13 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2021
    1. Bert Hubert’s excellent and widely shared article about Reverse Engineering the source code of the Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

      These 2 articles form an informational island on covid19 mRNA vaccines.

    1. Translational kinetics of mRNA-LNP delivered by different routes in vivo. Quantification of the bioluminescent signal measured in BALB/c mice injected with (A) 0.1 μg, (B) 1.0 μg or (C) 5.0 μg mRNA-LNPs by intradermal (i.d.), intramuscu

      Diagrams of the presence of proteins versus time in various administration methods in mouse

    1. In this mouse model, the mRNA hit the hepatocytes and caused them to make plenty of luciferase, but not for long: at Day 1, the livers were lit up like a used car lot, but by Day 3, everything was gone. At that point, though, there was still some light coming from the sites of injection.

      Where does all the mRNA end up, according to this 2015 study on mice](https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC4624045/)?

      Here we learn stuff not reorted in the paper.

  2. Nov 2021
    1. Δώστε ένα πακέτο στα μίνιονς του Kaiser και εύχομαι το billions να είναι ΚαλοPfizer Και όταν θα επέλθει η ανοσία στην αγέλη θα δούμε πόσες μέλισσες θα υπάρχουν στην κυψέλη και εν τέλει

      Στερεη αποψη για τον εμβολιασμό στον covid19.

    1. Thus, this study provides the basis to pursue further efficacy studies in non-human primate models or even initiate clinical phase I studies using the currently available vaccines.

      As of 26 Nov 2021, phase 1 studies have not yet begun for mucosal vaccines, not even in primates :-(

    1. The exact time is not known, but it is estimated to be a few weeks. 

      The half-life of the mRNA spike proteins is not exactly known, 16 Sept 2021.

  3. Oct 2021
    1. Following IM administration, the maximum concentration (Cmax) of the injection site muscle was 5,680 ng/mL, and the level declined with an estimated t1/2 of 18.8 hr

      Vaccine's halg-life was measured just below a day for mice muscles.

    2. The spleen and liver had a mean Cmax of 86.9 ng/mL

      Spleen & liver had x30 less mRNA concentration than Lymph nodes closest to the vaccine site, and x70 less the injected muscle.

    3. Proximal lymph nodes had the second highest concentration at 2,120 ng/mL (tmax of 8 hr with a relatively long t1/2 of 25.4 hr)

      Lymph-node mRNA half-life is a day.

  4. May 2021
    1. Current injectable vaccines induce a systemic immune response by generating circulating IgG antibodies that neutralize pathogens before they can cause severe tissue damage. But IgG is not very good at controlling viral entry into the body. To do that, the mucosal immune system is needed. It produces secretory IgA at the site of viral entry, and in larger quantities than any other type of immunoglobulin in the body.

      Why nasal vaccinew would be superior?

    1. The Astra-Zeneca shot uses a modified chimpanzee adenovirus as vector. These viruses use the CD46 receptor instead of the usual CAR receptor for infecting cells. “We found that human umbilical vein and brain microvascular endothelial cells (HUVECs and HBMECs) were CD46-positive”

      On AstraZeneca and brain damage.

    2. The Hsieh et al, Science, 2020 paper on HexaPro also notes that the HexaPro mod and the S-2P mod have the same ACE2 affinity (although they don’t make the comparison to wild-type). (Note that the conformational change upon binding is all about assisting viral entry into the cell, not binding the ACE2 receptor.)

      Stable spike protein ALSO binds to ACE2 receptors, after all. Stability

    3. Inadvertent injection into blood vessels has been raised in the comments here previously

      Injections accidentally hitting a vein are there cause for blood clots!??