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  1. Jul 2019
  2. Jun 2019
    1. The semisynthetic a globin was purified from the mixture by CM52 urea chromatography as explained below. The lyophilized sample was dissolved in 0.005 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.9) containing 8 M urea and 0.05 M 2-mercaptoethanol at a concentration of I 0-15 mg/ml and loaded onto a CM52 column (16 em x 1.5 em) equilibrated with the same buffer. After an initial wash with the same buffer, two linear gradients of(a) 100 ml each of0.005 M to 0.03 M and (b) 100 ml each of0.02 M to 0.05 M phosphate buffer (all buffers contained 8 M urea and 0.05 M 2-mercaptoethanol, and were adjusted to pH 6.9) were employed at a flow rate of 45 ml/h to elute the semisynthetic a globin. The column was finally washed with 0.05 M buffer to elute unreacted a31-141 fragment from the column. The elution profile was monitored at 280 nm. The fractions for semi-synthetic a globin were pooled, extensively dialyzed against 0.1% TF A and lyophilized. The semisynthetic yield of the protein varied between 35% to 45%
    2. Purification oftlte semi-!)yntltetic a globin
  3. May 2019
    1. For adherent cells from which lysates have to be prepared , culture medium was removed and cells were washed with ice cold 1X PBS twice and then scraped with cell scraper in Cell Lysis buffer. Cells were rotated at 4°C for 30min at cold room and centrifuged at 13000 rpm for 10min at 4°C. The supernatant was collected and protein concentration was estimated using BCA assay. For standard western, 50-70μg of protein was loaded on to the gel
    2. Lysate Preparation for Immuno- blotting
    1. d. 3 μl of sample prepared in low stringency buffer was added to the spot activated with low stringency buffer and incubated in humid chamber for 30 min. and removed using whatman strips. (same protocol was repeated for the samples prepared in high stringency buffer on spots activated with high stringency buffer). e. Stringent washings were given to each spot with 5 μl of low stringency buffer/ high stringency buffer/ buffer of pH 3.0/ pH 5.0/ pH7.0 for 30 sec and removed using Whatman filter paper strips. f. 1-2 μl of SAP matrix was added to each spot and allowed to dry. g. The chip was then placed in the SELDI machine
    2. One set of cell extracts was prepared in low stringency buffer by mixing cell extracts and low stringency buffet in 1:1 ratio and another in high stringency buffer. b. 10 μl of low stringency/high stringency buffer was added to the spots on the chip and incubated in a humid chamber for 5 min. c. Buffer was removed using Whatman strips without touching the spot surface. This step was repeated once
    3. Activation of LSAX (strong anion exchange ) array
    4. Overnight cell culture raised in LB medium was subcultured 1:100 in LB with 20 mM MgCl2. When the A600 reached 0.4-0.6, the culture was centrifuged at 2800g for 5 min at 4 ̊C. To the cell pellet 0.4 volumes of ice-cold TBF-I buffer was added and incubated on ice for 15 min. The cell suspension was centrifuged at 2800g for 5 min at 4 ̊C and the cells recovered were dissolved in 0.04 volume of ice-cold TBF-II buffer and kept on ice for 45 min. 100 μl aliquots of these competent cells were used for transformation using the normal transformation protocol
    5. TBF method for preparation of high competency cells
    6. For routine plasmid transformations, where high efficiency is not required, the following method which is a modification of that described by Sambrook and Russell (2001) was used. An overnight culture of the recipient strain was subcultured in fresh LB and grown till mid-exponential phase. The culture was chilled on ice for 15 min, and the steps hereafter were done on ice or at 4°C. The culture was centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in one third volume of cold 0.1 M CaCl2. After 15 min incubation on ice, the cells were again recovered by centrifugation, and resuspended in one tenth volume of cold 0.1 M CaCl2. The suspension (0.1 ml) was incubated on ice for 1 h after which DNA was added (~10-100 ng of DNA in less than 10 μl volume). The mixture was again incubated on ice for 30 min, and then heat shocked for 90 seconds at 42°C. Immediately 0.9 ml of LB broth was added to the tube and incubated at 37°C for 45 min for phenotypic expression of the antibiotic marker before being plated on selective medium at various dilutions. A negative control tube (with no plasmid DNA addition) was also routinely included in each of the experiments
    7. Calcium chloride method
    8. Transformation protocols
    1. 5% glycerol)containing (i) 5′-end-labeled DNAfragmentof 1200 cpm radioactive count(ii) 1 μg each of bovine serum albumin andpoly(dIdC)(iii) the protein at the indicated monomer concentrations and (iv) when required,co-effectorsat specified concentrations. The reaction mixture was incubated at room temperature for 30-minsand the complexes were resolved by electrophoresis on a non-denaturing 5%polyacrylamide gel (39:1 acrylamide:bisacrylamide)in 0.5X TBE buffer pH8.3, at 12.5V/cm for 3 hrs at 18°C.The gels were then dried on a gel drier at 80°C for 45 minsand the radioactive bands were visualised with a Fujifilm FLA-9000 scanner.For DNA bending EMSA, co-effectors were not added in the binding reaction but at aconcentration of 0.1 mM in both the gel and running buffer
    2. The DNA templates were obtained by PCR from E. coligenomic DNA. After 5-end labeling, the PCR fragments were purified by electroelution following electrophoresis on 6% native polyacrylamide gels (Sambrook and Russell,2001). EMSA reactions were performed in 20 μl reaction volume inEMSA binding buffer(10 mM Tris-Cl at pH 7.5, 1 mM EDTA, 50 mM NaCl, 5 mM dithiothreitol, and
    3. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)
    4. Typically 200-300 ng of DNA was used in each ligation reaction. The ratio of vector toinsert was maintained between 1:3 to 1:5 for cohesive end ligation and 1:1 for blunt endligation. The reaction was generally performed in 10 μl volume containing ligationbuffer (provided by the manufacturer) and 0.05 Weiss unit of T4-DNA ligase, at 16ºCfor 14-to 16-hrs. On using the rapid ligation kitfrom Fermentas, incubation was at 22ºC for 1-2 hrs
    5. Ligation of DNA
    1. Log-phasecells grown in YPD medium containing or lacking CaCl2and FK506 were collected, PBS-washed and loaded with ratiometric, high affinity, membrane-permeable calcium indicator, Fura-2 AM (10 M; Sigma #47989). After 30 min incubation at 30◦C, labelled cells were washed thrice with cold PBS, suspended in PBS and fluorescence was recorded at 505 nm with dual excitation at 340 and 380 nm. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between 340 and 380 nm, representing Ca-bound and Ca-free Fura-2 molecules, respectively, reflected free intracellular calcium concentrations
    2. Measurement of intracellular calciumlevels
    3. the disrupted gene, BLAST N of the sequences from rescued plasmids was performedagainstC. glabrataGenolevures database (http://www.genolevures.org/blast.html
    4. Identification of disrupted locus in Tn7insertion mutants was carried out as described previously(Kaur et al.,2004). Disrupted locus in each mutant is physically marked with a mini Tn7 transposon derivative containing conditional origin of replication R6K(facilitates Tn7recovery), S. cerevisiae URA3and Klebsiella pneumoniae hphgene (confers resistance to hygromycin B)(Castaño et al.,2003). Briefly,genomic DNA was isolated fromovernight grown Tn7insertion mutants using spheroplast lysis method. After RNAse treatment, 10μgDNA was either digested withMfe1or SpeIrestriction enzymeas the Tn7 cassette lacks these enzyme sites. Followingovernight digestion, DNA wasprecipitated with 1ml ethanol and 1/10thvolume of 3 M sodium acetate (pH 5.2).DNApellet was washed twicewith ice-cold 70% ethanol, air driedand resuspendedin sterile MQ water. DNA was recircularized withT4 DNA ligase. Resultant circular plasmid contains the Tn7cassette flanked on either side by the gene,it has disruptedin the genome of C. glabrata.This circular plasmid DNA was transformedin E.coliBW23473 strain,which contains protein Π (the product of the pir gene)required by R6Korifor replication.Transformation of circularized DNA in E.coliBW23473 electrocompetent cells was performedas described below.Plasmids fromselected transformants were isolated and sequenced with outward primers from Tn7right and left ends to sequencethe disrupted gene fragment.For identification of
    5. Tn7insertion mutant rescueand gene identification
    6. E. coli DH5α ultra-competent cells were transformed with plasmid DNA by heat shock at 42 ̊C for 90 sec as described previously in Molecular Cloning-A Laboratory Manual (Sambrook and Russell,2001). Bacterial transformants were selected on LB agarmediumcontaining appropriate antibiotics. Transformants obtainedwere colony purified on LB plates containing antibiotics.Presence of the desired insertwas first verified by colony PCR followed by PCRusing extracted plasmid DNA as template
    7. Bacterial transformation
  4. sg.inflibnet.ac.in sg.inflibnet.ac.in
    1. activated TLC silicagel-60plate and transferred to theTLC chamber. After the solvent had migratedupwards (1.5 cm fromthetop), TLC plate was removed, air dried behind perspex shield, wrapped with cling plastic wrap and was exposed to phophorimager screenfor 2 h. Phosphorimager screen was scanned usingaFugi-FLA 9000 scanner
    2. To resolvephospholipids,a TLC chamber was prepared by pouring50 ml developing solution and sealing the chamber with aluminium foil so that developing solution can generate vapor. TLC silicagel-60plate(Merck)was incubated at 80ºCfor 4 h for activation. After 30 min of TLC chamber preparation, phospholipidsextracted from C. glabratacells werespotted at thebottom (1.5 cm fromthelowerend) of the
    3. Seperation of phospholipids by thin layer chromatography(TLC)
    4. PI-3kinase reaction was set up ina total volume of50μlin a 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube as described below.PI-3 kinase reaction buffer = 25 μlSpheroplast lysate = 20 μl (equivalent to 10 μg protein)Sonicated phosphatidyl inositol = 5 μlReaction mix was incubated at 25ºC for 20 min and enzyme reaction was stopped by adding 80μlHCL (1N) solution. To extract phospholipids, 160 μl chloroform:methanol (1:1) was added to the reaction mix withcontinuous mixing. Organic phase containing phopholipidswas separated fromaqueous phase by centrifugation at 7,500g for 4 min at 4ºC and transferred to a new vial. Using vacuum evaporator apparatus, solvent was evaporated and phospholipidsweredissolved in 10 μl chloroform
    5. PI-3 kinase reaction set up and phopsholipid extraction
    6. 10 mg phosphatidylinositol-sodium salt(from Glycine max)was dissolved in 2 ml chloroform to prepare a 5 mg/ml stock solution. This solution was prepared in a small glass vial aschloroformis known to reactwith polypropylene. Small aliquots of stock solution were madeand stored at -20ºC till further use. To avoid spillage due to vapor pressure, vials containing phosphatidylinositol-sodium salt solutionwereopened very carefully.To prepare sonicated phosphatidylinositolfor one PI-3 kinase reaction, 2 μlof the stock phosphatidylinositolsolution (10 μg) wastransferredtoanew1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube. Using vacuum evaporator apparatus, chloroformwas evaporated from the solution and phosphatidylinositol-sodium saltwas resuspended in 5 μl sonication buffer.For sonication, a total of 20 pulses, each of 30 sec with30 sec resting time weregiven on ice
    7. Preparation and sonication of phosphatidylinositol-sodium salt solution
    8. A single colonyof desired C. glabratastrainwas inoculated in YPD-liquid mediumand grown for 14-16 h. 50 μl overnight culture was inoculated inYPD-liquid mediumfor 4 h. Log-phase-grownyeast cells were harvested,washedwith PBSandwereinoculated atinitial OD600of 2 and 4,into YNB-dextrose and YNB-sodium acetate liquid medium,respectively.After 4 hincubation,yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation at 2,500g for 5 minand treated with 1.2 M zymolyasefor 1 hto obtain spheroplasts.Post zymolyase treatment, spheroplasts were resuspended in 100 μl resuspension bufferandanequal amount of 0.25 mm glass beadswasadded to lyse the spheroplasts. Using bead beater apparatus, spheroplasts were lysed and protein concentration in spheroplast lysateswas determined usingbicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) method and samples were stored at -20ºC till further use
    9. Preparation of cell lysate
    10. In vitroPI-3 kinase reactions wereset up to measure PI-3P synthesized as described earlier(Whitman et al., 1988)
    11. Phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase assay)
    12. C. glabrata cells were grown overnight in 10 ml YPD liquid medium. Cells were harvested at 2,500g for 5 min, resuspended in 400 μl Buffer A (50 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM EDTA, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% SDS) and were transferred to a 2 ml microcentrifuge tube. Equal volume of phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) solution was added tocell suspension and tubes were vortexed for 2-3 min. After incubation at 42 ̊C for 30 minon a thermomixer set at 800 rpm (Eppendorf), cell debris was removed by centrifugation at 7,500g for 10 minand aqueous phase (300-350 μl) was carefully transferred to a new 2 ml microcentrifuge tube. Genomic DNA was precipitated with800 μl chilled absolute ethanol and 35 μl sodium acetate (3 M, pH 5.2). DNA pellet was washed with chilled 70% ethanol and dried at room temperature for 5-10 min. Genomic DNA pellet was dissolved either in 50 μl 0.1X TE or molecular biology grade water containing 0.3 μl Ambion RNase cocktail and incubated at 37 ̊C for 30 minfor digestionof RNA. After RNA degradation, 100 μl of 0.1X TE or nuclease-free water was added to the tube and stored at -20ºC. Quality of extracted genomic DNA was checkedon 0.6% agarosegel by electrophoresis
    13. Genomic DNA isolationby quick genomic DNA extraction method
    14. C. glabratastrains were grown overnight in YPD medium. Cellswereharvested from 1 mlcultureandwashed withPBS.Cells were next washed with50mM NaH2PO4andresuspendedin 100 μlFITC-dextran(50mg/ml). After incubation at 37°Cfor 45 min, cells were washed thrice with PBS for complete removal of FITC-dextran.Yeast cells were resuspended in 1 ml PBS and used to infect PMA-treated THP-1 cells in 4-chambered glass slide
    15. Fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC)staining of C. glabratacells
    16. For confocal microscopyanalysis, 5X105THP-1 cells were seeded and treatedwithPMA in 4-chambered slides. Differentiated THP-1 macrophageswere infected either with FITC-labeled or GFP-expressingC.glabratastrains to a MOIof 1:1. At different time intervals, medium was aspirated out from each chamber of 4-chambered slides and chamberes were washed twice with PBS. To fixthe infected macrophages,500 μlformaldehyde(3.7%) was added gently toeach chamber andincubated for 15 minat room temperature. Each chamber of the slide was washed twice withPBS to remove formaldehyde solution completely. To permeabilize the fixed cells, 500 μl Triton-X (0.7%) was dispensed toeach chamber and slide wasincubated at room temperature for 5 min. Chambers of the slide werewashed twice with PBS, separated from the slideusing a chamber removal device andwere air dried. Coverslips were placed onslides using Vectashield mounting mediumand bordersweresealed withnail paint. Slides werestored at 4°C until used forfluorescence imaging
    17. Fixing of PMA-treated THP-1 macrophages
    1. Adherent cells growing either on cover slips or chamber slides were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 min at room temperature. The cells were washed with PBS thrice for 5 min each and blocking was done in 2% BSA(preparedin PBScontaining 0.3% Triton-X 100) for 1h.The cells were incubatedwith primary antibody(dilutedin PBScontaining 0.3% Triton-X 100)for 2h at room temperature or overnight at 4⁰C.The cells were washed with PBS thrice for 5 min each followed by incubation withAlexa Fluor 488-or 594-conjugatedsecondary (anti-mouse/rabbit) antibodiesfor 1h. Then the cells were mounted on microscopicslides using Vectashieldmountingmediumcontaining nuclear dye DAPI. Imaging was done byeither the laser scanning confocal LSM510 or LSM 750 (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) or fluorescence inverted (Olympus 1X51, Tokyo, Japan) microscope
    2. Immunofluorescence Microscopy
    1. Bradford method(Bradford, 1976)was used to determine the quantity of protein in various samplesin a 96-well plate. Bradford’s reagent was prepared by diluting Bradford dye with water in the ratio of 1:5.For estimating the concentration of protein in a particular sample, 50μl volume reactionwas set and200μl of freshly prepared Bradford’s reagent was added. The complex givesa purplish colorwhose intensity is proportional to the amount of protein present in the sample. A standard curve was also generated using increasing concentrations of BSA (50 μg/ml, 100 μg/mland 200μg/ml).Cell lysatesof test samples werediluted to1:50 in the same volume.Each sample (including blank and standards) was taken in duplicates.The concentration of protein was measuredusing the ELISA reader at 570 nm. The unknown protein concentration (X) was calculated as follows:where,OD1& OD2: Optical densities of Standard (Std) 1 & Standard (Std) 2, respectively.BSA: Bovine serum albuminX×50 (dilution factor)/1000 = YConcentration of unknown protein (μg/μl) = Y × OD
    2. Estimationof protein concentration in cellular lysates
    1. placed on ice.The samples were centrifuged at 10,000x gfor 10 min at 4°C and the supernatant was extracted by avoiding the glass beads. Absorbance of thelysatewas measuredat 260 nm, and it was divided into 200 μL aliquots and frozen at -80°C. No difference in the ribosome profiles were detected between thesesamples and fresh samples analysed immediately.Polysomes were analysed by centrifugation through a 10-50% sucrose continuous gradient. The gradient was prepared by pipetting, gradient buffers (Section, 5 mLof each layer onto the bottom of an 11 mLopen top centrifuge tube, covering the tube with paraffin filmand by placing it horizontally on a flat surface at 40C for 2 h. The ribosome sample (cell lysate) was loaded on top, and gradient was centrifuged at 100,000x gat4°C for 6 h in an SW41 rotor (Beckman). Anamount of lysate equivalent to 10 A260units was loaded on the gradient. Ribosome levels were measured by the gradient analysis with an ISCO UV-6gradient collector with continuous monitoring atA254.Polysomepurification was performed by layering the cell lysate on 37% sucrose solution in an 11 mLopen top centrifuge tube, and centrifuged at 100,000x gfor 14 h in an SW41 rotor(Beckman). The pellet was suspended in 50 to 100 μL of lysis buffer. An amount oflysate equivalent to 0.7A260unitswas loaded on the gradient. Ribosome levels were measured by gradient analysis with an ISCO UV-6gradient collector with continuous monitoring atA254.Ribosome subunits were analysedby centrifugation through a 10-30% sucrose continuous gradient. The gradient was prepared by pipetting 2.2 mLof each layer onto the bottom of a 5 mLopen top centrifuge tube, sealing it with paraffin filmand placing it horizontally on a flat surface at 4°C for 2 h.The ribosome sample wasloaded on top, and gradient was centrifuged at 100,000x gand 40C for 4.5 hin an SW55rotor (Beckman). Ribosome subunit levels were measured by gradient analysis with an ISCO UV-6gradient collector with continuous monitoring atA254.Ribosome profiles with yeast cell lysates and purification of ribosomes from yeast were performed with the help of Mr. Aluri Srinivasand Dr. Umesh Varshney
    2. The method to analyse ribosome profiles was adapted from (Leeet al., 1992). Yeast cells were grown to 0.2 to 0.8 OD600at 30°C in 200mLof YPD,and cycloheximide was added to this media at 50μg/mLfinal concentration. The culture was placedand mixed continuously onanice and salt mixture for 2-5 min and centrifuged immediately at 4,000 x g. The culture was not allowed to stay for a longer time on the ice and salt mixture to avoid freezing. The cell pellet wassuspended in 1mLof lysisbuffer (Section,andtransferred to a2 mL microfuge tube, to which1mLglass beads (0.45-0.6mm diameter)were added, and lysed by bead beating for 10 min with intervals (30 sec on time and 1min off time).During the 1 min off time, tubes were
    3. Ribosome profiles
    1. lysed with ice-cold NETN lysis buffer (20mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 100mM NaCl, 1mM EDTA, 0.5% Nonidet P-40) containing protease inhibitors (0.5 mM PMSF, 1 mg/ml aprotinin and 1 mg/ml pepstatin) for 30 min.on ice, and then centrifuged at 14000 RPM for 10 min. at 4°C. Protein concentration in the supernatant (cell lysate) was estimated by Bradford assay. 20ug of the protein lysate was mixed with6X SDS loading dye (100 mMTris pH6.8, 4% SDS, 0.2% bromophenol blue, 20% glycerol and 200 mMβ-mercaptoethanol), boiled for 5 minutes at 99°C. Protein samples were resolved electrophoreticallyon SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred onto PVDF-membrane (Amersham Biosciences) using a semi-dry transfer apparatus (Biorad) for 1h at a constant current of 500 mA. Membranes were blocked for 30 min.with 5% non-fat dry milk powderdissolvedin 1X PBS and then immunoblotted overnight with primary antibody diluted in blocking buffer. Membranes were washed four times (each 5 min.) with 1X TBST followed by incubation with secondary antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for one hour at room temperature. The membrane was washed four times with 1X TBST (each wash for 5 min.), and the specific proteins on the membrane were detected by using enhanced chemiluminescent (ECL) reagents in 1:1 ratio (Amersham)
    2. At 24 or 48 h of transfection, cell culture media was removed, cells were collected in 1X PBS by scraping them off the plate. Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 4000 RPM for 5 min.at 4° C. Pellet was washed twice with ice-cold 1X PBS and
    3. Western blotting or immunoblotting
    1. For biofilm and attachment assays, Xanthomonas oryzaecells were grown in PS media with appropriate antibiotics at 28°C with constant shaking at 200 rpm. 0.2% of the overnight grown culture was inoculated into the fresh PS media and grown till the OD reached 0.6-0.7 at 600 nm. 4 ml culture was inoculated into 12 well polystyrene culture plates, and incubated for 24 h and 48 h at 28°C without shaking. After 24 h, cultures were discarded, and wells were washed with 4 ml of water to remove loosely attached cells. The adherence was examined by staining the cells with 1% crystal violet solution for 30 min at room temperature. After incubation, excess crystal violet stain was removed by washing the wells with 3 ml water. Images were captured for visualizing the stained biofilm on polystyrene plate. Finally, crystal violet stained biofilm was dissolved in 80% ethanol, and quantified by taking OD at 560 nm. Similar procedures were repeated for the polystyrene plate with culture incubated for 48 h. For attachment, cells were grown similarly in 12 well polystyrene culture plates for 24 h, rinsed once with sterile water to remove loosely attached cells then attached cells were collected by vigorous washing with sterile water. Attached cells were diluted, and plated to get the CFUs
    2. Static biofilm and attachment assay
    3. QIAGEN QIAquick Gel extraction kit containing required buffers, spin columns and collection tubes was used to extract and purify DNA from agarose gels. Digested DNA samples and PCR products were resolved on 1% agarose gel and gel piece containing desired fragment was cut on an UV-transilluminator. DNA fragment was purified following manufacturer’s instructions
    4. Gel extraction of DNA
    5. and finally resuspended in 100 μl sterile water. Bacterial cell suspension was aliquoted in 20 μl volume. The above procedure was followed for all the three strains and cell suspension of three different strains were mixed together in 1:1:1 ratio. For conjugation to occur, 20 μl of the above mixture was spottedon the LB agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 12-16 h. Next, the conjugation drops were streaked on LB agar plate containing appropriate antibiotics to select the S17-1 recipient containing recombinant plasmid.S17-1 was directly conjugated with Xanthomonasstrain. S17-1 strain containing recombinant plasmid (3 ml) and recipient Xanthomonasstrain (100 ml) was grown overnight with appropriate antibiotics. Cells were harvested and washed thrice as mentioned earlier. Xanthomonasstrain was finally dissolvedin 600-700 μl sterile water and S17-1 strain was dissolved in 3 ml sterile water. 50 μl Xanthomonascell suspension and 10 μl S17-1 cell suspension were mixed together and 20 μl was spotted on PS agar plate. After 40 h of incubation at 28°C, each conjugation drop was dissolved in 400 μl water separately and plated on PS agar medium with rifampicin (counter-selectable marker) and plasmid specific antibiotics for specific selection of Xanthomonascolony with recombinant plasmid
    6. Since compatible conjugation does not exist between Xanthomonasand E.coliDH5α strain.Therefore, upon getting the appropriate clones in DH5α, conjugation was performed with S17-1 (recipient strain) and PRK600 (helper strain). All the three strains (DH5α with clone, S17-1 and PRK600 strain of E.coli) were grown overnight at 37°C with constant shaking at 200 rpm in 3 ml LB broth. Cells from 1 ml overnight grown cultures were harvested by centrifugation followed by three washes with s
    7. Xanthomonas conjugation
    1. To extract DNA from agarose gels,the QIAquick® gel extraction kit (QIAGEN, 28706) was used. For purification of PCR amplified DNA products,the QIAquick® PCR purification kit (QIAGEN, 28106) was used. Clean-up of enzymatic reactions was performedusing the MinElute® Reaction Cleanup kit (QIAGEN, 28204). Allprotocolswere followed as per manufacturer’s instruction
    2. Gel extraction, PCR purification and Reaction clean-up
    3. To extract DNA from agarose gels,the QIAquick® gel extraction kit (QIAGEN, 28706) was used. For purification of PCR amplified DNA products,the QIAquick® PCR purification kit (QIAGEN, 28106) was used. Clean-up of enzymatic reactions was performedusing the MinElute® Reaction Cleanup kit (QIAGEN, 28204). Allprotocolswere followed as per manufacturer’s instructions
    4. Gel extraction, PCR purification and Reaction clean-up
    1. The IP6K inhibitor TNP was dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 22.6 mM and stored at -20°C. MEFs were seeded on coverslips in 12 well plates at 15% confluence. Once, cells adhered and attained their morphology, they were pre-treated with 5 μM TNP and DMSO 3 h prior to HU treatment. After 3 h, cells were treated with 0.5 mM HU for 12 h in presence or absence of TNP. Similarly, post drug removal,cells were incubated with or without TNP to monitorrecovery for 6 h. At each time point cells were processed for presence of nuclear BLM as described in Section 2.2.6. BLM was used as readout for initiation and completion of repair. Imageswere acquired as described in Section 2.2.6
    2. Inhibition of IP6Ksin MEFs