28 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2020
    1. paedomorphic features

      Also called Juvenilization is the delaying or slowing of the psychological (or somatic) development of an organism

    2. show that dogs produce the eyebrow movement significantly more often and with higher intensity than wolves do,

      Could this be because Wolves don't "need" to move their eyebrows to communicate and dogs do? Why do dogs move their eyebrows more than wolves?

    3. Recent research suggests that eye contact between humans and dogs is crucial for dog−human social interaction.

      This is interesting just based off of the work I have done with dogs. Staring is predatory and reflects dominance this is actually a trait found in wolves as well as many species. Dogs do this as well as an intimidation tactic it is often seen in dominant breeds to test their human to see if they are able to get away with bad behavior. This isn’t always the reason they stare sometimes they just have a lot of focus on the activity you are doing. Dogs are more docile and don’t always view eye contact as a threat and do find comfort in their humans. I just think the underlying trait was passed on.

  2. Sep 2019
    1. domestication

      is the process of adapting wild plants and animals for human use. Domestication in animals being the mutual relationship between animals and the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction.

    2. orbicularis oculi muscle

      a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids. It arises from the nasal part of the frontal bone, from the frontal process of the maxilla in front of the lacrimal groove, and from the anterior surface and borders of a short fibrous band, the medial palpebral ligament.

    3. muscular changes can be linked directly to enhanced social interaction with humans.

      WIth increased social interactions with humans directly linking to muscular changes, can this also be the case with behaviors, like a dislike for a human wearing a hat for instance. I have come into contact with a couple breeds that have shown this behavior, Shiba Inu/American Eskimo mix and German Shepherds. Not all instances but in these two breeds more than others.

    4. mutual gaze between dogs and humans

      Humans develope a distinct psycological connection between one another from a very early age. Majority of our interactions growing up are made face to face making eye contact. Of which, eye contact can inspire trust, fear, doubt, ect. A psychologist Christian Jarrett writes a blog about the connections we make with just eye contact, or lack there of. bellow is a small quote introducing his topic- "Our sensitivity to eye contact begins incredibly early. Infants of just two days of age prefer looking at faces that gaze back at them. Similarly, recordings of the brain activity of four-month-olds show that they process gazing faces more deeply than faces that are looking away..." For more information https://digest.bps.org.uk/2016/11/28/the-psychology-of-eye-contact-digested/

    5. humans consciously or unconsciously selected for exaggerated eyebrow movements in dogs

      With this hypothesis, could it also be possible that humans consciously-unconsciously have a selected preference for this trait of facial expressions in all other animals? Further more, could this be a small contribution to our selection in house hold cats/felines? Or even so towards inanimate object, such as a car of which has a front end that resembles a sort of face?

    6. intraclass correlation coefficient

      The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is a measure of the reliability of measurements or ratings. Resource: https://www.medcalc.org/manual/intraclasscorrelation.php

    7. Dogs are more skillful in using human communicative cues

      An example of that are Dog show competitions. In these shows you can see how well behaved and manipulated a dog can be, given the right artificial selection pressuares. In the video below you can see how dogs are trainned for these kinf of competitions and how well they can understand and read directions from humans. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8IQ6kuSSi1A

    8. domesticated silver foxes

      This reminded me of Dmitri Belyaev's silver fox experiment. He decided he wanted to try domesticating silver foxes. After six fox generations these wild foxes started have dog like characteristics. They started to wanting for belly rubs, develop floppy ears and dog-like snouts. Another thing these silver foxes developed is that they started to follow the gaze of humans. This article talked a lot about how mutual gaze between dogs and human increased production of oxytocin in both species which increased the motivation to establish eye contact. Its cool to see how both experiments lead to the same conclusion.

      https://undark.org/2019/02/07/silver-fox-experiment/

    9. taxidermy

      "the art of preparing, stuffing, and mounting the skins of animals with lifelike effect"- Oxford Dictionary

    10. paedomorphic

      "(of an animal) retaining juvenile features as an adult" - Oxford dictionary

    11. posterolaterall

      Definition: Situated on the side and towards the back of the body Posterior: Situated behind Lateral: The side of the body

    12. analogous

      Analogous is a term used in biology to refer to body parts that have a similar function but differ in structure, such as the wings of a bird and the wings of an airplane.

    13. eye movement gives dogs

      Is this something that has developed in other animals to produce the same effect?

    14. gaze-camouflaging eyes

      This means that instead of having a white sclera like humans, they have a dark sclera which "camouflages" their intent to other animals. It is theorized that human's have sacrificed this camouflage for the sake of communication. Which also ties in the communication between human and dog.

    15. unique and diagnostic of the evolution of human cultures

      I think it is really interesting that different cultures have different animals and values on them and that our bonds to them change the way they evolve. Animals have evolved along side humans and their cultures and it if humans can affect how dogs evolve then dogs and their bonds could also influence human evolution

    16. orbicularis occuli muscle

      This is the muscle that closes the eye lid. It is also found in humans.

    17. nurturing response

      Nurturing response - Connected Discipline is a trauma-informed training designed to teach effective discipline strategies through nurturing and connected responses

      Reference: https://www.chsnc.org/event/charlotte-nurturing-response-connected-discipline-1-24-18/

    18. future research

      We talk about the unconscious selection during social interactions and the correlation with Oxytocin. Now it gives examples of doing research with cats, domestic horses, etc.. because they also have the hormone Oxytocin, nicknames the love hormone, however fish has a love hormone called Isotocin.

      My question is can we have a dog/human bond like we have but a fish/human bond. Why is it that Oxytocin in different species seem to react with other species that have Oxytocin but why it doesn't react or does it react to a different species with Isotocin even though both of these hormones have very similar reaction (example: love hormone)?

      "Reddon and his research team studied the cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, an unusual species that forms permanent hierarchical social groups. Each group has a dominant breeding pair with many helpers to look after young and defend territory." -Marinesciencetoday.com

      Read more: http://marinesciencetoday.com/2012/10/11/fish-also-react-to-the-love-drug/#ixzz5yVbxqrx7

    19. paedomorphic (infant-like) anatomical features

      Could someone explain to me what is paedomorphic anatomical features? I researched but couldn't understand exactly what it is, especially in this context.

    20. selection advantage

      When a neutral allele is linked to beneficial allele, consequently meaning that it has a selective advantage, the allele frequency can increase in the population through genetic hitchhiking (also called genetic draft).

      Reference: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/adaptive-evolution/

    21. Eye contact also helps dogs to know when communication is relevant and directed at them, as dogs tend to ignore human pointing gestures when the human’s eyes are not visible (8, 9).

      Could someone explain to me how this connection can occur? I found it very interesting.

    22. Oxytocin

      Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. It is very importante in social bonding, sexual reproduction, childbirth, and the period after childbirth.

    23. paedomorphism

      The evolutionary process in which larval or juvenile features of an ancestral organism are displaced to the adult forms of its descendants. It can arise by neoteny or progenesis.

      So from my understanding, this is showing comparable traits to other species that have been related at some point in the taxonomy but only in larval or juvenile stages of life. After this stage in life, the traits will fade.

      Reference: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164562

    24. paedomorphism

      I read the definition that the colleague put bellow and I was still confused so I went after examples based on other animals and found an interesting one that made me understand better. An example is the Mexican axolotl opposite that when it reaches adulthood it retains the gills of feathers that animals of related species lose when they are young.

    25. analogous

      comparable in certain respects.