31 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. was subsequently used as a probe model to carry out molecular replacement for one of the Fab-peptide complex; remainmg three Fab-peptide complexes were solved by using Ppy-LH as search model. The structure of antigen bound 36-65 Fab (2A61) was used for molecular replacement of two Fab-peptide complexes of the same antibody. AMoRe (Navaza, 1994) and Phaser packages from CCP4 suite (Elizabeth Potterton, 2003) were used for structure determination of antigen free BBE6.12H3 Fab and its complexes with peptide, respectively. The solution for 36-65 complexes was determined by using MOLREP from CCP4 suite. Both for MOLREP and AMoRe, calculations for rotation/translation functions were carried out using structure factors from 8 to 4 A resolutions. The transformation matrices obtained from AMoRe for antigen free Fab was utilized to orient the models in the corresponding unit cell. However, both Phaser and MOLREP have a module which automatically does orientation. The packing function of Phaser also checks for possible clashes or voids between the symmetry related molecules. All the solutions were unambiguous. For outputs of AMoRe and MOLREP the crystal packing was examined using Coot (Emsley P, 2004) to ascertain the absence of steric clashes or large voids between symmetry related molecules. Calculations of the Matthews coefficient (Kantardjieff and Rupp, 2003) indicated presence of two molecules for antigen free Fab and a single Fab molecule for all Fab-peptide complexes within the asymmetric unit.
    2. wavelength component in three dimensions inversely proportional to their values of h, k and /. The image of the object can be reconstructed by recombining the individual sine waves as occur in the objective lens of the microscope. Since it is not possible to focus the X-rays, only the intensities could be recorded with the loss of phases, well known as phase problem of crystallography. Macromolecular crystal structures are usually solved using one of the three techniques; multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR), multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) or molecular replacement (MR). Of the three, MR is generally used in cases where a structural homolog is available. Since the structure of a number of antibodies is already known, MR is the method of choice for structure determination of antibody Fab. The molecular replacement method, involves orienting and positioning a model molecule in the experimental unit cell through rotations and translations. The rotation function developed by Rossman and Blow ( 1962), involves rotation of the Patterson function of one group or molecule with respect to the other in all possible ways and the ultimate superimposition of the two Patterson functions. The translation function deals with positioning the oriented molecule in the unit cell of the unknown structure. It utilizes the cross vectors between various symmetrically related molecules for positioning the probe in the target unit cell. The translation function is carried out by moving the oriented model in small increments along all three directions and calculating the correlation between observed and calculated intensities. From the solutions obtained, the one with the highest correlation and lowest R-factor was chosen for molecular replacement. The structure of the Fab of putative anti-NP germ line mAb Nl G9 was used for molecular replacement. The refined model of the native unliganded germline Fab
    3. The goal of diffraction analysis is reconstruction of the detailed structure of the asymmetric unit from a diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern breaks down the structure into discrete sine waves. Any shape can be presented in three dimensions as the sum of sine waves of varying amplitudes and phases. The individual reflections of a diffraction pattern represent such waves, which have
    4. Structure determination using molecular replacement
    1. mixed by inverting tubes. Following an incubation on ice for 5 min, 150 J.tl of ice cold potassium acetate solution (prepared by mixing 60 ml of 5 M potassium acetate, II.5 ml of glacial acetic acid and 28.5 ml of water) was added. The mixture was incubated on ice for 5 min and centrifuged at I2,000 g for 5 min at 4°C. The supernatant was decanted into a fresh tube and extracted once with an equal volume of phenol equilibrated with 10 mM Tris, pH 8 and 1 mM EDT A (TE) followed by extraction with chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24: 1 ). DNA was precipitated by adding 2 volumes of chilled ethanol, contents mixed and tube incubated on ice for 30 min. The pellet collected after centrifugation at 12,000 g for 15 min was washed once with 70% alcohol, dried and resuspended in 50 J!l TE. To remove RNA contamination contents of the tube were treated with 20 J.tg/ml RNAase for I5 min at RT. DNA was checked and analyzed after restriction digestion by agarose gel electrophoresis.
    2. Colonies obtained after transformation were inoculated in 5 ml LB and grown 0/N in the presence of 100 Jlg/ml ampicillin (LB Amp). Next morning 1.5 ml of the culture was centrifuged for I min at I 0,000 rpm in a microfuge. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was resuspended in 100 Jll of chilled GTE (50 mM Glucose, 25 mM Tris HCI and 10 mM EDT A). After an incubation at room temperature (RT) for 5 min, 200 Jll of freshly prepared alkaline SDS (0.2 N NaOH, 1% SDS) was added and the contents
    3. Small Scale Plasmid DNA Isolation
    1. lectrophoresed on 0.7 % -1.2 % agarose gels in TAE or TBE buffer. Choice of the percentage of agarose and the electrophoresis buffer system was made following the guidelines of Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ). In general, upto 1 kb fragments were resolved on 1.2 % agarose gels using TBE buffer. For most other purposes, TAE buffer was used. Agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . The run was stopped when the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 1 em -1.5 em from the edge of ' the gel, except when the sample had fragments smaller than 500 bp, in which case the elctrophoresis was terminated at an earlier stage. The gel was immersed in water containing 0.5 ug I ml ethidium bromide, for 30 minutes, to stain the DNA. When detecting very low amounts of DNA, the staining was done for 60 minutes followed by destaining in 1 mM Mgso4 for one hour at room temperature. The DNA bands were visualised on a short wavelength UV transilluminator ( Fotodyne, Inc., USA and photographed with a Polaroid MP-4 camera using Polaroid type 667 film.
    2. DNA digested with restriction enzymes was
    3. For rapid electrophoretic analysis of plasmid DNA prepared by miniprep protocol, or to monitor the progress of digestion during various cloning procedures, the DNA was resolved on short agarose gels, taking less than one hour for the run. The electrophoresis was carried out in TAE buffer using 8 em long gels with a comb of teeth size 0.4 x 0.2 em. The width of the gel was variable, depending on the number of samples to be analysed. Gels were run at 50 100 volts, till the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 0.5 em of the edge of the gel.
    4. Mini gel electrophoresis
    5. Electrophoresis of DNA
    1. The membranes were suspended (1.4 x 108 cell equivalent) in 250 III of incorporation buffer (50 mM HEPES, pH = 7.4, 25 mM KCI, 5 mM MgCb, 5 mM MnCI2, 0.1 mM TlCK, 1 Ilg/ml leupeptin, 1 mM ATP, 0.5 mM dithiothreitol and 0.4 Ilg/ml tunicamycin). Each assay tube was prepared by adding 12.5 III of 1 % Chaps, 2.8 III of 200 IlM GOP-Man, 10 III of GOP-[3H]-Man (1IlCi) and 25 nmol of synthetic substrate (49). The contents were lyophilized and 250 III of membrane suspension (1 .4 x 108 cell equivalent in incorporation buffer) were added to each tube. The tubes were incubated at 28°C for 20 minutes, cooled to 0 °C and the membranes were pelleted at 4 °C for 10 minutes in a microcentrifuge. The eH] mannosylated products, that were recovered in the supernatant, were mixed with 0.5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate and applied to a C18 Sep-pak cartridge that had been washed with 5 ml 80% propan-1-01 and 5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate. The cartridge was washed with 1.5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate and then the eluate was reapplied to the same cartridge. The cartridge was subsequently washed with 5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate, after which the bound material was eluted with 5 ml of 60% propan-1-01. The final eluate was concentrated and redissolved in 100 III of 60% propan-1-01. One tenth of this volume was taken for scintillation counting. The above assay was then carried out with a range of concentrations of OMJ to assess it's effect on the activity of eMPT enzyme parse.
    2. eMPT inhibition assay
    3. mixture). These samples were lyophilized and 125 III of the reaction mixture was added to each tube. The tubes were then incubated at 25°C for 1 h and the biosynthetic LPG was extracted as described above. 10 III of the solvent E extract was taken for scintillation counting.
    4. 1. Mild acid hydrolysis: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and then suspended in 0.02 N HGI (200 Ill). The mixture was then placed in a 100 °G water bath for 5 minutes. After hydrolysis, the sample was again dried under nitrogen and codried thrice with toluene (0.5 ml). The residue was suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. 2. Nitrous acid deamination: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and then suspended in 0.2 ml of 0.125 M sodium acetate (pH = 4.0) and 0.25 M sodium nitrite. The mixture was incubated at 25 °G for 40 h. The sample was dried under nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. 3. PI-PLC treatment: 0.6 ml of the pooled solvent E soluble fractions was dried with a stream of nitrogen and suspended in 0.4 ml of PI-PlG buffer (0.1 M Tris chloride, pH = 7.4 with 0.1 % deoxycholate) and 0.2 ml of PI-PlG concentrate (B.subtifis culture supernatant) was added. The mixture was then incubated at 37 °G for 16 h. The sample was dried under nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 ml of 0.1 M NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, loaded onto phenyl sepharose column and elution done in the same manner as described before. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity. The effect of deoxymannojirimycin (Sigma, Gat. no. 0-9160) on the cell free biosynthesis was carried out. OMJ (5 mg) was dissolved in 1 ml of MQ water and 2.5, 5, 25 and 50 III were transferred to eppendorf tubes separately (which corresponded to 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 IlM concentrations of OMJ in 125 III ofthe reaction
    5. Characterization of biosynthetic LPG
    6. NaGI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, 1.2 ml of 0.1 M glacial acetic acid, 0.6 ml of water and 3.6 ml of solvent E. Fractions of 0.6 ml each were collected and assayed for radioactivity.
    7. Parasites (6 X 109) were harvested, pelleted at 3000 g for 10 min, washed with PBS, repelleted and suspended in 10 mL of HEPES buffer (100 mM HEPES-NaOH, pH = 7.4, 50 mM KCI, 10 mM MnCI2, 10 mM MgCI2, 0.1 mM TLCK, 1 Jlg/mL leupeptin) containing 10% glycerol. The cells were disrupted in a Parr nitrogen cavitation bomb (1500 psi, 25 min, 4°C, 3 cycles). The debris was removed by centrifugation at 3000 g for 5 min and the supernatant was centrifuged at 100,000 g for 1 h at 4°C. The resulting membrane pellet was resuspended in 10 mL of HEPES buffer without glycerol and centrifuged again at 100,000 g for 1 h at 4°C. The membranes were finally suspended in 1 mL (13 mg/mL) of HEPES buffer without glycerol. The incubation mixture per reaction contained membrane protein (2 mg) in 125 JlL of 50 mM HEPES-NaOH buffer, pH = 7.2 containing supplements (25 mM KCI, 5 mM MgCI2, 5 mM MnCI2, 0.1 mM TLCK, 1 JlglmL leupeptin, 0.8 mM ATP, 0.4 mM On) with 2 JlM UOP-[3H]-galactose (2 JlCi) and 10 JlM GOP-mannose. The mixture was incubated at 25°C for 1 h, terminated by the addition of CHCI~CH30H (3:2) to give a final ratio of CHCI~CH30H/H20 (3:2:1) and sonicated. The layers were then allowed to separate out after which the lower layer was removed with the aid of a micropipette. The tube containing the upper and intermediate layer was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 4°C, 5 minutes). The supernatant was discarded and the resultant pellet (membranes) was suspended in 1 mL of CHCI~CH30H/H20 (1:1 :0.3). The solution was again centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 4°C, 5 minutes) and the pellet was extracted with 1 mL of solvent E (H20/ethanol/diethylether/pyridine/NH40H 15:15:5:1 :0.017) thrice. The solvent E extracts were pooled and dried under a stream of nitrogen, suspended in 0.6 mL of 0.1 M NaCI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid and chromatographed over a 1 mL column of phenyl sepharose. Phenyl Sepharose Column of Biosynthetic LPG. The solvent E extract suspended in 0.6 mL of 0.1 M NaCI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid was applied to a column (0.5 x 2 cm) of phenyl sepharose (Pharmacia BioteCh), preequilibrated with 0.1 M NaCI in 0.1 M glacial acetic acid. The column was then washed sequentially with 3 mL of 0.1 M
    8. Cell-free Biosynthesis42 of LPG using Leishmania membranes
    1. incubations were carried out for I h at RT and each incubation was followed by three washings with PBS containing 0.1% Tween-20 (PBST). Post-blocking, the membranes were incubated with 1:1000 dilution ofMA-813 ascites (for detection ofr-bmZP1), MA-451 ascites (for detection of r-dZP3) or rabbit polyclonal anti-r-rG antibodies (for detection of r-rG), followed by an incubation with 1:5000 dilution of goat anti-mouse or goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) (Pierce) respectively. The blots were developed with 0.6% (w/v) 4-chloro-1-naphthol in 50 mM PBS containing 25% methanol and 0.06% H202• The reaction was stopped by extensive washing with double distilled water
    2. The cells (2 - 4 x 1 06) transfected with plasmid DNA were resuspended in minimum volume of 2X sample buffer (0.0625 M Tris, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 10% glycerol, 5% P-mercaptoethanol, and 0.001% bromophenol blue). The samples were boiled for 10 min and resolved on a 0.1% SDS-1 0% PAGE (Laemmli, 1970). The expression of recombinant proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. The proteins were electrophoretically transferred to 0.45 J.lm nitrocellulose membrane 0/N at a constant current of 30 rnA (milliampere) in Tris-Giycine buffer (25 mM of Tris-HCl and 200 mM glycine) containing 20% methanol (Towbin et al., 1979). Post-transfer, the membranes were washed once with PBS and non-specific sites were blocked with 3% BSA in PBS for 90 min at RT. All the subsequent
    3. Analysis of expressed recombinant protein by immunoblot
    4. The PCR products obtained by amplification were resolved on a 0.8% low melting point (LMP) agarose gel using IX TAE buffer (40 mM Tris, 20 mM acetic acid and 1 mM EDT A) and purified from the gel. The purified PCR products were first blunt-ended at 72°C for 30 min using 0.5 units (U) of cloned Pfu polymerase, 1 OmM dNTPs, 1 OX polishing buffer (Stratagene). These PCR products were ligated separately to pPCR-Script Amp SK ( +) cloning vector, using vector to insert ratio of 1 :20 in a 10 Jll reaction volume for 3 h at room temperature (RT). The reaction mixture contained 10 ng of pPCR-Script Amp SK(+) cloning vector, 4 U ofT4 DNA ligase, 0.5 Jll of 10 mM rATP, 1 Jll of lOX reaction buffer, 5 U of S1f I restriction enzyme. The buffers and enzymes used were supplied along with the PCR-Script™ Amp cloning kit (Stratagene). For dZP3-rG fusion, the PCR amplified product was ligated with pGEM-T Easy vector (Promega) without blunting. The reaction mixture contained 50 ng pGEM-T Easy vector, 130 ng of fusion PCR product, 3 U ofT4 DNA ligase and 5 fll of2X Rapid Ligation buffer (30 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.8, 10 mM MgC}z, 10 mM DTT, 2 mM ATP and 10% polyethylene glycol). The reaction was carried out at 16°C for 16 h.
    5. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ligation of PCR amplified fragments in pPCR-Script Amp SK (+)cloning vector
    1. For bacterial isolates, a single colony from a nutrient agar slant was inoculated into 50 ml of nutrient broth in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in a incubator shaker till an optical density of 0.6 at 660nm. Now these cultures were used to inoculate 50 ml of the tannase production medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks using 2% v/v inoculum. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in an incubator shaker (Multitron AG-27; Switzerland) at 200 rpm for 72h. The experiments were carried out in triplicates. Samples (2.0 ml for bacteria and same for fungi) were withdrawn at regular intervals of 12h upto 72 h. The samples thus obtained were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm in a refrigerated centrifuge (SIGMA 4K15 Germany) for 10 min at 4°C. The supernatant/s were analyzed for tannase activity
    2. For fungal cultures, spores were harvested from 72 hour old cultures grown on PDA/Tannic acid agar slants by adding 10 ml of sterilized normal saline and a few drops of sterilized Tween-80 followed by vortexing. The spore suspension was filtered through sterile cotton filter to ensure that mycelial filaments are removed. The spores were counted using a haemocytometer (Neubaeur). Approximately, 5X106 spores were inoculated in 50 ml of tannase production medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. These flasks were then incubated at 30±1 and 37±1°C in an incubator shaker (model G25KC, New Brunswick Scientific, NJ, USA) at 200 rpm
    3. Quantitative assay
    1. or absence of a metabolite or a particular temperature. An EOP of ≤0.01 suggests lethality of the strain on the test medium. For strains carrying IPTG-dependent plasmids, EOP was determined by growing the strains overnight in medium containing IPTG and appropriate antibiotic,and spottingserial dilutions (100or 10–1to 10–6) on +IPTG (permissive) and –IPTG (test) plates to observe growth. Theviability is scored by takingratio of the colony forming units per ml (cfu/ml = No. of colonies × dilution factor × 1000/volume of culture spotted (in μl) obtained on the –IPTG plate to that on the +IPTG plate and determinesthe EOP. Likewise, strains carrying Ts plasmids were cultured overnight at 30°C with the appropriate antibioticand the serial dilutions of this culture were spottedat two temperatures 30°C (permissive) and 42°C (non-permissive or test). The ratio of cfu/mlobtained on the test temperature to that on the permissive temperature determined the efficiency of plating at the test temperature
    2. Efficiency of plating (EOP) is a measure of the ratio of number of colonies (obtained from a given volume of a suitable culture dilution) on a test medium to those on a control or permissive medium, and is a measure of cell viability on the former. It is a very sensitive test and is often used for determining the viability of a strain in the presence
    3. Efficiency of plating (EOP)