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  1. May 2019
    1. aStrain DH5α, MC4100 and MG1655 was from our laboratory stock collection. Strains described earlier include GJ3107, GJ3110, GJ3161, GJ3168, GJ3171 (Harinarayanan and Gowrishankar, 2003), and RS353 and RS445 (Chalissery et al., 2007). Strain GJ5147 is an Ilv+ derivative of GJ3073 (Chalissery et al., 2007). Strains GJ6504, GJ6509, GJ6511, GJ6516, GJ6520 and GJ6524 were constructed by S. Aisha (unpublished). Strains GJ5108, GJ5146, GJ5153 were constructed by K. Anupama (unpublished). b Genotype designations are as described in Berlyn (1998). cK7906 strain is described in Zheng and Friedman (1994). d MDS42 strain is as described in Posfai et al. (2006)
    2. Table 2.1 : List of E. coli K-12 strains
    1. LB agarLB medium 1000 mlBacto-agar 15 gmZ broth (for P1 transduction)LB medium100 mlCaCl2(0.5 M) 0.5 mlZ agar (for P1 transduction)Z broth 100 mlBacto-agar0.75 gm
    2. Amino acids when required, were added to a final concentration of 40 μg/ml. Whengrowth on other carbon sources was to be tested, glucose was substituted withappropriate sugar at 0.2%.Glucose-minimal A medium, pH 7.4This medium was same as Glucose-minimal A medium described above except for the difference in K2HPO4and KH2PO4which were as mentioned below:K2HPO414.0 gmKH2PO42.7 gmGlucose-minimal A medium, pH 5.8This medium was same as Glucose-minimal A medium described above except for the difference in K2HPO4andKH2PO4which wereas mentioned below:K2HPO41.5 gmKH2PO412.4 gmGlucose /Glycerol-minimal A 19 (18 or 17) amino acidmediumThis medium is essentially the same as glucose/glycerol-minimal A medium described above except that all 19 or 18 or 17 otherthan either Lys or Lys and Arg or Lys and Arg and His amino acids were added after autoclaving at a final concentration of 40μg/ml from autoclaved 4 mg/ml stock solutions.Minimal A agarIt contains 1.5% bacto-agar (Difco) in minimal A medium. The plates were pouredafter mixing double strength minimal A with 3% agarthat had been autoclaved separately.LB mediumTryptone 10.0 gmYeast Extract5.0 gmNaCl 10.0 gmWaterto1000 mlpH adjusted to 7.0 to 7.2 with 1 N NaOH
    3. All media and buffers were sterilised by autoclaving at 121ºC for 15 mins. Mediaand buffers used in this study are given below:Glucose /Glycerol-minimal A mediumK2HPO410.5 gmKH2PO44.5 gm(NH4)2SO41.0 gmSodium citrate, 2H200.5 gmWater to 1000mlAfter autoclaving the following solutions were addedMgSO4(1M) 1 mlGlucose (20%) 10 mlOr Glycerol (80%)5 mlVitamin B1 (1%) 0.1 ml
    1. 10mM EDTA0.1% SDS 1 M ureaToluidine blue staining solution:0.05% Toluidine blue20% Methanol2% GlycerolSolution was prepared in H2O.Destaining solution for polyphosphate gels:20% Methanol2% GlycerolSolution was prepared in H2O.Spheroplast buffer:50 mM Potassium phosphate (pH 7.5)0.6M Sorbitol0.2 X YPD mediumPS(PIPES-Sorbitol)buffer:10 mM PIPES-KOH (pH 6.8)200mM Sorbitol1 X protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche Cat # 04693159001)**To be added fresh before use
    2. Citric-Phosphate buffer:0.5 M citric acid0.5 M dibasic sodium phosphatepH was adjusted to 5.0 with phosphoric acid and filter-sterilized.MES/TEA buffer:1 mM MES(2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid)pH was adjusted to pH 5.0 with TEA(triethanolamine).Plasma membrane suspension buffer:50 mM Tris-HCl(pH 7.5)0.1mM EDTA0.1 mM Dithiothreitol 20% GlycerolPolyphosphate extraction buffer:50 mM HEPES (pH 7.2)
    3. Genomic DNAisolation buffersBuffer A:50 mM Tris-HCl10mM EDTA150 mM NaCl 1% Triton-X 1% SDSBuffer B:50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA1.1 M Sorbitol50 mM β-mercaptoethanol(To be added just before use
    4. 15% Acetic acidTris-Borate Saline(TBS):25 mM Tris150 mM NaClpH was adjusted to 7.4withHCl.This was prepared as 10 X stock solution and used at 1 X concentration.Blocking and wash buffers(PBS-T and TBS-T):5% Fat-free milk 0.1% Tween-20 Volume was made to 100 ml either with 1 X PBS(PBS-T)or 1 X TBS(TBS-T)
    5. 0.02% Bromophenol blue 2% DTT This was prepared as a 4 X stock solution and used at a 1 X concentration.SDS-PAGE running buffer:0.25 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0) 1.92 M Glycine 1% SDS This was preparedas a 10 X stock solution and used at a 1 X concentration.Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) staining solution:50% Methanol10% Acetic acid0.1% Coomassie brilliant blue-R250Western blotTransfer buffer:0.25 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0) 1.92 M Glycine 1% SDS Thiswas preparedas a 10 X stock solution and used ata 1 X concentration.1X Transfer buffer (1litre):200 ml of methanol 100 ml of 10 X transfer buffer 700ml of waterPonceau 3S staining solution:0.25% Ponceau 3S40% Methanol
    6. SDS-PAGE30% Acrylamidesolution29 g Acrylamide1 g Bis-acrylamideDissolved in 100 ml H2O.10% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS):10 g SDS in 100 mlH2OResolving gel mix (12%) (15 ml): 4.89 ml H2O6 ml 30% acrylamide:bisacrylamide (29:1) mix3.8 ml 1.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.8) 150 μl 10% SDS 150 μl 10% APS 10 μl TEMEDStacking gel mix (3 ml):1.689 ml H2O500 μl 30% acrylamide:bisacrylamide (29:1) mix380 μl 1 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8) 30 μl 10% SDS 30 μl 10% APS 10 μl TEMEDSDS loading buffer:130 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0) 20% (v/v)Glycerol 4.6% (w/v) SDS
    7. Whole cell lysis buffer(Homogenizing buffer):50 mM Tris-HCl(pH 7.5)2 mM EDTA10 mM sodium fluoride*1 mM sodium orthovanadate*1 X protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche Cat # 04693159001)**To be added fresh before use
    8. Buffer C:100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA10% SDSRNA isolation bufferAE buffer: 3 M Sodium acetate0.5 M EDTA(pH 8.0)Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl Alcohol (25:24:1)solution:25 volume of Phenol24 volume of Chloroform1 volume of Isoamyl alcholDNA sampleloading buffer:0.25% Bromophenol blue0.25% Xylene cyanol15% Ficoll
    9. 15 mM CaCl2.2H2O 250 mM KCl 55 mM MnCl2.4H2O pH was adjusted to 6.7 with 1 N KOH. MnCl2needsto beaddedseparately,drop by drop with stirring, tothe buffer. PIPES goes into solutionwhenpH is greater than 6.7. The solution, after pH adjustment to 6.7 was filter-sterilized and stored at -20ºC.Reagents for yeast transformation:1 M Lithium acetate (LiOAc)50% Polyethylene glycol10 mg/ml Carrier DNADimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
    10. INOUE transformation buffer:For bacterial DH5α ultra-competent cells preparation10 mM PIPES (free acid)
    11. 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1 mM EDTA Tris-Acetic acid EDTA (TAE) buffer:40 mM Tris base 0.5 M EDTApH was adjusted to 8.5 with glacial acetic acid.This was prepared as a 50 X stock solution and used at a 1 X concentration. Tris-Borate EDTA (TBE) buffer:90 mM Tris-borate 2 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) pH was adjusted to 8.3withHCl.This was prepared as a 10 X stock solution and used at a 1 X concentration.Both TAE and TBE were used asstandard gel electrophoresis buffers.HEPES buffer:This was used to prepare YNB medium of different pH.1M HEPESpH was adjusted to 7.5withNaOH.Bufferwas filter-sterilized and stored in an amber-coloured bottle. Citrate buffer(0.1M, pH 5.5):4.7 volume of 0.1 M Citric acid 15.4 volume of 0.1 M Sodium citrate
    12. Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS):137 mM NaCl 2.7 mM KCl10 mM Na2HPO42 mM KH2PO4pH was adjusted to 7.3.This was prepared as a 10 X stock solution andused at a 1 X concentration.Tris-HCl buffer:0.5 M TrizmaBase pH was adjusted to7.6 using concentrated HCl.This was prepared as a 10 X stock solution andused at a 1 X concentration.Tris-EDTA (TE)buffer:
    1. Spheroplast resuspension buffer0.1M KCl15 mM HEPES (pH 7.5)3 mM Ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid(EGTA)10% GlycerolPhosphatidylinositol sonication buffer10 mM HEPES (pH 7.5)1 mM EGTA PI3-kinase reaction buffer40 mM HEPES (pH 7.5)20 mM MgCl280 μM ATP5 μCi γ-P32ATPDeveloping solution for thin layer chromatography(120.2 ml)Chloroform –60 mlMethanol –47 mlAmmonia –4.4 mlWater –8.8 ml
    2. Table 2.4: List of the oligonucleotides used to confirm deletion of C. glabrataORFs
    3. Table 2.3: List of the oligonucleotides used in the study
    4. Table2.2: List of the antibodies used in the study
    5. Table 2.1: List of strains and plasmidsused in the study
    6. methanol, acetic acid, potassium dihydrogen orthrophosphate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen orthrophosphate, acetone and citric acid were purchased from Qualigen chemicals. Fluconazole was procured from Ranbaxy.Lysotracker-Red DND 99 and FM 4-64 were obtained from Molecular Probes. Hybond-N and Hybond-P membranes for nucleic acid and protein transfer, respectively, were purchased from Amersham Biosciences. SYBR-green kit for real-time PCR was procured from Eurogentech. Superscipt SS-III RT kit and Pfu polymerase were obtained from Invitrogen. Different restriction enzymes used for cloning and knock-out generation were purchased from New England Biolabs (NEB). High fidelity DNA Pfx polymerase waspurchased fromFinnzymes. Plasmid DNA purification, PCR purification, gel extraction and reaction clean up kits were procured from Qiagen.Medium components for C. glabrataand bacterial culture viz.,yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, cassamino acid hydrolysate, yeast nitrogen base, yeast nitrogen base without ammonium sulphate, yeast nitrogen base without ammonium sulphate and amino acids and yeast carbon basewere purchased from BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company, USA). Animal cell culture media RPMI-1640, DMEM and α-MEM were procured from Hyclone. Fetal bovine serum, glutamine and antibiotics for cell culture medium were obtained from Gibco-Invitrogen
    7. Agarose, phenol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), sodium acetate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, trizma base, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), formamide, calcium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid(EDTA), glycerol, polyethylene glycol, ficoll, diphenyleneiodinium (DPI), methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), camptothecin, hydroxyurea, ammonium persulphate, TEMED, acrylamide, bis-acrylamide, coomassie brilliant blue (CBB), chloroform, formaldehyde, glycine, lithium chloride, lithium acetate, menadione, isopropanol, phorbol myrsityl acetate (PMA), nuclease free water, wortmannin, bafilomycin-A, diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), orthrophenylenediamine (OPD), tween-20, acid washed glass beads, trypan blue, Taq DNA Polymease, trisodium citrate dihydrate and uracil were purchased from Sigma Chemicals. β-mercaptoethanol was obtained from GE Biosciences.Protease inhibitor tablets were procured from Roche. Dextrose, sucrose, agar, ammonium sulphate, potassium chloride, caffeine, magnesium chloride and sorbitol were obtained from Himedia.Hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid,
    1. Extraction buffer
    2. MTT reagent
    3. 6XEMSA sample loading dye
    4. 5X EMSA buffer
    5. Native EMSA PAGE
    6. 10XBinding buffer
    7. Inoue buffer
    8. 6X DNA loading dye
    9. Agarose gel
    10. TAE
    11. Nuclear lysis buffer (without protease inhibitors
    12. Cytoplasmic extraction buffer (without protease inhibitors)
    13. Blocking buffer: 2% BSA
    14. Permeabilisation buffer: 0.2% Triton X100
    15. 4% Formaldehyde fixative
    16. Stripping buffer
    17. Blocking buffer
    18. TBS-T
    19. Transfer buffer
    20. (f) Running buffer
    21. (e) Stacking polyacrylamide gel
    22. (d) Resolvingpolyacrylamide gel
    23. (c) 6X Protein loading buffer (Lammeli buffer)
    24. (b) Celllysis buffer B(For IB)
    25. Cell lysis bufferA(For IP)
    26. Table 2.1: Commonly used buffers and solutionsI. General buffers(a)Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)
    27. (b) Tris Buffered Saline (TBS)
    28. For DNA isolation and purification, various kitssuch as Miniand midi-prep plasmid isolation, Gel extraction, PCR purification,etc., wereprocured fromQiagen(Hilden, Germany) or HiMedia(India). For RNA extraction, TRIzol wasobtained from Gibco BRL(Grand Island, NY). cDNA was made from RNA byeither Reverse transcriptase (SuperScript III, Invitrogen) or One step Access RT-PCR kit (Promega, Madison, WI). Reagents for PCR such as PCR 10X buffer, dNTPs, MgCl2, Taqpolymerase or AccuTaq were obtained from Fermentas or Sigma Aldrich. Recombination enzymes such as Restriction Endonucleases and DNA ligaseused for recombinant DNA experiments (Bam-H1, Hind-III, Xho-I, Eco-RI, Not-I, and Sal-I) were obtained from New England Biolabs(Ipswich, MA, USA). Oligonucleotidesusedfor various Gel shift assays viz.AP-1, NF-κB, p53 and Sp-1 were commercially synthesizedfrom XCelris(Ahmedabad, India).For protein extraction, protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, leupeptin, PMSF, NaF, NaVO4,etc. were obtained from Sigma Aldrich.Bradford reagent for estimation of protein concentration wasobtained from Bio-Rad(Rockford Illinois, USA).ForImmunoblotting, PVDF membrane, X-ray films andchemi-luminiscentdetection reagent (ECL prime) were obtained from GE Healthcare(Little Chalfont, UK). For Immunofluorescence, vectashield-mountingmedium with DAPIand Propidium Iodide (PI)were obtained from Molecular Probes, Invitrogen.For detection of cytotoxicity, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) dye, SDS and DMF (Dimethylformamide) wereobtained from SigmaAldrich. Live and dead cell assay kit was obtained from Molecular Probes.Various chemicals required for preparation of regular buffers and solutionsviz. Tris, Glycine, SDS, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, HEPES, Disodium Phosphate, Nonidet P-40, Tween 20, TritonX100, Formaldehyde, Glycerol, Agarose, Acrylamide,Bis-acrylamide,APS, TEMED, BSA,etc. were obtained from SigmaAldrich.The procedure of preparation of buffers and reagents usedin the present studied are described below:
    1. Volume was adjusted with water to 1 L and solution was sterilized by autoclaving.Pre-hybridization/hybridization buffer (Modified Church and Gilbert buffer)0.5 M phosphate buffer (134g of Na2HPO4.7H2O,4 mL of 85%H3PO4), pH7.27% (w/v) SDS10 mM EDTA Volume was adjusted to 1 L with DEPC treated sterile water. Buffer was aliquoted into 50 mL RNase free conical tubes (Corning) and stored in -20oC.Post hybridization wash buffersWash buffer 1 2X SSC 0.1% SDS Wash buffer 2 1X SSC 0.1% SDSWash buffer 3 0.5X SSC0.1% SDSBuffers were prepared with sterile DEPC treated water
    2. TMN buffer10mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.45 mM MgCl2100 mM NaCl Permeabilization buffer950 μLof coldwater50 μLof 10% (wt/vol)sodium N-lauroyl sarcosineTranscription assay buffer(100 μL)50mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4100mMKCl5mM MgCl21mM MnCl22 mM dithiothreitol 0.5mM ATP 0.25 mM GTP0.25mM CTP10mM phosphocreatine2.4 units creatine phosphokinase100μCi [α-32P] UTP (3,000Ci/mmol)Alkaline denaturing solution for DNA for membrane preparation0.5 M NaCl 0.25 M NaOH Volume was adjusted to 20 mLwith sterile water. Saline Sodium Citrate (SSC) buffer (20X) 3.0 M Sodium chloride 0.3 M Sodium citrate
    3. Taq polymerase was from ThermoScientific. Plasmid DNA purification, PCR purification, gel extraction and reaction clean up kits were procured from Qiagen. Medium components for growth of S. cerevisiae,namely, YPD, yeast nitrogen base, and yeast nitrogen base without ammonium sulphate were purchasedfrom BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company, USA).Yeastsyntheticdropoutmediasupplementwithouturacil/histidinewereobtainedfromSigma-Aldrich
    4. Agarose, phenol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), sodium acetate, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), formamide, calcium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), glycerol, polyethylene glycol, ammonium persulphate, N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED), acrylamide,dithiothreitol (DTT),bis-acrylamide, chloroform, formaldehyde, lithium chloride, lithium acetate,isopropanol, nuclease free water, diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), Tween-20, acid washed glass beads, trisodium citrate dehydrate, β-mercaptoethanol, 0.4% trypan blue solution, yeast protease inhibitor cocktail, magnesium chloride, manganese chloride and phosphatase inhibitors were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals. Agar, uracil, leucine, lysine, histidine, tryptophan, methionine, yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, and sorbitol were obtained from HiMedia. Dextrose, sucrose, potassium chloride, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, Tris and glycine were from Fisher Scientific. [14C]-labelled uracil was from Ogene Systems.γ[32P]ATP, [35S]Met/Cysin vivoprotein twin label mix, α[32P]UTP and Taq DNA polymease were from JONAKI/BRIT,Ultimaflow liquid scintillation fluid was obtained from Perkin-Elmer.Hybond-N+and Hybond-P membranes for nucleic acid and protein transferrespectively, and protein A beads were purchased from GE Life Science. NuPAGE gradient gels, MES running buffer and 4X LDS sample buffer were purchased from Invitrogen. Super Signal West pico chemiluminiscent substrate was from Thermo Scientific. Different restriction enzymes used for cloning and knock-out generation were purchased from New England Biolabs (NEB). High-fidelity Phusion
    1. 1. The composition of different types of gels run during the course of this study is
    1. SiRNAWWP2 siRNA described earlier [216]and prevalidated siRNAs for PPM1G (catalog numbers S102658684 and S102658691) were purchased from Qiagen. ShRNAWWP2 shRNA (shRNA1, 5=-CAGGAUGGGAGAUGAAAUAUU-3=;shRNA2, 5= ACAUGGAGAUACUGGGCAAUU-3=)WWP1 shRNA (shRNA1, 5=-ATTGCTTATGAACGCGGCT-3=; shRNA2, ACAACACACCTTCATCTCC-3=)Both WWP2 and WWP1 shRNA were purchased from Open Biosystem.2.1.5Cell linesHeLa cells, HEK293T, and BOSC23celllineswere used in the present study wherever indicated. All the cells werecultured and maintained in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% serum and 1% antibiotic (penicillin-streptomycin)at 37° C with 5%CO2.2.2 Buffers and mediaThe buffers and media used in the present study is mentioned in the table 3.Table 3: Buffers and media used in the study
    1. 50 mM Phosphate citrate buffer (pH-6.8)0.1M Citric acid0.2M dibasic Sodium phosphate16.9 ml Citric acid (0.1 M) and 33.1 ml Sodium phosphate (0.2 M) was mixed and volume was adjusted to 100 ml with H2O.Lipase assay0.1M Tris-HCl buffer (pH-8.2)pH was adjusted to 8.2 with HCl. 0.5 mM p-Nitrophenol standard solution8.69 mg p-Nitrophenol was dissolved in Tris-HCl buffer (0.1M) and volume was adjusted to 25 ml to make a final concentration of 25 mM.1volume of the above solution (25 mM) was diluted with 49 volume of 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer to get a final concentration of 0.5 mM p-Nitrophenol standard solution.p-Nitrophenyl butyrate solution (420 μM)7.3 μl p-Nitrophenol butyrate (F.W. 209.2) 11 mg SDS650 μL Triton-X-100Volume was adjusted to 100 ml with H2O. Mixture was heated to 65°C in a water bath for 15 min, mixed well, and cooled down to room temperature prior to use. It can be stored upto 3 days at 4°C.Xylanase assay5 mg/ml RBB-xylan0.05 M di-Sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4)
    2. 5 mg/ml RBB-Xylan was dissolved in 0.05 M Na2HPO4pH-7.5
    3. 10 mM Ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe(III)EDTA)100 mM Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)Working solution 0.18% Xylose 670 μM L-Methionine10 mM Sodium glutamate14.7 mM Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)40 μM Mangenese sulphate (MnSO4)240 μM Ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe(III)EDTA)5 mM Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)1.2% AgarLuria Bertani (LB)0.5% Yeast extract1% Tryptone1% Sodium cholride (NaCl)Media and solutions were sterilized either by routine autoclaving at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 min or by filtration through membrane of 0.22 μM porosity
    4. Peptone Sucrose (PS)1 % Peptone1 % SucroseFor preparing plates, 1.2 % agar was added to the medium before autoclaving.Minimal Medium (MM9)Stock SolutionMinimal Salt (2X) for 250 mL 5.25 g di-Potassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) 2.25 g Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)0.5 g Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO40.25 g Tri-Sodium citrate (Na3citrate)1 M Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate (MgSO4.7H2O) -250 μl 25 mg/mL L-Methionine-1 ml25 mg/mL Nicotinic acid-1 ml10 mg/mL Glutamic acid-25 ml20% Glucose-12.5 ml3% Agar-100 mlPlant mimicking medium (XOM2)Stock preparation100 mM L-Methionine1 M Sodium glutamate1 M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)10 mM Manganese sulphate (MnSO4)
    1. Stripping buffer100 mM β-mercaptoethanol2 % SDS62.5 mM Tris-HCl (pH 6.7)Final volume was madeto 250 ml with water
    2. Transfer buffer (10 X stock solution)0.25 M Tris-HCl (pH8.0)1.92 M Glycine1% SDSThe stock solution was prepared asa10 X concentrate and was diluted to 1 X concentration prior to use.1X Transfer buffer (1 litre)200 ml Methanol100 ml 10X Transfer buffer700 ml WaterTris-Buffered Saline (TBS)50 mM Tris150 mM NaClFinal pHof the bufferwas adjusted to 7.4 with HCl.Blocking buffer5% Fat-free milk0.1% Tween-20Final volume was made to 100 ml with 1 X TBS.Wash buffer (TBS-T)TBS (1 X final concentration)0.1% Tween-20Final volume was prepared with water
    3. dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen orthrophosphate, acetone and citric acid were obtained from Qualigen Chemicals. Kitused for quantitationof histone deacetylase activity waspurchased from Cayman Chemical Company (#10011563). Hybond-P membranefor protein transferand ECL kit for immunoblottingwere purchased from Amersham Biosciences. Kits used for estimation of cytokines were procured fromBD Biosciences.Medium components used to culture C. glabrataand bacterial strains viz.,yeast extract, peptone, dextrose, casamino acid hydrolysate, yeast nitrogen base with aminoacids and ammonium sulphate, yeast nitrogen base without amino acids, yeast nitrogen base without aminoacids and ammonium sulphate and Luria-Bertani (LB) medium were purchased from BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company, USA). Animal cell culture media RPMI-1640, DMEM and α-MEM were purchased from Hyclone and Gibco-Invitrogen. Fetal bovine serum, glutamine and antibiotics for cell culture medium were procured from Gibco-Invitrogen
    4. Allchemicals used in thisstudy were obtained from commercial sourcesand were of molecular biology grade. The enzymes used for PCR amplification and molecular cloning viz.,restriction endonucleases, T4DNA ligase, Taq DNA polymerase were obtained from New England Biolabs, Fermentas, Sigma and Finnzymes. Kits used for first strand c-DNA synthesis, quantitative real time-PCR were purchased from Invitrogen andEurogentech, respectively.Kits used forplasmid isolation,PCR product purification, reaction clean up, and gel extraction of DNA fragmentswere procured fromQIAGEN.Agarose, phenol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), sodium acetate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), trizma base, bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic acid disodium salt (BPS), ferric chloride, formamide, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), glycerol, polyethylene glycol, hydroxyurea, methylmethane sulphonate (MMS), ammonium persulphate, acrylamide, bis-acrylamide,N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylethylenediamine(TEMED), diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), lithium acetate, polyethylene glycol (PEG), menadione, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), isopropanol,tween-20, trypan blue, hydrogenperoxide, uracil and orthrophenylenediamine (OPD) were procured form Sigma Chemicals. INVIVO PROTWIN label mix, S35(Met:Cys-65:25) were obtained from from BRIT-Jonaki, CCMB, Hyderabad. Fluconazole was purchased from Ranbaxy.Ferrozine was purchased from HIMEDIA.Hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, acetic acid, methanol, potassium dihydrogen orthrophosphate,
    1. Click-iT cell proliferation kit (C35002, Invitrogen), Apo-BrdU TUNEL assay kit (A35127, Invitrogen)
    2. Cell culture reagents: fetal bovine serum (FBS, 26140-079), L-glutamine (25030-081), penicillin-streptomycin (15140-122) and trypsin (25200-056) were from Life Technologies. DNA damaging agents used for this study were obtained from following sources: hydroxyurea (HU; H8627, Sigma-Aldrich), neocarzinostatin (NCS, N9162, Sigma-Aldrich), mitomycin C (M0503, Sigma-Aldrich). Reagents used for cell spreading assays: methyl cellulose (Sigma-Aldrich), fibronectin (F2006, Sigma-Aldrich)andfluorophore conjugated phalloidin (Molecular Probes Inc).Antibiotic selection markers: puromycin (Sigma-Aldrich), G418 (Sigma-Aldrich), transwell inserts (24 well, 8 μm pore size, Costar, Corning), Invasion chambers (BioCoat Matrigel invasion chamber, 24 well, 8 μm pore size, Corning). Other chemicals: Propylene glycol (151957, MP Biomedicals), 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide(4NQO; N8141, Sigma-Aldrich), MTT [(3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide], TNP [N2-(m-(trifluoromethy)lbenzyl)N6-(p-nitrobenzyl)purine],DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), ethanol, paraformaldehude, vectashield DAPI (Vector labs),Tris, PMSF, NP-40, PBS, Tween-20, BSA, MgCl2, colcemid, KCl, methanol, glacial acetic acid, giemsa, SDS, sodium bicarbonate (S5761, Sigma-Aldrich),polyfect transfection reagent, crystal violet, propidium iodide, Triton X-100 and PEI were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Low melting agarose (Difco), ECL detection system (GE Healthcare)