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  1. Jul 2019
  2. Jun 2019
  3. May 2019
    1. Human lung epithelial type II cells (HPLD) were a kind gift from Dr. T Takahashi, Japan. All the cell lines were maintained in 5% CO2 with the recommended media containing 10% FBS (3% FBS for HPLD) and following the standard guidelines.
    2. A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial) and murine fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 was purchased from American Type Culture Collection. Murine lung epithelial cell line E-9 and E-10 were a kind gift from Dr. L.M.Anderson, (NCI-FCRDC, Frederick, Maryland)
    3. Cell Lines
    1. Plasmids constructed in this study
    2. genome cloned in a ColEI-based replicon, and obtained from Dr. Manjula Reddy. pHYD2556 is spectinomycin resistant and carries the minimal nusA+ open-reading frame with its native ribosome-binding site between genomic nucleotide co-ordinates 3314061and 3315548 cloned downstream of the ara regulatory region in a pSC101-based replicon, and obtained from Dr. Ranjan Sen. pHYD2557 is chloramphenicol resistant and carries a 2.3-kb PCR-amplified region between genomic nucleotide co-ordinates 3314061 and 3316393 (containing yhbC nusA region with its own promoter) cloned in a pSC101-based Ts replicon, and obtained from Dr. Ranjan.Plasmid DNA preparations were routinely prepared from recA strains such as DH5αand were stored in 10mM Tris-Cl (pH 8.0) plus 1mM EDTA at ─20 ̊C
    3. pWSK30 an Ampicillin resistant vector with pSC101 origin of replication and blue-white screening facility (Wang and Kushner, 1991). pHYD272 is a derivative of pMU575, an IncW-based single copy vector with Trimethoprim resistance marker carrying lacZYA reporter genes under proU promoter (Dattananda et al., 1991). pHYD751 a ColE1 replicon plasmid with ampicillin resistance marker and 2.1kb EcoRI-SalI fragment carrying nusG+cloned into EcoRI-SalI sites of pAM34 vector. The plasmid exhibits IPTG dependent replication (Harinarayanan and Gowrishankar, 2003). pHYD763 is a Ts (maintained at 30 ̊C but not at 37 ̊ or 39 ̊C), CmR, pSC101 derivative carrying 3.8 kb BamHI-SacI fragment of nusG+ cloned into BamHI-SacI sites of pMAK705 (Harinarayanan and Gowrishankar, 2003). pHYD1201 a ColE1 replicon plasmid with ampicillin resistance marker and 3.3kb HindIII-SalI fragment carrying rho+cloned into HindIII-SalI sites of pAM34 vector. The plasmid exhibits IPTG dependent replication (Harinarayanan and Gowrishankar, 2003). pHYD1622 is the derivative of pHYD1201 where the Ampicillin resistance marker has been replaced with Chloramphenicol using Wanner method of gene replacement. Cm gene was amplified from pKD3 plasmid (K. Anupama, unpublished). pHYD1623 is the derivative of pHYD751 where the Ampicillin resistance marker has been replaced with Chloramphenicol using Wanner method of gene replacement. Cm gene was amplified from pKD3 plasmid (K. Anupama, unpublished). pHYD2368 is a derivative of pBAD18 (AmpR) with 1.7 kb fragment encompassing RBS and coding region of uvsW from phage T4gt7 into SacI site of pBAD18 (K. Leela, unpublished). pHYD2554 is a derivative of pMBL18 with ampicillin resistance, carrying the 10-kb EcoRI-HindIII fragment between kilobase co-ordinates 3310.06 and 3320.08 of the E. coli
    4. to CCT mutation leading to a Glutamic acid to Glycine change at the 53rd amino acid and a Threonine to Proline change at the 55th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-I119T is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with ATC to ACC mutation leading to a Isoleucine to Threonine change at the 119th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-P116S is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with CCA to TCA mutation leading to a Proline to Serine change at the 116th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-Y97C is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with TAT to TGT mutation leading to a Tyrosine to Cysteine change at the 97th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pPMrhoCam is a Ts (maintained at 30 ̊C but not at 37 ̊ or 39 ̊C), CmR, pSC101 derivative carrying PuvII-HindIII fragment containing trxArho+ cloned into PuvII-HindIII sites of pPM103 (Martinez et al., 1996). pTrc99A an expression vector with ColE1 origin of replication and ampicillin resistance marker. Provides IPTG dependent induction of the insert (Amann et al., 1988). pUC19 is a high-copy-number ColE1 based E.coli cloning vector (500-700 copies/cell) with an Ampr selectable marker. It is one of a series of related plasmids constructed by Messing and co-workers and contains portions of pBR322 and M13mp19 (Yanisch-Perron et al., 1985). It carries a multiple-cloning site (MCS) region in the lacZα fragment, and therefore allows for blue-white screening of recombinant clones
    5. pAM34 is a pBR322-derived cloning vector with Ampr and Specr selectable markers. The replication of this plasmid is dependent on the presence of IPTG, the gratuitous inducer of the lac operon (Gil and Bouche, 1991). pBAD18 is an expression vector with a pBR322 derived origin of replication and allows for tightly regulated expression of the genes cloned under the PBAD promoter of the araBADoperon (Guzman et al., 1995). The vector also carries the araC gene, encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter. pBluescript II KS (pBKS) is also a high-copy-number ColE1 based cloning vector with Ampr selectable marker and blue-white screening facility (obtained from Stratagene). pCL1920 is a low-copy-number vector with pSC101 replicon (~ 5 copies/cell), that carries streptomycin (Str)/spectinomycin (Spec)-resistance marker (encoded by aadA) and also carries a MCS region within the lacZα that allows blue-white screening to detect recombinants (Lerner and Inouye, 1990). pCP20 pSC101-based Ts replicon, CmR AmpR, for in vivo expression of Flp recombinase (Datsenko and Wanner, 2000). pLG339 is a low-copy-number cloning vector with pSC101 replicon that has a Kanrselectable marker (Stoker et al., 1982). pLG-H-NS is a pLG339 derivative where the hns ORF had been cloned into the EcoRI-SalIsites of pLG339 vector (KanR, pSC101) (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NSΔ64 is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with AT base pair deletion after codon 63 in the hns gene resulting in a frameshift (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-L26P is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with CTG to CCG mutation leading to a Leucine to Proline change at the 26th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-E53G/T55P is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with GAG to GGG and ACT
    6. pACYC184 is a medium-copy-number cloning vector (~ 20 copies/cell) with Cmr and Tetrselectable markers. It carries the origin of replication from plasmid p15A (Chang and Cohen, 1978), which is related to and yet is compatible with that of ColE1. This property enables pACYC184 to co-exist in cells with ColE1 plasmid vectors, including all the ones mentioned above
    7. Plasmids that have been described elsewhere
    8. Plasmids
    1. Genomic DNAisolation buffersBuffer A:50 mM Tris-HCl10mM EDTA150 mM NaCl 1% Triton-X 1% SDSBuffer B:50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA1.1 M Sorbitol50 mM β-mercaptoethanol(To be added just before use
    2. Buffer C:100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA10% SDSRNA isolation bufferAE buffer: 3 M Sodium acetate0.5 M EDTA(pH 8.0)Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl Alcohol (25:24:1)solution:25 volume of Phenol24 volume of Chloroform1 volume of Isoamyl alcholDNA sampleloading buffer:0.25% Bromophenol blue0.25% Xylene cyanol15% Ficoll
    3. Genomic DNA and RNA isolation buffers
    4. 0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base2% DextroseYeast Carbon Base (YCB):1.17% Yeast CarbonBase1% DextroseCAA:0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base 2% Dextrose0.6% Casamino acids Plates weremade by adding 2% agar
    5. Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose (YPD):1% Yeast extract2% Peptone 2% DextroseYeast Nitrogen Base (YNB)
    6. Yeast medium
    7. Luria Bertani (LB):0.5% Yeast Extract1% Tryptone 1% NaCl LB-ampicillinand LB-kanamycin plates:LB medium50 μg/ml ampicillin30 μg/ml kanamycinSuper Optimal Broth (SOB): 0.5% Yeast extract2% Peptone 10 mM NaCl2.5 mM KCl10 mM MgCl210 mM MgSO4
    8. Bacterial medium
    1. SDS-loading buffer was prepared as a 4X stock solutionin H2Oand used at a 1X concentration.SDS-PAGE running buffer0.25 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1.92 M Glycine1% SDSRunning buffer was preparedas a 10X stock solution and diluted to 1X concentration before use.Buffers for Western blotanalysisTransfer buffer (10X stock solution)0.25 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1.92 M Glycine1% SDSTransfer buffer was prepared as a 10X stock solution and diluted to 1X concentration.1X Transfer buffer (1 litre)200 ml of methanol100 ml of 10X transfer buffer700 ml of waterTris-BufferSaline (TBS)25 mM Tris150 mM NaClpH was adjusted to 7.4 with HCl.TBS buffer was prepared asa10X stock solution and diluted to 1X concentration.Blocking and wash buffers (PBS-T and TBS-T)5% Fat-free milk0.1% Tween-20Volume was made to 100 ml with 1X TBS
    2. 1 mM sodium orthovanadate1 X protease inhibitor cocktail SDS-PAGE30% Acrylamide solution29 g Acrylamide1 gBis-acrylamideDissolved in 100 ml H2O.10% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)10 g SDS in 100 ml H2OResolving gel mix (12%) (20 ml)6.6 ml H2O8 ml 30% acrylamide:bisacrylamide (29:1) mix5 ml 1.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.8)200 μl 10% SDS200 μl 10% Ammonium persulfate(APS)8 μl N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylethylenediamine(TEMED)Stacking gel mix (5%, 6 ml)4.1 ml H2O1 ml 30% acrylamide:bisacrylamide (29:1) mix750 μl 1 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8)60 μl 10% SDS60 μl 10% APS6 μl TEMEDSDS loading buffer130 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)20% (v/v) Glycerol4.6% (w/v) SDS0.02% Bromophenol Blue2% DTT
    3. Whole cell lysis buffer (Homogenizing buffer)50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)2 mM EDTA10 mM sodium fluoride
    4. Buffers for protein extraction and analysis by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis)
    5. Oligonucleotides used in this study were designed either by freely available online tool Primer 3 plus (http://www.bioinformatics.nl/cgi-bin/primer3plus/primer3plus.cgi/)or Generunner software. Oligonucleotides were commercially synthesised at MWG Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India. Oligonucleotides used in this study are listed in Table 2.3
    6. Oligonucleotides
    1. Malachite green reagent
    2. DNA loading dye
    3. Neutralization solution(Solution III)
    4. EMSA Buffer
    5. Blocking buffer: 2% BSA
    6. Stripping Buffer
    7. Blocking Buffer
    8. TBST
    9. Transfer Buffer
    10. Running Buffer
    11. Stacking and resolving AcrylamidegelsResolving gel (10 ml)
    12. 6X protein loading buffer (Laemmlibuffer)
    13. Cell lysis buffer(RIPA Buffer)
    14. For Immunoblotting
    15. Sodium Chloride (NaCl)ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 100 mlNaCl5M29.22gH2Oq.s
    1. 5X EMSA buffer
    2. 6X DNA loading dye
    3. Blocking buffer: 2% BSA
    4. Permeabilisation buffer: 0.2% Triton X100
    5. 4% Formaldehyde fixative
    6. For Immunofluorescence(IF)
    7. (c) 6X Protein loading buffer (Lammeli buffer)
    8. Wild type or H133S mutant of profilin-1 witheither FLAG or un-tagged werecloned in pcDNA3.1 (+).Mdm2 gene upstreampromoter region having p53 binding site was cloned in pLUC vector (designated as p53-Luc). The constructs of NF-κB-SEAP, p65 (RelA), wild type and dominant negativeIKKβ(IKKβ-WT and IKKβ-DN, respectively)were a kind gift fromProf.Bharat B. Aggarwal (M. D. Anderson Cancer Center,Houston, TX). The constitutive active mutant of IKKβ, in which two serine residues are mutated to glutamic acid, at position 177 and 181 (referred as IKKβ-EE or IKKβ-CA) was gifted byProf. GourisankarGhosh (University of California, San Diego, USA).FLAG or Myc tagged Full length andtruncationmutants of PTEN wereprovided by Dr.M.Subba Reddy (CDFD, Hyderabad).For p53 gene knockdownstudies, TP53 mission shRNA were obtained from Sigma Aldrich (St Louis, MO, USA). For PTEN silencing, retroviral vector based PTEN shRNA (shRNA#1-AGGCGCTATGTGTATTATTAT; shRNA#2-CCACAGCTAG-AACTTATCAAA; shRNA#3-CCACAAATGAAGGGATATAAA)wasgifted by Dr. M.Subba Reddy (CDFD, Hyderabad)
    9. Plasmids
    1. 20 mM HEPES500 mM NaCl 2 mM EDTA1% Triton-XYeast protease inhibitor cocktail and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail (added fresh to the buffer C)IP7 reaction buffer(10X)250 mM HEPES,pH 7.4500 mM NaCl60 mM MgCl210 mM DTT (1 M stock was made separately, aliquoted into 100 μL and stored at -20oC).10X buffer was made and stored at 4oC. An appropriate amount was added to the reaction mix to get a final concentration of 1X.DTT was added fresh to the reaction buffer just before use
    2. Buffer C
    3. 50 mM Tris-HCl,pH7.450 mM NH4Cl12 mM MgCl21 mM DTT0.1%DEPC37% sucrose solution
    4. 100mM NaCl30mM MgCl250μg/mLcycloheximide 200μg/mL heparin All the components were made in DEPC treated water.Gradient buffer10% sucrose gradient buffer50 mM Tris-HCl,pH7.450 mM NH4Cl12 mM MgCl21 mM DTT0.1%DEPC10% sucrose solutionTo analyse individual ribosome subunits, MgCl2 was eliminated from the gradient buffer.30% sucrose gradient buffer50 mM Tris-HCl,pH7.450 mM NH4Cl12 mM MgCl21 mM DTT0.1%DEPC30% sucrose To analyse individual ribosome subunits, MgCl2 was eliminated from the gradient buffer.50% sucrose gradient buffer50 mM Tris-HCl,pH7.450 mM NH4Cl12 mM MgCl21 mM DTT0.1%DEPC50% sucrose To analyse individual ribosome subunits, MgCl2 was eliminated from the gradient buffer.37% sucrose gradient buffer
    5. Lysis buffer10mM Tris, pH7.4
    6. Buffers for ribosome and polysome analysis
    7. Oligonucleotides used in this study were designed manually by examining the relevant DNA sequences. Oligonucleotides were commercially synthesised at MWG Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, Indiaor Ocimum biosolutions, Hyderabad, India. Oligonucleotides used inthis study are listed in Table 2.4 and 2.5
    8. Oligonucleotides
    1. All the primers (sequences)used for cloning the above-mentioned genes are providedin AppendixI
    2. using gateway cloning method (Invitrogen). P73domain deletions were cloned in SFB destination vector. WWP2, WWP1, HACE1, E6AP, and PPM1G were cloned into SFB (S-protein/Flag/streptavidin binding protein (SBP) triple tag), GFP,and Myc mammalian destination vectors using the Gateway cloning technology (Invitrogen). WWP2 domain deletions were cloned into Myc-destination vector. WWP1 domain deletions were cloned into SFB-destination vector. PPM1G domain deletions were cloned into SFB mammalian destination vector using Gateway cloning. Bacterially expressing GST-p73, GST-∆Np73, GST-PPM1G, MBP-WWP1, MBP-WWP2, GST-WWP2, GST-WWP1 and GST-HACE1 were generated by using gateway technology. Ubiquitin WT and all the mutants were cloned into hemagglutinin (HA) mammalian destination vector. Flag-tagged Dvl2was purchased from Addgene. Dvl2 domain deletions were cloned into SFB-destination vectors. All the plasmid constructs generated in the present study are mentioned in table 2.Table 2: Plasmids used in the study
    3. TAp73α and ∆Np73α were kindly gifted by Alex Zaika, Vanderbilt University. Full-length p73 and ∆Np73 were cloned into Myc and HA mammalian destination vectors
    4. Expression plasmids
    1. 10% APS -30 μlTEMED -3 μlSDS loading buffer (2X)100 mM Tris-HCl (pH-6.8)20% (v/v) Glycerol4% (W/V) SDS0.02% Bromophenol Blue10% β-MercaptoethanolSDS-loading buffer was prepared as 2X stock solution in H2O and used at 1X concentration.SDS-PAGE running buffer14.4 g Glycine3.03 g Tris methylamine1 g SDSDissolved in H2O and volume was adjusted to 1L with H2O.Buffers for western blot analysisTransfer buffer (1 litre)14.4 g Glycine3.03 g Tris methylamine800 ml H2O 200 ml methanolBlocking and wash buffers (PBS-T)5% Fat-free milk0.05% Tween-20Volume was adjusted to 100 ml with1XPBS
    2. Whole cell lysis buffer50 mM Sodium acetate 410 mg Sodium acetate anhydrous was dissolved in 80 ml H2O. pH was adjusted to 5.4 with glacial acetic acid and finally volume was adjusted to 100 ml with H2O.1 mM PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) in isopropanol.Dialysis buffer50 mM Trizma basepH was adjusted to 7.5 by using concentrated HCl.Silver stainingFixing solution50% ethanol10% glacial acetic acid0.05% formaldehydeFinal volume was adjusted with sterile H2O.0.2% Silver nitrate solution (AgNO3)0.2 g AgNO3
    3. 0.075% formaldehyde (37% stock) Dissolved in 100 ml of H2O. Stored at 4°C for 1 hour in brown colored bottle.Developing solution 6% Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)0.05% Formaldehyde (37% stock)0.02% Sodium thiosulphateStorage buffer50% EthanolSDS-PAGE30% Acrylamide solution29 g Acrylamide1 g Bis-acrylamideAcrylamide solution was prepared in H2O.Resolving gel mix (12%) (10 ml)H2O -3.3 ml30% Acrylamide:Bisacrylamide mix (29:1) -4 ml1.5 M Tris-HCl (pH-8.8) -2.5 ml10% SDS -100 μl10% Ammonium persulphate (APS) -100 μlN, N, N’,N’,-Tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) -4 μlStacking gel mix (5%, 3 ml)H2O -2.1 ml30% acrylamide:bisacrylamide mix (29:1) -500 μl1.5 M Tris-HCl (pH-6.8) -380 μl 10% SDS -30 μl
    4. Buffers and solutions for protein extraction, analysis by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamaide gel electrophoresis) and silver staining
    5. Rifr, Apr, Kmr, Gmr, Tetrand Spcrindicate resistant to rifampicin, ampicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin and spectinomycin, respectively.Table 2.2: List of oligonucleotides used in the study
    6. hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, methanol, acetic acid, acetone and nitric acid were purchased from Fischer Scientific. Protease inhibitor tablets were procured from Roche. Hybond-P membranes for protein transfer were purchased from Amersham Biosciences. Taq DNA polymerase and Hi-fidelity Taq DNA polymerase were purchased from Thermoscientific and Larova, respectively. SYBR-green kit for real-time PCRwas procured from Qiagen and Thermoscientific. Superscript SS-III RT kit was obtained from Invitrogen. Random hexamers were obtained from Qiagen. Different restriction enzymes used for cloning and mutation generation were purchased from New EnglandBiolabs (NEB). Plasmid DNA purification, PCR purification, gel extraction and reaction clean up kits were procured from Qiagen. Medium components for bacterial culture viz., sucrose, agar, Luria Bertani (LB), Nutrient Agar (NA), peptone, yeast extract, beef extract, magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2.6H2O) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) were purchased from Himedia. Table 2.1: List of strains and plasmids used in the study
    7. Agarose, phenol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), sodium acetate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, mangenese sulphate, tris methylamine, trizma base, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), formamide, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), glycerol, polyethylene glycol, tributyrin, ammonium persulphate, TEMED, acrylamide, bis-acrylamide, coomassie brilliant blue (CBB), β-mercaptoethanol, chloroform, formaldehyde, nuclease free water, diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), isopropanol, ferrozine, glycine, sodium lauryl sarcosine, carbonylcyanidep-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), benzyl amino purine (BAP), ferrozine, tween-20, triton-X-100, aniline blue, trisodium citrate dehydrate, remazol brilliant blue-xylan (RBB-xylan), lactic acid, nicotinic acid, hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA), p-nitrophenol, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC cellulose), sodium phosphate dibasic, sodium phosphate monobasic, rubidium chloride, ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, ammonium sulphate, 2,5-diphenyloxazol (PPO), 1,4-bis (5 phenyl 1,2-oxazole) Benzene (POPOP) and 2, 2-dipyridyl were purchased from Sigma Chemicals. Sodium hypochloride, disodium hydrogen orthophosphate dehydrate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxid
    8. Chemicals, kits and culture medium components
    1. 2% DTTThe stock solution of SDS loading buffer was made asa4 X concentrateand was added to the protein sample to the final concentration of 1 X.SDS-PAGE running buffer0.25 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1.92 M Glycine1% SDSThe stock solution was prepared as a 10 X concentrate and was diluted to 1 X concentration prior to use.Resolving gel mix (12%, 10 ml)3.3 ml H2O4 ml 30% Acrylamide:N,N’-Methylenebisacrylamide (29:1) mix2.5 ml 1.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.8)100 μl 10% SDS100 μl 10% Ammonium persulfate (APS)4 μl N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED)Stacking gel mix (5%, 3 ml)2.1 ml H2O0.5 ml 30% Acrylamide:N,N’-Methylenebisacrylamide (29:1) mix380 μl 1 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8)30 μl 10% SDS30 μl 10% APS3 μl TEMED
    2. 2% DTTThe stock solution of SDS loading buffer was made asa4 X concentrateand was added to the protein sample to the final concentration of 1 X.SDS-PAGE running buffer0.25 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1.92 M Glycine1% SDSThe stock solution was prepared as a 10 X concentrate and was diluted to 1 X concentration prior to use.Resolving gel mix (12%, 10 ml)3.3 ml H2O4 ml 30% Acrylamide:N,N’-Methylenebisacrylamide (29:1) mix2.5 ml 1.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.8)100 μl 10% SDS100 μl 10% Ammonium persulfate (APS)4 μl N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED)Stacking gel mix (5%, 3 ml)2.1 ml H2O0.5 ml 30% Acrylamide:N,N’-Methylenebisacrylamide (29:1) mix380 μl 1 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8)30 μl 10% SDS30 μl 10% APS3 μl TEMED
    3. Total cell lysis buffer (Homogenization buffer)50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)2 mM EDTA10 mM Sodium fluoride*1 mM Sodium orthovanadate*1 X protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma, P 8215)** Were added fresh before use.SDS-PAGE30% acrylamide solution29 g Acrylamide1 g N,N’-MethylenebisacrylamideDissolved in 100 ml H2O10% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)10 g SDS in 100 ml H2OSDS loading buffer130 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)20% (v/v) Glycerol4.6% (w/v) SDS0.02% Bromophenol blue
    4. Buffers for protein extraction and separation by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis)
    5. Table 2.4: List of antibodies used in thisstudy
    6. All antibodies used in thisstudy, their clonality and dilutions used,Manufacturers’ details,and catalogue numbersare listed in Table 2.4
    7. Antibodies
    1. All animal experiments were conducted as per guidelines provided by the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals, Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, Government of India,and these experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol numbers PCD/CDFD/02-version 2 and PCD/CDFD/08). Mice used for this study were housed in the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics animal facility located within the premises of Vimta Labs, Hyderbad.Ip6k1+/-heterozygous mice were bred to generate age and sex matched Ip6k1+/+and Ip6k1-/-littermates for experiments. Foxn1numice were generated by breeding homozygous males with heterozygous females.These mice were used for in vivotumourigenic assays
    2. Mice