for peptide synthesis
    1. vector, under the phage T7 promoter, in BL21 (DE3) cells, and under the T5 phage promoter, in the pQE30 vector for expression in SG13009[pREP4] and M15[pREP4] cell strains. For cloning in pRSET B, the full length bZP3 initially subcloned in the pBacPAK8 vector at the Kpn I and Sac I sites was released after digestion with Kpn I and EcoR I and cloned in a similarly restricted pRSETB vector inframe with an N-terminal His6 tag. For cloning in the pQE30 vector, the pBacPAK8 carrying the full length bZP3 was initially digested with Not I, filled in with Klenow and then digested with Kpn I. The purified bZP3 fragment was then cloned in the vector digested with Kpn I and Sma I in frame with an N-terminal His6 tag. Though transformants positive for the bZP3 insert in the right reading frame were recovered, no expression could be detected by SDS-PAGE or immunoblots in either case. An alternate strategy was then devised in which an internal fragment of the gene, excluding the signal sequence and the transmembrane-like domain, following the putative furin cleavage site, was amplified by PCR using the forward primer 5'-CGGGATCCCAACCCTTCTGGCTCTTG-3' incorporating a BamH I site and the reverse primer 5'-CCGAGCTCAGAAGCAGACCTGGACCA-3' incorporating a Sac I site. The PCR was done in a 50 J!l volume using 50 pM of each primer and Vent polymerase for extension. The pBluescript-bZP3 (1 0 ng) having a full length bZP3 insert was used as the template and was initially denatured at 95°C for 10 min. Amplification was carried out for 35 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 2 min, primer annealing at 600C for 2 min and extension at 72°C for 3 min followed by a final extension at 72oc .for 15 min. The amplified bZP3 fragment was digested with BamH I and Sac I and cloned in frame downstream of a His6 tag under the T5 promoter-lac operator control in the pQE30 vector. The authenticity of the construct was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing using an upstream sequencing primer GGCGT ATCACGAGGCCCTTTCG.
    2. Our initial attempts to express the full length gene in E. coli as a His6 fusion protein failed. Attempts were initially made to express the His6-bZP3 protein in the pRSET B
    3. PCR Amplification and Cloning in pQE30 Vector
    4. ligation reactions were carried out usmg conditions and buffers specified by the manufacturer.
    5. The PCR amplified eDNA fragment corresponding to bZP3 was resolved on a 0.8% agarose gel run using IX TAE buffer (0.04 M Tris-acetate, O.OOI M EDTA) and purified using the Geneclean® II kit. The PCR amplified bZP3 was digested with Kpn I and Sac I and ligated into the pBluescriptll SK(+) vector at the same sites. The digestion and
    6. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Digestion and Ligation
    1. PBS and then replenished with the complete medium. Two days following transfection, the cells were subcultured into the appropriate selective medium for selection of stable clones as described below.
    2. Calcium phosphate mediated stable transfections were performed by the method of Graham and Van der Eb ( 1973 with modifications as described by Gorman ( 1986 ). For each plasmid, two petri dishes each containing 0. 5 x 106 CHO-K1 cells were used, with 10 ug of cesium purified DNA for each transfection. A mock transfection which did not contain any DNA, was performed simultaneously as negative control. Precipitation of the DNA was done with great care to ensure the obtention of a fine, translucent precipitate rather than a dense and opaque precipitate. The calcium phosphate I DNA precipitate was added in 4 ml medium to the cells and the cells incubated for 3 hours at 37°C. At this stage, the cells were examined under the microscope and a fine precipitate appeared as small grains all over the cells. The cells were washed once with serum free medium and a glycerol shock given for 3 minutes at 37°C. The cells were washed twice again with
    3. Using calcium phosphate.
    4. bands seen in the DNA size marker, were marked with a ball -point pen at the places where small holes had been pierced in the gel earlier ( see above ). Thus it was easy to monitor the size of the fragments showing hybridisation to the probe. The gel was then peeled off and the membrane w~shed in 6 X sse with gentle rocking for 10 minutes to wash away any residual agarose sticking to the membrane. After air drying at room temperature, the membrane was baked at so0e for two hours. The baked filter was stored at room temperature in a dessicator, if not used immediately. The dehydrated gel was restained in water containing 0.5 ug I ml ethidium bromide for 30 minutes and examined on a short wave UV transilluminator to check for the presence of any DNA fragments that escaped blotting. The absence of any residual bands indicated that the transfer was complete.
    5. Restriction fragments of DNA resolved on agarose gel were transferred to nylon membrane ( GeneScreen or GeneScreen Plus by the capillary blotting procedure of Southern ( 1975 ) as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . After the completion of electrophoresis, the gel was stained and photographed as described earlier. Position of the various bands obtained in the DNA size marker lane were marked by piercing small holes at the two ends of each band in the gel with a yellow tip. The gel was then denatured, neutralised and blotted essentially as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . Locally available coarse absorbent paper was used to make the paper towels of the appropriate size. In case of genomic DNA from mammalian cells, the agarose gel was first treated with 0.25 M HCl for 10 minutes, followed by the rest of the procedure as mentioned above. The transfer buffer was 20 X SSPE in all cases. To prevent the absorption of fluid from the 3 MM paper under the gel directly to the blotting paper atop the nylon membrane, the gel was surrounded with polythene sheets to minimise the direct contact between the blotting paper and the 3 MM paper placed under the gel. The blotting was performed for 18 -24 hours. After the transfer was over, the paper towels and the 3 MM papers on top of the nylon filter were peeled off. The gel along with the attached membrane, was turned over and kept on a clean sheet of 3 MM paper with the gel side up. The position of the gel slots was marked with a ball -point pen. Also, the positions of the
    6. southern blot.
    7. lectrophoresed on 0.7 % -1.2 % agarose gels in TAE or TBE buffer. Choice of the percentage of agarose and the electrophoresis buffer system was made following the guidelines of Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ). In general, upto 1 kb fragments were resolved on 1.2 % agarose gels using TBE buffer. For most other purposes, TAE buffer was used. Agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . The run was stopped when the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 1 em -1.5 em from the edge of ' the gel, except when the sample had fragments smaller than 500 bp, in which case the elctrophoresis was terminated at an earlier stage. The gel was immersed in water containing 0.5 ug I ml ethidium bromide, for 30 minutes, to stain the DNA. When detecting very low amounts of DNA, the staining was done for 60 minutes followed by destaining in 1 mM Mgso4 for one hour at room temperature. The DNA bands were visualised on a short wavelength UV transilluminator ( Fotodyne, Inc., USA and photographed with a Polaroid MP-4 camera using Polaroid type 667 film.
    8. DNA digested with restriction enzymes was
    9. ecanted and the pellet dried briefly under vacuum. The final DNA pellet was resuspended in 500 ul of TE. A 1:50 dilution of the sample was used to measure the absorbance at 260 nm and at 280 nm. The A260 and A280 values were used to estimate the concentration and purity of the sample as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982).
    10. further purified by centrifugation to equilibrium in a 30 ml cesium chloride -ethidium bromide density gradient, as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . The band corresponding to closed circular plasmid DNA was collected and further purified by a second centrifugation to equilibrium in a 6. 5 ml cesium chloride -ethidium bromide density gradient. The final DNA band collected from the gradient was extracted with an equal volume of isopropanol which had been previously saturated with TE and cesium chloride. This extraction was repeated twice to completely remove the ethidium bromide from the DNA sample. The DNA was then dialysed against one liter of TE for at least 8 hours, at 4 °c, with several changes of TE. To the dialysed sample, one tenth volume of 3 M sodium acetate, pH 5.2, was added and the DNA precipitated with two volumes of chilled ethanol. The precipitation was carried out 0/N at 0 -20 c. The precipitated centrifugation at 10, 000 rpm, DNA was collected by for 10 minutes. The supernate was carefully d
    11. resuspended in 20 ml of Tris -Glucose solution ( 25 mM Tris. HCl, pH 8. 0; 50 mM Glucose ) . The cells were vortexed followed by repeated pipetting to obtain a uniform cell suspension. To this, 6.0 ml of a freshly prepared lysozyme solution ( 10 mg 1 ml, prepared freshly in sterile distilled water ) was added. The cell suspension was swirled to mix thoroughly and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. Next, 0.5 M EDTA was added to a final concentration of 10 mM, the contents swirled to mix and incubated in ice for 20 minutes. Next, 40 ml of a lytic mix containing 0. 1 % SDS and 0. 2 N NaOH was added. This was prepared freshly by mixing 4 ml of 10 % SDS solution into 36 ml of 0.22 N NaOH solution. The solution was mixed by vigorous but brief shaking till the cell lysate became clear, followed by incubation on ice for 5 minutes. Finally, 20 ml of 5 M potassium acetate solution, pH 4.8 was added. Again the contents were swirled to mix, followed by incubation in ice for at least 1 - 2 hours. The lysate was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4°c. The supernate was filtered through sterilised glass wool kept in a funnel, and collected in a graduated cylinder. The measured volume of the cell lysate was transferred into another centrifuge bottle and two volumes of 95 % ethanol added to precipitate the DNA, at 0 -20 c, 0/N. The DNA was pelleted by centrifugation at 10,000 rpm at 4 °c for 30 minutes. The supernate was carefully poured off and the pellet res~spended in 25 ml of TE ( 10 mM Tris.HCl, pH 8.0; 1 mM EDTA ). The plasmid DNA was
    12. Plasmid DNA was isolated using the alkaline lysis method of Birnboim ( 1979 ) with slight modifications. One liter of TB supplemented with ampicillin @ 50 ug 1 ml was inoculated with 10 ml of a freshly grown primary culture and the culture incubated 0/N at 37°c, in an incubator -shaker. The cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 4000g for 10 minutes at 4 °c. The supernate was discarded and the pellet
    13. Isolation of plasmid DNA.
    1. The membranes were suspended (1.4 x 108 cell equivalent) in 250 III of incorporation buffer (50 mM HEPES, pH = 7.4, 25 mM KCI, 5 mM MgCb, 5 mM MnCI2, 0.1 mM TlCK, 1 Ilg/ml leupeptin, 1 mM ATP, 0.5 mM dithiothreitol and 0.4 Ilg/ml tunicamycin). Each assay tube was prepared by adding 12.5 III of 1 % Chaps, 2.8 III of 200 IlM GOP-Man, 10 III of GOP-[3H]-Man (1IlCi) and 25 nmol of synthetic substrate (49). The contents were lyophilized and 250 III of membrane suspension (1 .4 x 108 cell equivalent in incorporation buffer) were added to each tube. The tubes were incubated at 28°C for 20 minutes, cooled to 0 °C and the membranes were pelleted at 4 °C for 10 minutes in a microcentrifuge. The eH] mannosylated products, that were recovered in the supernatant, were mixed with 0.5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate and applied to a C18 Sep-pak cartridge that had been washed with 5 ml 80% propan-1-01 and 5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate. The cartridge was washed with 1.5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate and then the eluate was reapplied to the same cartridge. The cartridge was subsequently washed with 5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate, after which the bound material was eluted with 5 ml of 60% propan-1-01. The final eluate was concentrated and redissolved in 100 III of 60% propan-1-01. One tenth of this volume was taken for scintillation counting. The above assay was then carried out with a range of concentrations of OMJ to assess it's effect on the activity of eMPT enzyme parse.
    2. eMPT inhibition assay
    3. mixture was concentrated and the residue was repeatedly lyophilized to yield 7S; ESMS (mlz): 263.1 (M-Hr. Guanosine 5'-diphospho-4,S-di-deoxy-4,S-difluoro-a-D-talose mono triethyl amine salt) 77. A mixture of 4-morpholine-N,N'-dicyclohexylcarboxaminidium guanosine 5'-monophosphomorpholidate (27 mg, 34.4 Ilmol) and 7S (10 mg, 21.5 Ilmol) was coevaporated with anhydrous pyridine (3 x 500 Ill). 1 H-tetrazole (5 mg, 68.7 Ilmol) and anhydrous pyridine (1 ml) were added and the mixture was stirred under argon atmosphere for 2 days. Water was added and the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 77; ESMS (mlz): 608.3 (M-Hr.
    4. 6 Hz), 4.85 (1H, s); 13C NMR 853.28,65.12 (15 Hz, C3), 67.3 (24 Hz, C5), 69.72 (C2), 81.1 (JCF = 168 Hz, C4), 89.9 (JCF = 171 Hz, C4), 101.47 (C1). 1 ,2,3-Tri-O-acetyl-4,6-di-deoxy-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talopyranoside (73). To compound 72 (100 mg, 0.543 mmol) was added 2% sulfuric acid solution in acetic anhydride (1.2 ml). The mixture was stirred at rt for 90 minutes. The contents were diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was thoroughly washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford 73. 2,3-Di-O-acetyl-4,6-di-deoxY-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talo-di-O-benzyl phosphate (75) : Compound 73 ( 70 mg, 0.225 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH3CN saturated with dimethylamine (5 ml ) at -20°C and stirred for 3h after which TlC confirmed the disappearance of starting material. Excess of dimethylamine was removed under reduced pressure at 30°C and the reaction mixture was concentrated to afford 2,3, di-O-acetyl-4,6-di-deoxy-4,6-difloro-a-D-talopyranoside (74). To a stirred solution of compound 74 and 1 H-tetrazole (21 mg, 0.3 mmol) in anhydrous CH2CI2 (400 Ill) was added dibenzyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (99.4 Ill, 104.3 mg, 0.3 mmol) and the mixture was stirred under argon atmosphere for 2 h at rt. Subsequently, the reaction mixture was cooled to -40°C and m-CPBA (87 mg, 0.504 mmol) was added and stirring was continued for another 30 minutes at rt. The reaction was quenched by the addition of a solution of saturated sodium bicarbonate. The mixture was extracted with CH2CI2. The organic phase was thoroughly washed with water, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to afford 75, which was purified by running a silica coated preparative TlC plate; Rf = 0.24 (50% ethyl acetate in hexane); 1H NMR characterstic ¢ 5.67 (1 H, dd, J = 6.3 Hz and 1.8 Hz, H-1); 13C NMR: ~ 20.5-20.6 (OAc), 64.77, 64.99, 66.28, 66.43, 69.9 (24 Hz, C5), 79.96 (JCF = 169 Hz, JCH = 7.1 Hz, C6), 84.08 (JCF= 180, JCH = 5.4 Hz, C4), 95.68,126.85-128.7,169.50,169.77; 31p NMR 8 -3.03; ESMS (mlz): 551.2 (M+Nat. 4,6-Di-deoxy-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talosyl phosphate (76). To a solution of 75 (30 mg, 0.056 mmol) in CH30H (1 ml) was added palladium on charcoal (10%, 280 mg) and formic acid (100 Ill). The mixture was stirred at 50°C for 3h. The catalyst was filtered off and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was taken in a mixture of CH30H:water:triethylamine (5:3:2, 1.6 ml) and stirred for 2 days at rt. The reaction
    5. Methyl-4,6-di-deoxy-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talopyranoside (72). DAST (750 j.!L, 5.6 mmol) was added with stirring at -40 °c, to a suspension of methyl-a-D-mannopyranoside 62 (200 mg, 1 mmol) in anhyd CH2CI2 (4 mL). The mixture was stirred at -40 °c for another 30 minutes and then at rt for 3 h. After cooling to -200C, the excess of reagent was destroyed by addition of CH30H (600 j.!L) and sodium bicarbonate (200 mg). The cooling bath was removed, and the mixture was filtered once effervescence ceased. The filtrate was concentrated, loaded onto a silica column and eluted out with CH2CI2 to yield 72; Rf= 0.7 in 12.5% CH30H in CH2CI2; 1H NMR (CDCI3) 83.40 (3H, s, OCH3), 4.19 (1 H, m), 4.52 (1 H, d, 6 Hz), 4.68 (1 H, d,
    6. Synthesis of [4,6-Dideoxy-4,6-difluoro]-GDP Talose (Scheme 16 of Results and Discussion)
    7. mg, 0.03 mmol) in 95% aqueous pyridine (1 ml) was added. After 30 min CH2Cb was added and the solution was washed successively with cold 1 M Na2S203 (2 x 5 ml) and cold 1 M TEA hydrogen carbonate (2 x 5 ml), dried over Na2S04 and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica column chromatography (1.5% CH30H in CH2Cb with 0.1 % Et3N); Rf = 0.54 in 20% CH30H in CH2CI2; 1 H NMR: 8 -0.01 (s, 6H, Me~iCMe3), 0.84 (s, 9H, Me2SiCMe3), 1.95-2.11 (m, 18H, OAc), 3.62 (m), 3.88 (m), 4.2 (m), 4.5 (m), 4.9 (m, 2H, H-2', 3'), 5.28 (m, 3H, H-1, 2, 3), 5.44 (m, 1 H, CH=CH2); 31 P NMR .8-2.68; ESMS (mlz) : 925.3 (M-Et3N-H)". Dec-9-enyl-6-dihydroxyl-4-~-D-galactopyranosyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phospha te triethylammonium salt (55). A solution of aqueous HF (48%) in CH3CN (5:95, 400 Ill) was added to compound 54 (10 mg, 0.009 mmol) at 0 aC. The solution was stirred at 0 aC for 2 h. The reaction was quenched by the addition of the aqueous NaHC03 solution until effervescence ceased and diluted with CH2CI2. The organic layer was extracted with water and TEAS solution thoroughly, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to give dec-9-enyl-2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-4-~-D-galactopyranosyl-a-D­mannopyranosyl phosphate triethylammonium salt; ESMS (m/z): 811.4 (M-EtsN-H)". A solution of oxalyl chloride (0.38 mg, 1.5 Ill, 0.003 mmol) in anhydrous CH2CI2 (50 Ill) was cooled to -78 aC and DMSO (0.47 mg, 1.7 Ill, 0.006 mmol) was added, followed by the addition of a solution of dec-9-enyl-2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-4-~-D­galactopyranosyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate (7 mg, 0.007 mmol) in CH2CI2 (100 Ill). The mixture was stirred for another 30 minutes and then triethylamine (10 Ill) was added. The solution was brought to rt, water was added and the mixture was extracted with CH2Cb. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 to give the aldehyde 55. Dec-9-enyl-6-dihydroxyl-4-~-D-galactopyranosyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate triethylammonium salt (56). The residue was taken in a mixture of CH30H:water:triethylamine (5:3:2, 1.6 ml) and stirred for 2 days at rt. The reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was repeatedly lyophilized to yield 56.
    8. Dec-9-enyl-2,3,4-tri-O-acetYI-[6-0-(t-butYldimethYlsilyl)-4-~-D-galactopyranosyl] -a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate tri ethylammonium salt (54). A mixture of H-phosphonate 6 (from scheme 1, 50 mg, 0.057 mmol) and dec-9-en-1-01 (30 Ill, 0.172 mmol) was dried by evaporation of pyridine (2 x 0.5 ml). The residue was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (1 ml), pivaloyl chloride (22 Ill, 0.172 mmol) was added, and the mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h whereafter a freshly prepared solution of iodine (6
    9. (Scheme 13 of Results and Discussion)
    10. Synthesis of S'-hemiacetal analogue90 of Gal 1,4~-Man-a­phosphate acceptor
    11. was diluted with water and the aqueous layer was thoroughly extracted with ethyl acetate (15 ml x 2). The organic layer was dried over Na2S04, concentrated and dried to yield C4C] labelled stearyl alcohol 51. [14C]-Stearyl-2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-4-0-(2,3,4 ,6-tretra-O-acetyl-~-D-gal actopyrano syl)-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate triethylammonium salt (52). A mixture of H-phosphonate 47 (296 mg, 0.37 mmol) and [14C] stearyl alcohol (51,100 mg, 0.37 mmol) was dried by evaporation of pyridine (2 x 3 ml). The residue was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (5 ml), adamantane carbonyl chloride (160 mg, 0.8 mmol) was added, and the mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h whereafter a freshly prepared solution of iodine (160 mg, 0.63 mmol) in 95% aqueous pyridine (5 ml) was added. After 30 min CH2Cb was added and the solution was washed successively with cold 1 M Na2S203 (2 x 10 ml) and cold 1 M TEA hydrogen carbonate (2 x 10 ml), dried over Na2S04 and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica column chromatography (2.5% CH30H in CH2CI2 with 1 % Et3N) to afford 52. [14C]-Stearyl-4-~-D-galactopyranosyl-a-D-mannopyranosyI phosphate triethyl ammonium salt (53). To a solution of compound 4 (75 mg, 0.07 mmol) in anhydrous CH30H (12.5 ml) was added anhydrous sodium carbonate (80 mg, 0.75 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h, whereafter sodium carbonate was removed by filtration. The solvent was evaporated and residue concentrated to yield 53; R,= 0.55 in 10: 1 0:3 CH30H:CH2CI2:O.25% KC!.
    12. [14C]-Stearyl alcohol (51). Stearic acid (50,100 mg) in anhydrous THF (1 mL) was diluted with C4C] stearic acid (1.2 mL, 120 !lCi). To this was added THF-borane complex (4 mL). The mixture was refluxed at 90°C for 36 h. The contents were then poured onto CH3COOH:H20 (8 mL, 1:1), taken in a separating funnel. The mixture
    13. Synthesis of [14C] labeled Stearyl linked Gal 1,4 f3 Man phosphate (Scheme 12 of Results and Discussion)
    14. Polycondensation. Compound 26 (25 mg, 0.033 mmol) was dried by evaporation of pyridine (500 III x 3) therefrom. The residue was dissolved in 10:1 pyridine:triethylamine (40 Ill), and pivaloyl chloride (9 Ill, 0.073 mmol) was added. Another lot of pivaloyl chloride (6 Ill, 0.04B mmol) was added in 45 min. After 3 h, the mixture became viscous, and a freshly prepared solution of iodine (220 Ill, 35 mg, 0.137 mmol in pyridine-water, 95:5) was added. After 2 h, CHCI3 was added and the organic layer was successively washed with cold 1 M aqueous Na2S203 solution and 1 Mice-cold TEAB buffer, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to dryness to afford 27. For final deprotection, above residue was dissolved in 0.1 M NaOMe solution in CH30H (440 Ill), 1,4-dioxane (BOO Ill), and CHCI3 (BOO Ill). The mixture was stirred at rt for 7 h and left at 4 °C for 16 h, then diluted with CH30H, deionized with Dowex 50W-X4 (H+) resin, filtered and immediately neutralized with drops of triethylamine. The mixture was concentrated to dryness to afford fully deprotected phosphoglycans (28). 31 P (D~O): 8 -1.73, O.BB. Preliminary CD analysis of Phosphoglycans. The above polycondensation product (28) was lyophilized repeatedly and then redissolved in H20 (400 Jll). This solution was taken in a glass cuvette (300 Ill, 1 mm pathlength). It's CD spectra was recorded on a spectropolarimeter (JASCO, J-710) between 175-250 nm at 25°C. For reference, the CD spectra of agarose (15% W/V)87 was also recorded under the same conditions as mentioned above.
    15. Triethylammonium 2,3,6-tri-o.acetyl-4-o.(2,3,4-tri-o.acetyl-~-D-galactopyrana syl)-a-D-manno pyranosyl hydrogen phosphonate (26). Compound 6 (30 mg, 0.034 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of acetic acid-water-THF (3:1:1,2.5 ml). The mixture was stirred at 40°C for 9 h, after which the solvent was evaporated off under vacuo at rt. To remove excess of acid, water (1 ml) was added and evaporated off twice to afford 26 in quantitative yield; 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz) 0 1.95-2.09 (m, 21 H), 3.49-3.68 (m, 4H), 3.88 (m, 1 H), 4.14 (m, 1 H), 4.36 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.47 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.95 (dd, J = 3_3 and 7_8 Hz, 1 H), 5.05 (dd, J = 2_1 and 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.21 (dd, J = 2.1 and 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 5.41 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1 H), 5.48 (dd, J = 2.1 and 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.99 ( d, JH,p = 637_0 Hz, 1 H); 13C NMR (CDCI3, 75 MHz) 0 20.48-20.76, 60.10, 62.42, 66.57, 69.36, 69.53, 69.69, 71.20, 73.30, 73.86, 91.59, 92.54, 101_09, 169.13-170.49; 31p (CDCI3): 00.22; ESMS mlz657.3 (M-EhN-Hr.
    16. Synthesis of phosphoglycans by polycondensation
    17. Selective cleavage of phosphoglycans from the resin. This was accomplished by taking the PG loaded resin (3 mg) and Wilkinson's catalyst (1 mg) in argon-purged solvent mixture (300 Ill, toluene-PrOH-H20, 2:1 :0.08 containing 0.01 N HCI) and shaking it for 7 h at rt. The cleavage after first cycle of coupling provided 2,3,6-tri-0-acetyl-4-0-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-~-D-galacto pyranosyl]-a-D-mannopyranosyl-phosphate. This intermediate was subjected to full deprotection to provide ~-D-galactopyranosyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate (25) and compared with authentic sample earlier reported86 by our laboratory; [a]D = +10° (c 0.1, H20); lH NMR (D20, assignments by 2D COSY and TOCSY experiments) 0 3.45 (dd, J = 6.67 and 1.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2'), 3.46 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.60 (m, 1 H, H-5'), 3.53-3.56 (m, 2H, H-2,3'), 3.68 (m, 2H, H-6), 3.76 (t, J = 7.11 and 2.64 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.83 (m, 2H, H-6'), 3.83 (m, 1 H, H-4'), 3.94 (m, 1 H, H-2), 4.38 (d, J = 9.65 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.38 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H, H-1'), 5.27 (dd, J1H-P = 6.8 Hz and J1•2 = 1.9 Hz, 1 H, H-1); 31p NMR 0 -2.07; ESMS, 421.2 [M-1 Ht; HRMS (ESMS): calcd for [M-Hr C12H22014P 421.2720 found 421.2718. Similar procedure was used to cleave phosphotetrasaccharide 22 from resin followed by complete deprotection, which provided compound 23 that was characterized by its comparison with standard prepared by solution method.
    18. opyranosyl phosphate] triethylammonium salt (22). The butenediol-linker functionalized Merrifield resin (19, 50 mg, 0.43 mmol/g, 0.021 mmol) was swollen in anhydrous pyridine (100 Ill) for 15 min, followed by addition of phosphoglycan H-phosphonate donor 6 (26 mg, 0.03 mmol) dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (500 Ill). Now pivaloyl chloride (20 Ill) was added and the resin mixture was shaken for 2 h. Thereafter a 200 III solution of iodine (4 mg) in 95% aqueous pyridine was added and stirring continued for another hour. The resin was then thoroughly washed with CH30H (700 III x 3) and dried over P20S overnight to afford acceptor-functionalized resin (20, 50 mg). ~ The coupled intermediate was characterized by positive ion ESMS after cleaving it off from the resin (2 mg) by treatment with 0.1 N HCI (100 Ill) at 100°C for 1 min. The product that got cleaved under this condition was characterized as 2,3,6-tri-0-acetyl-4-0-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-~-D-galactopyranosyl-a-D­mannopyranose which was identical to compound 5, already synthesized by solution method described earlier; ESMS m/z 731.3 (M+Nat. This compound on full deprotection with 48% aqueous HF-CH3CN (5:95) and CH30H-H20-EhN (5:2:1) provided disaccharide Gal1 ,4~Man (24); lH NMR 8 5.12 (d, J = 1.67 Hz, 1 H, H-1 a), 4.85 (d, 1 H, J = 0.98 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ~), 4.40-4.36 (m, 2H, H-1' and H-4), 3.75 (dd, 1 H, H-2'),3.94-3.92 (m, 2H, H-4' and H-2), 3.89-3.83 (m, 2H, H-6'), 3.81-3.79 (dd, 1H, J= 6 and 2 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.75-3.71 (m, 2H, H-6), 3.63-3.59 (dd, 1 H, H-3'), 3.51-3.46 (m, 2H, H-5, H-5'); ESMS: m/z 341.0 [M-Hr. To a part of the PG loaded resin 20 (15 mg), 48% aqueous HF-CH3CN (5:95,500 Ill) was added at 0 °C and the mixture was stirred on a orbital shaker for 3 h. The resin was then washed with CH30H (500 III x 2) and dried under vacuum to afford acceptor bound resin (21) with free 6' hydroxyl groups. This intermediate was again characterized by ESMS after cleaving it off from a small part of the resin (2 mg) by treatment with 0.1 N HCI (100 Ill) at 100°C for 1 min. The product that got cleaved under this condition was characterized as 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-0-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-~­D-galactopyranosyl)-a-D-mannopyranose. Authenticity of this compound was confirmed by its comparison (TlC, NMR, ESMS) with standard separately prepared via solution synthesis by deprotection (HF-CH3CN) of TBDMS group from compound 5 (Scheme-1). A second cycle of PG coupling was carried out with identical procedure given above to afford phosphotetrasaccharide (22).
    19. and water (150 mL). The organic layer was dried (Na2S04) and concentrated. The crude product was purified by silica column chromatography (20% ethyl acetate in hexane with 1% EhN) to afford 17 (4.2 g, 80%); Rf = 0.3 in 50% ethyl acetate in hexane; 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz): <52.03 (s, 1 H), 3.68 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 4.03 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 5.73-5.75 (m, 2H), 6.82 (tt, J = 1.2 and 9.0 Hz, 4H), 7.25-7.44 (m, 9H); 13C NMR (CDCb, 75 MHz): 55.12, 55.13, 58.75, 59.93, 113.05, 126.68,127.76,127.99,128.95,129.87,130.92, 136.07,144.79,158.37; ESMS m/z 413.39 (M+Nat Preparation of functionalized resin by coupling of linker (19). 4-(4,4'-Dimethoxytrityl)-2-cis-butenol (17, 1 g, 2.56 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous DMF (8 mL). Upon cooling to 0 °C, sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil, 150 mg, 3.75 mmol) was added and the solution was stirred for 1 h. Merrifield's resin (18, 650 mg, chloromethylated polystyrene cross-linked with 1 % divinylbenzene, Fluka-63865) was added along with tetra-butylammonium iodide (95 mg, 0.256 mmol) and shaking was continued for an additional hour at 0 °C after which the reaction mixture was brought to rt and shaken for another 12 h. The capping of unreacted sites on resin was accomplished by addition of CH30H (100 ilL) and sodium hydride (100 mg) and shaking the contents for another 4 h, after which more CH30H (5 mL) was added and the resin was washed sequentially with 1:1 CH30H: DMF (10 mL), THF (10 mL x 3) and CH2CI2 (10 mL x 3). The resin was dried over P20s under vacuum to afford 836 mg of the linker-attached resin (19). To quantify loading8S of linker onto the solid support, a stock solution of 3% TFA in CH2CI2 (10 ml) was prepared which contained effectively 0.167 mg of the protected resin. The resulting orange colour liberated by the release of dimethoxytrityl (DMTr) cation was measured by UV at 503 nm, and the loading of the linker onto the resin was calculated to be 0.43 mmol/g of resin. The deprotection of the entire DMTr-linker functionalized resin was then carried out by treating the resin with 1 % TFA in CH2CI2 (10 mL). Further washing with CH2CI2 (20 mL x 3), 1% EhN in CH2CI2 (10 mL) and CH2CI2 (10 mL) and drying under vacuum afforded 640 mg of deprotected resin ready for coupling with phosphoglycan donors. Solid Phase Synthesis of 2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-~-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4)-2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-a.-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate 6-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldi methylsi lyl)-~-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4 )-1 ,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a.-D-mann
    20. Synthesis of SOlid-phase linker, 4-(4,4'-Dimethoxytrityl)-cis-2-butenol (17). To a solution of cis-butene-1,4-diol (16, 4.7 mL, 5 g, 56.7 mmol) in anhydrous pyridine (100 mL) at 0 °C was added 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl chloride (6.4 g, 18.9 mmol). The reaction mixture was gradually brought to rt over 3 h and stirred for additional 12 h. Ethyl acetate (200 mL) was added and the organic phase was washed with water (150 mL), saturated aqueous NaHC03 (200 mL), saturated aqueous NaCI (200 mL)
    21. Solid phase phosphoglycan synthesis
    22. (250 ~L) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h and quenched with 1 M TEAS solution (pH=7, 1 mL). The clear solution was stirred for 15 min. after which CH2CI2 was added and the organic layer was washed with ice cold water (1 mL x 2), cold 1 M TEAS buffer (1 mL x 2), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated to yield compound 13 (5.1 mg, 86%); ESMS m/z 1'427.9 (M-Et3N-H): 2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-~-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4 )-1 ,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno pyranoside 6-{2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-~-D-galactopyranosyl -(1~4)-2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate 6-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-~­D-galactopyranosyl-(1~4)-2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate] } bistriethylammonium salt (14). Mixture of compounds 13 (5.1 mg, 0.003 mmol) and 6 (5 mg, 0.007 mmol) was dried by evaporation of pyridine (500 ~L x 2). The residue was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (200 ~L) and pivaloyl chloride (2.4 ~L, 0.02 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h and a freshly prepared iodine solution (200 ~L, 4 mg, 0.015 mmol in pyridine-water, 95:5) was added. After 30 min CH2CI2 was added and the solution was washed successively with cold 1 M aqueous Na2S203 solution (2 mL x 2), ice-cold 1 M TEAS buffer (2 mL x 2), dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to afford 14 (4.5 mg, 61%); Rf = 0.11 in 10% CH30H in CH2CI2; ESMS m/z2061.44 (M-2EhN-H), 2062.35 (M-2EhN). ~-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1~4)-a-D-mannopyranoside {6-~-D-galactopyranosyl­(1~4)-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate 6-[ ~-D-galactopyranosyl-(1~4)-a-D­mannopyranosyl phosphate]} bis-triethylammonium salt (15). The global deprotection of fully protected phosphohexasaccharide 14 was carried out by same method as given for preparation of compound 9, and this compound was identical to PG oligomer 12 prepared by upstream extension described earlier.
    23. (19 x OCOCH3), 3.50 (m, 6H, H2-6 Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 3.87-3.94 (m, 3H, H-5, Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 4.14-4.07 (m, 3H, 5-H, Man/Man'/Man"), 4.30-4.35 (m, 3H, 4-H, Man/Man'/Man"), 4.39 (m, 6H, H2-6, Man/Man'/Man"), 4.48 (m, 2H, 3-H, Man'/Man"), 4.52 (m, 1 H, 3-H, Man), 4.94 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 3H, H-1, Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 5.28 (m, 6H, 2-H Man, H-4 Gal/Gal'/Gal", H-3 Gal'/Gal"), 5.29 (m, 1 H, H-3, Gal), 5.43 (m, 2H, H-2 Gal'/Gal"), 5.45 (dd, JHH = 1.9 and JHP = 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-1, Man'/Man"), 5.46 (m, 3H, H-2, Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 6.01 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1 H, 1-H, Man); 31p_NMR: 8 -1.94; ESMS m/z2061.44 (M-2Et3N-H), 2062.35 (M-2Et3N). ~-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4)-a-D-mannopyranoside {S-~-D-galactopyranosyl­(1~4)-a-D-ma nnopyranosyl phosphate S-[ ~-D-galactopyranosyl-(1~4)-a-D­mannopyranosyl phosphate]) bis-triethylammonium salt (12). The global deprotection of fully protected phosphohexasaccharide 11 was carried out by same method as given for preparation of compound 9 earlier; 1 H-NMR (020), due to Oligomeric nature of the molecule (three identical PG repeats), all NMR peaks could not be assigned,: 3.45 (m, 3H, H-2, Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 3.46 (m, 2H, H-5, Man'/Man"), 3.55 (m, 1 H, H-5, Man), 3.56-3.53 (m, 3H, H-3, Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 3.60 (m, 3H, H-5, Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 3.68 (m, 6H, H2-6, Man/Man'/Man"), 3.76 (m, 3H, H-3, Man/Man'/Man"), 3.80 (m, 6H, H2-6, Gal/Gal'/Gal"), 3.83 (m, 3H, H-4, GaVGal'/Gal"), 3.85 (m, 1 H, H-2, Man), 3.94 (m, 2H, H-2, Man'/Man"), 4.32 (m, 1 H, H-4, Man), 4.37 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H, H-1, Gal'/Gal"), 4.35 (d, J= 7.6, 1H, H-1, Gal), 5.09 (d, J= 1.8, 1 H, H-1, Man), 5.36 (dd, JHH = 1.9 and JHP = 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-1, Man'/Man"); 31p_NMR: -1.29; ESMS: m/z 574.12 ([M-2Et3N-2Hf 2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-~-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4 )-1 ,2,3,S-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno pyranoside S-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-S-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-~-D-galactopyrano syl-(1 ~4 )-2,3,S-tri-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl-H-phosphonate] triethylamm onium salt (13). Compound 8 (5 mg, 0.003 mmol) was dissolved in saturated solution of Me2NH in anhydrous CH3CN (2 mL) at -20°C and the solution was stirred for 3 h during which TLC confirmed disappearance of the starting material. Excess of Me2NH was removed und
    24. = 1.9 and JHP = 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-1, Man'/Man"); 31p_NMR: -1.29; ESMS: m/z 574.12 ([M-2Et3N-2Hf 2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-~-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4 )-1 ,2,3,S-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno pyranoside S-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-S-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-~-D-galactopyrano syl-(1 ~4 )-2,3,S-tri-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl-H-phosphonate] triethylamm onium salt (13). Compound 8 (5 mg, 0.003 mmol) was dissolved in saturated solution of Me2NH in anhydrous CH3CN (2 mL) at -20°C and the solution was stirred for 3 h during which TLC confirmed disappearance of the starting material. Excess of Me2NH was removed under reduced pressure below 30°C and the reaction mixture was concentrated to give the anomeric deprotected product in quantitative yield. To a stirred solution of imidazole (6 mg, 0.87 mmol) in anhydrous CH3CN (250 J!L) at 0 °C was added PCI3 (10 J!L, 0.112 mmol) and EhN (30 J!L, 0.215 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 20 min, after which a solution of the above compound in anhydrous CH3CN
    25. Man), 61.37 (C-6, Man'), 62.30 (C-6, Gal'), 65.53 (C-6, d, Jcp = 5.5 Hz, Gal), 69.28 (C-4, Gal), 69.83 (C-4, Gal' and C-3, Man'), 70.84 (C-3, Man and C-2, Man), 71.08 (C-2, d, Jcp = 7.4 Hz, Man'), 72.13 (C-2, Gal' and C-2, Gal), 72.34 (C-5, Man), 73.69 (C-3, Gal', C-3, Gal and C-5, Man'), 74.89 (C-5, d, JcP = 7.5 Hz, Gal), 76.52 (C-5, Gal'), 77.05 (C-4, Man'), 78.14 (C-4, Man), 97.03 (C-1, d, Jcp = 5.5 Hz, Man'), 100.76 (C-1, Man), 104.20 (C-1, Gal'), 104.42 (C-1, Gal); 31p-NMR: -1.29; ESMS m/z 745.38 (M-Et3N-H)"; HRMS (ESMS): calcd for (M-Et3N-H)" C24H42024P 745.1804, found 745.1830. 2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-(3-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4)-1 ,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mann opyranoside 6-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-(3-D-galactopyranosyl-(1~4)-2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl­a-D-mannopyranosylphosphate ) triethylammonium salt (10). A solution of 48% aqueous HF in CH3CN (5:95, 5 ml) was added to compound 8 (20 mg, 0.015 mmol) at 0 DC and stirred at 0 DC for 2 h. The reaction was quenched by the addition of the aqueous NaHC03 solution until effervescence ceased and diluted with CH2CI2 (5 ml). The organic layer was washed with water, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to give compound 10 (15.6 mg, 85%); ESMS m/z 1290.4 (M-EhN-H)" 2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-(3-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4 )-1 ,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno pyranoside 6-{2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-(3-D-galactopyrano syl-(1~4)-2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate 6-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl -(3-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4)-2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate ]) bis-triethylammonium salt (11). Mixture of phosphotetrasaccharide acceptor 10 (15.6 mg, 0.015 mmol) and H-phosphonate donor 6 (20.8 mg, 0.024 mmol) was dried by evaporation of pyridine (500 III x 3). The residue was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (500 Ill), and pivaloyl chloride (10 Ill, 0.083 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 1 h at rt after which a freshly prepared solution of iodine (500 Ill, 16 mg, 0.06 mmol in pyridine-water, 95:5) was added. After 30 min, CH2CI2 was added and the solution was washed successively with cold 1 M aq Na2S203 solution (5 ml x 2) and ice-cold 1 M TEAS buffer (5 ml x 2), dried over Na2S04 and concentrated. The silica column purification using 5% CH30H in CH2CI2 with 1 % EhN afforded compound 11 (16 mg, 63%); R, = 0.11 in 10% CH30H in CH2Cb; lH-NMR (CDCI3); assignments by 1 H_l H COSY and HMQC experiments. Due to repeating nature (three repeats of phosphoglycan) of the molecule, all NMR peaks could not be assigned:1H NMR 0 0.01 (s, 6H, OSiM~CMe3), 0.84 (s, 9H, OSiMe2CMe3), 2.15-1.96
    26. 2.15 (13 x OCOCH3), 3.50 (m, 4H, H2-6 Gal and Gal'), 3.87 (m, 1 H, H-5, Gal'), 3.94 (m, 1H, H-5, Gal), 4.07-4.10 (m, 1H, H-5, Man'), 4.07-4.14 (m, 1H, H-5, Man), 4.35 (m, 1 H, H-4, Man'), 4.39 (m, 4H, 4-H, H2-6, Man and H2-6, Man'), 4.40 (m, 1 H, H-4, Man), 4.48 (m, 1 H, H-3, Man'), 4.52 (m, 1 H, H-3, Man), 4.94 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H, H-1 ,Gal and H-1, Gal'), 5.28 (m, 4H, H-2 Man, H-4 Gal, H-3 Gal' and H-4 Gal'), 5.29 (m, 1 H, H-3, Gal), 5.43 (m, 1 H, H-2 Gal'), 5.45 (dd, JHH= 1.9 and JHP = 7.0 Hz, 1 H, H-1, Man'), 5.46 (m, 1 H, H-2, Gal), 6.01 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1, Man); 13C NMR: 0 -5.75, 17.95 and 25.57 (for TBOMS group), 20.48-20.79 (CH~02 x 13), 60.06 (C-6, Gal'), 60.42 (d, Jcp = 8 Hz, C-6, Gal), 62.22 (C-6, Man), 62.63 (C-6, Man'), 66.55 (d, C-2, Man'), 67.46 (d, C-5, Gal), 68.27 (C-4, Gal), 68.64 (C-4, Gal'), 69.37 (C-3, Man'), 69.66 (C-5, Man), 69.84 (C-3, Man), 70.14 (C-5, Man'), 70.75 (C-2, Gal'), 70.88 (C-2, Gal), 71.20 (C-2, Man), 73.31 (C-3, Gal'), 73.76 (C-3, Gal), 74.24 (C-4, Man'), 77.15 (C-4, Man), 78.95 (C-5, Gal'), 90.41 (d, C-1, Man'), 91.69 (C-1, Gal), 101.08 (C-1, Man), 101.29 (C-1, Gal'), 168-171 (CH3CO x 13); 31p_NMR: 0 -2.90 (dt, JPH 7.5 and 10); ESMS m/z 1405.2 (M-EhN-Hf; HRMS (ESMS): calcd for (M-Et3N-Hf C56H82037PSi 1405.4042, found 1405.4105. J3-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1 ~4)-a-D-mannopyranoside 6-[J3-D-galactopyranosyl-(1~)-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate] triethylammonium salt (9). A solution of 48% aqueous HF in CH3CN (5:95, 1.5 ml) was added to compound 8 (15 mg, 0.01 mmol) at 0 °C. The solution was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. The reaction was quenched by the addition of aqueous NaHC03 solution until effervescence ceased, and diluted with CH2CI2 (5 ml). The organic layer was washed with water, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in anhydrous CH30H (500 Ill) and NaOMe (15 mg) was added, the solution was stirred overnight at rt, deionized with AG-X8 resin (H+), filtered and immediately neutralized with Et3N. After concentration, water (500 III x 3) was evaporated off from the residue to afford tetrasaccharide phosphodiester 9 (7.9 mg, 94%); [a]o = 34° (c 0.15, H20); lH-NMR (020), lH_1H_ COSY assignments: 3.45 (m, 2H, H-2, GaVGal'), 3.46 (m, 1 H, H-5, Man'), 3.55 (m, 1 H, H-5, Man), 3.56-3.53 (m, 2H, H-3, Gal/Gal'), 3.60 (m, 2H, H-5, Gal/Gal'), 3.68 (m, 4H, H2-6, Man/Man'), 3.76 (m, 2H, H-3, Man/Man'), 3.80 (m, 4H, H2-6, Gal/Gal'), 3.83 (m, 2H, H-4, GaVGal'), 3.85 (m, 1 H, H-2, Man), 3.94 (m, 1 H, H-2, Man'), 4.32 (m, 1 H, H-4, Man), 4.37 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H, H-1, Gal'), 4.35 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H, H-1, Gal), 5.09 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1 H, H-1, Man), 5.36 (dd, JHH = 1.9 Hz and JHP = 6.8 Hz, 1 H, H-1, Man'); 13C-NMR, assignment made by 20 lH_13C HETCOR experiment, 61.37 (C-6,
    27. 66.57 (C-4'), 69.36 (C-3), 69.53 (C-5), 69.69 (C-2'), 71.20 (C-2). 73.30 (C-3'), 73.86 (C-5'), 91.59 (C-4), 92.54 (C-1), 101.09 (C-1'), 169.13-170.49 (COMe); 31p NMR: 8= 0.13; ESMS m/z 771.26 (M-Et3N-Hr; HRMS (ESMS): calcd for (M-EbN-Hr C30H48019PSi 771.2297, found 771.2276. 1 ,2,3,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-4-0-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-j3-D-galactopyranosyl)-a-D-manno pyranose (7). A solution of 48% aqueous HF in CH3CN (5:95, 8 ml) was added to compound 4 (100 mg, 0.132 mmol) at 0 °C and the solution was stirred for 2 h. The reaction was quenched with aqueous NaHC03 solution until effervescence ceased, and diluted with CH2CI2. The organic layer was washed thoroughly with water, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to give 7 (72 mg, 85.7%); Rt = 0.3 in 70% ethyl acetate in hexane; [a]o = +4.6° (c 0.3, CHCI3); 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz) 81.97-2.16 (m, 21 H, 7 x OAc), 3.67-3.74 (m, 3H, H-5',6), 4.08-4.14 (m, 3H, H-5,6'), 4.58 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H, H-1'), 5.16 (dd, J = 2.1 and 7.8 Hz, 1H, H-2'), 5.23 (dd, J = 2.1 and 3.6 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.32 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.41 (dd, J = 3.6 and 4.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.01 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H, H-1); 13C NMR (CDCI3, 75 MHz) 8 20.42-20.77 (7 x COMe), 60.74 (C-6'), 62.25 (C-6), 67.56 (C-4'), 68.31 (C-3), 69.35 (C-5), 69.43 (C-2'), 70.77 (C-2), 70.83 (C-3'), 73.98 (C-5'), 74.32 (C-4), 90.45 (C-1), 101.30 (C-1'), 168.32-170.80 (7 x COMe),; ESMS m/z659.28 (M+Nar; HRMS (ESMS): calcd for (M+NH4r C26H40N018 654.2245, found 654.2272. 2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-j3-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-?4)-1 ,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno pyranoside 6-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-j3-D-galactopyranosyl -(1 ~4)-1 ,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate] triethyl ammonium salt (8). Mixture of H-phosphonate donor 6 (32 mg, 0.036 mmol) and acceptor 7 (23 mg, 0.036 mmol) was dried by evaporation of pyridine (500 III x 3). The residue was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (600 Ill) and pivaloyl chloride (15 Ill, 0.123 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at rt and a freshly prepared iodine solution (600 Ill, 18 mg, 0.078 mmol in pyridine-water, 95:5) was added. After 30 min. CH2CI2 (10 ml) was added and the solution was washed successively with cold 1 M aqueous solution of Na2S203 (5 ml x 2) and ice-cold 1 M TEAS buffer (5 ml x 2), dried over Na2S04 and concentrated. Column chromatography on silica gel (3% CH30H in CH2CI2 with 1 % EbN) afforded product 8 (40 mg, 73.8%); Rt= 0.21 in 10% CH30H in CH2CI2; [a]o = -6.1° (c 0.18, CHCI3); 1H_ NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz); assignments confirmed by 1H_1H COSY and HMQC experiments: 1 H NMR 8 0.01 (5, 6H, OSiM9:2CMe3), 0.84 (s, 9H, OSiMe2CMe3). 1.96-
    28. 2,3,6-Tri-O-acetyl-4-0-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-(3-D-galactop yranosyl]-a-D-mannopyranose (5). Compound 4 (100 mg, 0.132 mmol) was dissolved in saturated Me2NH solution in anhydrous CH3CN (20 ml) at -20°C and stirred for 3 h after which TlC confirmed disappearance of the starting material. Excess of Me2NH was removed under reduced pressure below 30°C and the reaction mixture was concentrated to give the desired anomeric deprotected compound 5 in quantitative yield; R, = 0.25 in 70% ethyl acetate in hexane; [a]D = +3.75° (c 0.16, CHCI3); 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz) 80.01 (s, 6H, M~SiCMe3), 0.84 (s, 9H, Me2SiCMSJ), 1.95-2.19 (m, 18H, 6 x OAc), 3.56-3.66 (m, 4H, H-6,6'), 3.91 (m, 1H, H-5), 4.12-4.16 (m, 2H, H-5', OH), 4.40 (d, J= 4.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 4.40 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 1 H, H-1'), 4.99 (dd, J = 3.3 and 7.8 Hz, H-3'), 5.09 (dd, J = 2.1 and 7.8 Hz, 1 H, H-2'), 5.17 (dd, J = 2.1 and 3.6 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.23 (dd, J = 3.6 and 4.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.43 (m, 2H, H-4',1); 13C NMR (CDCI3, 75 MHz) 8 -5.77 (M~SiCMe3), 17.98 , (Me2SiCMe3)" 20.40-21.38 (OAc), 25.58 (Me2SiCMe3), 60.06 (C-6'), 62.62 (C-6), 66.56 (C-4'), 68.78 (C-3), 69.30 (C-5), 69.51 (C-2'), 70.06 (C-2), 71.21 (C-3'), 73.37 (C-5'), 74.15 (C-4), 91.82 (C-1), 101.04 (C-1'), 169.10-170.52 (COMe); ESMS m/z 731.3 (M+Nat. Triethylammonium 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-0-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-(t-butyldimethyl silyl)-(3-D-galactopyranosyl]-a-D-mannopyranosyl hydrogen phosphonate (6). To a stirred solution of imidazole (224 mg, 3.28 mmol) in anhydrous CH3CN (5 ml) at o °C was added PCI3 (160 Ill, 1.8 mmol) and EhN (480 Ill, 3.44 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 20 min, after which a solution of compound 5 dissolved in anhydrous CH3CN (5 ml) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 3 hand quenched with 1 M triethylammonium bicarbonate (TEAS) buffer (pH 7, 2 ml). The clear solution was stirred for 15 min, diluted with CH2CI2 (20 ml), and the organic layer was washed with ice cold water (10 ml x 2) and cold 1 M TEAS solution (10 ml x 2) successively, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to yield phosphoglycan donor 6 (100 mg, 86%); R, = 0.45 in 20% CH30H in CH2CI2; [a]D = -4.5° (c 0.27, CHCb); 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz) 8 0.01 (s, 6H, M~SiCMe3), 0.82 (s, 9H, M~SiCMSJ), 1.95-2.09 (m, 18H, 6 x OAc), 3.49-3.68 (m, 4H, H-6,6'), 3.88 (m, 1 H, H-5), 4.14 (m, 1 H, H-5'),4.36 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.47 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H, H-1'), 4.95 (dd, J = 3.3 and 7.8 Hz, 1H, H-3'), 5.05 (dd, J = 2.1 and 7.8 Hz, 1H, H-2'), 5.21 (dd, J = 2.1 and 3.6 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.41 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-4'), 5.48 (dd, J = 1.8 and 8 Hz, 1 H, H-1), 6.92 (d, JH,p= 637.0 Hz, 1H, H-1); 13C NMR (CDCI3, 75 MHz) 8 -5.80, (M~SiCMe3), 17.98 (Me2SiCMe3), 20.48-20.76 (OAc), 25.57 (Me2SiCMSJ), 60.10 (C-6'), 62.42 (C-6),
    29. chromatography (8% CH30H in CH2CI2) to provide compound 2 (10.8 g, 79.5%); Rf = 0.47 in 15% CH30H in CH2CI2; [a]o = +3.45° (c 0.29, CH30H); 1H NMR (020, 300 MHz) 00.01 (s, 6H, M~SiCMe3), 0.82 (s, 9H, Me2SiCM~), 3.48 (m, 1 H, H-2'), 3.58 (m, 1 H, H-3'), 3.65 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.76 (m, 4H, H-6,6'), 3.82 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4'), 3.92 (m, 1 H, H-5'), 4.38 (m, 1 H, H-3), 4.31 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.46 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H, H-1'), 4.76 (dd, J = 3.6 and 6.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 6.37 (dd, J = 1.1 and 6.2 Hz, 1 H, H-1); 13C NMR (020, 75 MHz) 0 -4.84 (M~SiCMe3), 25.23 (Me2SiCM~), 59.57 (C-6'), 60.89 (C-6), 67.14 (C-4'), 68.45 (C-3), 70.87 (C-5), 72.52 (C-2'), 75.23 (C-2), 76.68 (C-3'), 77.43 (C-5'), 101.73 (C-4), 102.87 (C-1'), 143.88 (C-1); ESMS m/z 445.10 (M+Naf; HRMS (FAB): calcd for (M+Lif C18H3409SiLi 429.2132, found 429.2126. 1,2,3,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-4-0-[2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-0-( t-butyldimethylsilyl)-~-D-gala ctopyranosyl]-a-D-mannopyranose (4). A solution of 2 (5 g, 11.8 mmol) in water (50 mL) was stirred, to which was added a solution of m-CPBA (6.5 g, 36 mmol) in diethyl ether (50 mL) dropwise at -10 °C. The reaction mixture was brought to 0 °C and stirred for 4 h, and aqueous layer was extracted thoroughly with ether, Iyoph iii zed to afford 4-0-[6-0-( t-butyldi methylsilyl)-f3-0-galactopyranosyl]-a-0-mannopyranose (3) . This was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (25 mL) and acetic anhydride (25 mL) was added dropwise at 0 °C. The mixture was gradually brought to rt and stirred for 16 h, and after completion of the reaction it was quenched with ice and diluted with CH2CI2. The organic layer was washed with water, dried (Na2S04) and concentrated to give a syrup which was purified by silica column (20% ethyl acetate in hexane) to provide compound 4 as white amorphous solid (7.5 g, 84%); [a]o = +6.72° (c 0.55, CHCI3); Rf = 0.69 in 70% ethyl acetate in hexane; 1H NMR (COCI3, 300 MHz) 0 0.01 (s, 6H, M~SiCMe3)' 0.84 (s, 9H, Me2SiCMe3), 1.95-2.14 (m, 21 H, 7 x OAc), 3.56-3.64 (m, 4H, H-6,6'), 4.17-5.04 (m, 2H, H-5,5'), 4.53 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H, H-1'), 5.01 (dd, J = 3.3 and 7.8 Hz, 2H, H-4), 5.12 (dd, J = 2.1 and 7.8 Hz, 1H, H-2'), 5.21 (dd, J = 2.1 and 3.6 Hz, 1H, H-2), 5.34 (dd, J = 3.6 and 4.5 Hz, 1H, H-3), 5.41 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H, H-4'), 6.01 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H, H-1); 13C NMR (COCI3, 75 MHz) 8 -5.85 (M~SiCMe3), 17.94 (Me2SiCMe3), 20.40-20.86 (OAc), 25.54 (Me2SiCMe3), 60.01 (C-6'), 62.14 (C-6), 66.45 (C-4'), 68.18 (C-3), 69.25 (C-5), 69.39 (C-2'), 70.58 (C-2), 70.79 (C-3'), 73.38 (C-5'), 73.62 (C-4), 90.25 (C-1), 101.14 (C-1'), 168.08-170.23 (7 x CO); ESMS m/z 773.24 (M+Naf; HRMS (ESMS): calcd for (M+NH4f C32Hs4 N018 Si 768.3110, found 768.3139
    30. Lactal (1). A solution of cyanocobalamin83 (Vitamin B12, 1.5 g, 1.14 mmol) in anhydrous CH30H (400 mL) was thoroughly purged with nitrogen gas for 30 min and zinc powder (87.5 g, 1.338 mol) and ammonium chloride (71 g, 1.33 mol) were added to the solution. The reaction was stirred for another 45 min and hepta-O-acetyl lactosyl bromide (47 g, 67.5 mmol), freshly prepared from lactose [peracetylation using acetic anhydride and sodium acetate, followed by anomeric bromination (48% hydrobromic acid in acetic acid)], was dissolved in CH30H (150 mL) and added. Immediately after addition of the bromide, the dark red solution changed to reddish-yellow and then back to dark red in 5 min. The solution was filtered through celite to remove zinc, the celite pad was washed with CH30H and the filtrate was concentrated to give a white and red solid. This mixture was dissolved in water (500 mL) and extracted with CH2CI2 (300 mL x 3). Organic extracts were combined, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated to provide hexa-O-acetyl lactal (36 g, 87%) as an amorphous solid, mp 113° (lit84 mp 114°); [a)D = -18° (c 1.0, CHCI3) (Iit84, -18°, c 1.0, CHCI3). In the next step of complete deacylation, hexa-O-acetyl lactal (36 g, 64.5 mmol) and freshly dried Na2C03 (45 g, 425 mmol) were suspended in anhydrous CH30H (750 mL) and stirred for 90 min at rt. The suspension was filtered to remove excess of Na2C03 and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give deprotected lactal (1) as an amorphous solid (19.4 g, 98%); R,= 0.2 in 30% CH30H in CH2CI2; mp 191-193°; [a]D = +27° (c 1.6, H20) (lit84, +27°, c 1.6, H20). 6'-0-(f-butyldimethylsilyl)-lactal (2). A solution of lactal (1, 10 g, 32.4 mmol) and BU2SnO (8 g, 32.5 mmol) in anhydrous CH30H (1000 mL) was heated to reflux for 4 h followed by removal of solvent which provided a yellow powder. The dibutyltin complex was dissolved in anhydrous THF (1000 mL) and TBDMSCI (4.9 g, 32.3 mmol) was added, and the solution was stirred for 48 h at rt. After the completion of reaction, the solvent was evaporated to give a residue which was purified by silica
    31. Solution Phase Synthesis of Phosphoglycans
    32. Synthesis of Phosphoglycan Repeats of Lipophosphoglycan
    1. Inbred male BALB/c.T mice (6-8 week, Small Experimental Animal Facility, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India) were immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) with 100 J.lg of respective plasmid DNA or VR1020 vector in 100 J.ll saline (0.9% NaCl) in the anterior tibialis muscle in the hind limbs (each receiving 50 J.ll). Two booster injections of 100 J.lg DNA in saline were given on day 21 and 35. On day 45, mice in each group received i.m. injection of E. coli expressed recombinant protein (20 J.lg/mouse in saline). Mice were anesthetized and bled retro-orbitally on days 0, 45 and 52 for analysis of respective antibody responses.
    2. Plasmid DNA administered in saline
    3. albumin (BSA) in PBS for 2 hat 4°C. For detection of r-bmZPI, a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), MA-813, generated against E. coli expressed r-bmZP1 (Govind et al., 2000), was used as the primary antibody. The cells were incubated with 1 :500 dilution of MA-813 ascites fluid for 2 hat 4°C. Cells were washed 5 times with PBS and incubated for 1 h with a 1:800 dilution of goat anti-mouse Ig-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate (Sigma) at 4°C. After washing with PBS, coverslips with the cells were mounted in glycerol : PBS (9 : 1 ), and examined under an Optiphot fluorescent microscope (Nikon, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo, Japan). For detecting r-dZP3, MAb, MA-451 (1 :500 dilution of ascites fluid), generated against porcine ZP3f3 (a homologue of dZP3) and immunlogically cross-reactive with dZP3 (Santhanam et al., 1998) was used. For detecting r-rG, rabbit polyclonal antibodies (1:1000 dilution) against E. coli expressed r-rG, was used as primary antibody. The polyclonal antibody was provided by Dr. Sangeeta Choudhury, Project Associate, Gamete Antigen Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi. Goat anti-mouse immunoglobulins-FITC conjugate (1 :800) and goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins-FITC conjugate (1 :2000; Pierce) were used for detecting anti-dZP3 and anti-rG antibodies respectively
    4. Initial standardization of transfection conditions was done using VRbmZPl plasmid DNA and COS-I mammalian cell line. In brief, cells were cultured in T-25 tissue culture flasks in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) at 37°C with 5% C02. For subculturing, cells were trypsinized (0.5% trypsin + 0.2% EDTA in DMEM without FCS), centrifuged at 250 X g for 10 min, resuspended in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS and aliquoted into T-25 flasks. For transfection, cells were seeded on coverslips in a 24-well tissue culture plate at a density of 5x 104 cells/well, a day prior to transfection. To standardize in vitro transfection conditions for optimum expression of bmZP1, varying amount of plasmid DNA was mixed with lipofectamine in DMEM devoid ofFCS (final reaction volume 200 f.!l) and incubated at RT for 45 min. The cells on the coverslips were washed twice with plain DMEM devoid of FCS. DNA-Iipofectamine complex was added dropwise to the cells and the plate incubated for 8 h at 3 7°C in humidified atmosphere of 5% C02• Subsequently, 1 ml of DMEM containing 10% FCS was added per well and cells allowed to grow for 48 h. After incubation, cells were processed for visualization of r-bmZPl by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cells were washed twice with phosphate buffer saline (PBS; 50 mM Phosphate and 150 mM NaCI, pH 7.4), fixed in chilled methanol (-20°C) for 3 min and blocked with 3% bovine serum
    5. Detection of the expressed recombinant protein following i11 vitro transfection of mammalian cells with the plasmid DNA.
    6. GAAGATCTCAGACCATCTGGCCAACT-3' as the forward pnmer, and 5'-GAAGATCTT-TAAGTGTGGGAAACAGACTT-3' as the reverse primer as described for bmZPl except that primer annealing was performed at 53°C for 1 min.
    7. The dog ZP3 ( dZP3) eDNA, excluding the SS and the TD, was cloned in prokaryotic expression v~ctor, pQE30 (QIAGEN) as described previously (Santhanam et al., 1998). To clone dZP3 eDNA in mammalian expression vector, VR1020, the pQE30-dZP3 clone was used as a template to PCR amplify dZP3 eDNA (79-1056 nt; 978 bp) using 5'-
    8. PCR amplification of dZP3 eDNA
    1. ultrapureHNO3andtissuesamplesweredissolvedin70%HNO3;microwavedfor5minat90W,180W,270Wand360W,untiltotaldigestionhadoccurredandthendilutedwithMilli-Qgradewater(Millipore,Acton,Massachusetts,U.S.A)
    2. Totalsodium,potassiumandcalciumconcentrationsweredeterminedwithatomicabsorptionspectrophotometry.Tothispurpose,plasmasamplesweredilutedwith1%
    3. Ionconcentrations
    1. Percentage lethality was calculated as:100×((number of non-CyO/ number CyO)×100)
    2. Flies were maintained at 18°C or 25°C as appropriate. Through out this thesis, flies defined as wild-type were yellow white of the genotype: y67c23w118. BEAF32 null lines BEAF32AB-KO/CyOGFP, kindly provided by Craig Hart, University of Illinois (Roy et al., 2007a). Homozygous BEAF32AB-KOlines were obtained by selection against the CyOGFPmarker at the 3rdinstar larvae stage, using a Leica M165 FC with a GFP filter. Lethality of the BEAF32AB-KOallele was assessed against the dppHr27hypersensitive allele (genotype: dppHr27,cn1,bw1/CyO P{dpp-P23}). For this embryos were collected from the following crosses as set up by Catherine Sutcliffe:BEAF32AB-KO/+ ×dppHr27,cn1,bw1/CyO P{dpp-P23}and+/+ ×dppHr27,cn1,bw1/CyO P{dpp-P23}
    3. Fly Stocks and Crosses
    1. For bacterial isolates, a single colony from a nutrient agar slant was inoculated into 50 ml of nutrient broth in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in a incubator shaker till an optical density of 0.6 at 660nm. Now these cultures were used to inoculate 50 ml of the tannase production medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks using 2% v/v inoculum. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in an incubator shaker (Multitron AG-27; Switzerland) at 200 rpm for 72h. The experiments were carried out in triplicates. Samples (2.0 ml for bacteria and same for fungi) were withdrawn at regular intervals of 12h upto 72 h. The samples thus obtained were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm in a refrigerated centrifuge (SIGMA 4K15 Germany) for 10 min at 4°C. The supernatant/s were analyzed for tannase activity
    2. Microorganisms were isolated from the above mentioned sources using direct plating method. Serial dilution of the different soil samples with normal saline was carried out and the different dilutions were spread plated on to potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi and on to nutrient agar (NA) for the isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at either 30 or 37±1°C in a bacteriological incubator so that the different organisms could grow and form visible colonies. The different fungal and bacterial colonies isolated by the procedure mentioned above were purified by subculturing on respective media, and subsequently screened for tannase production. The new isolates, alongwith different cultures obtained from laboratory stock culture collection, were revived on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. These cultures were regularly subcultured and stored at 8±1°C in a BOD incubator. Their purity was periodically checked by microscopic examination.
    1. following the manufacturer’s instructions. For genomic DNA, 1ml culture was used for DNA isolationusing Qiagen or Invitrogen kits. The quality of plasmid/genomic DNApreparations was assessed following electrophoresis on 0.8% agarose gels
    2. 3ml (for high copy number)or 10 ml (for low-copy number) of cells from an overnight culture were pelleted by centrifuging for 5 minutes at 6000rpm forthe plasmid isolation which was carried out with the commercially available kits (Qiagen or Invitrogen)
    3. Isolation of plasmid and chromosomal DNA
    4. To 2 ml of fresh overnight culture of recipient strain, 108 pfu equivalent of phage lysate was added and incubated at 37ºC without shaking for 30 minutes to facilitate phage adsorption. The unadsorbed phage particles were removed by centrifugation at 6000 rpm for 5 minutes and the pellet ofbacterial cells was resuspended in 5 ml of LB broth containing 20 mM sodium citrate to prevent further phage adsorption. This was incubated for 25-60 minutes at desired temperaturewithout shaking to allow the phenotypic expression of the antibiotic resistance gene. The mixture was then centrifuged and the pellet was resuspended in 300 μl of 0.1M citrate buffer. 100 μl aliquots were spreadon appropriate antibiotic containing plates supplemented with 2.5 mM sodium citrate. A control tube without addition of P1 lysate was also processed in the same way. In the case of selection of nutritional requirement, the infection mixture was centrifuged, resuspended in 300 μl of 0.1M citrate buffer and plated without phenotypic expression
    5. Phage P1 transduction