2,595 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. That it thus reduces to nothing what we have deemed the greatest improvement on political institutions -- a written constitution -- would of itself be sufficient, in America, where written constitutions have been viewed with so much reverence, for rejecting the construction.

      At this point, Marshall has invoked the idea of and principle behind written constitutions generally about 5 times. I don't take issue with his argument, but is there a reason he acts as if the principle behind a constitution is so well understood but does not invoke specific examples from somewhere else? Did he think this was not helpful for a young United States in defining the scope of its own laws? Or did he not have a useful example of a written constitution from another nation to cite?

    2. To enable this court then to issue a mandamus, it must be shown to be an exercise of appellate jurisdiction, or to be necessary to enable them to exercise appellate jurisdiction.

      I think I'm lost at this point? I'm not entirely sure what point they are trying to make, and there are far too many large words in the previous paragraph for me to be able to make sense of what is happening in this section. I certainly feel lost.

    1. Stephen G. Breyer

      I believe Justice Breyer is part of the majority. Similar to Justice Alito, he gives Layton several hypotheticals. Layton's argument toward these hypotheticals show discrimination by not giving benefits, such as policemen, to a church simply because it is religious. Justice Breyer also sounds annoyed and short with Layton.

    2. Elena Kagan

      I believe Justice Kagan is the second dissenter. She seems to side against Cortman as she argues that the States should have some flexibility in their choices. She questions what would happen if one church received benefits while a different church didn't. Cortman goes on to say that the program is religion blind, but its seemed to me that she was not agreeing with anything he said.

    3. and there is a point where you can accommodate religion,

      I am a little confused with Cortman's argument. If the court favors religion, then theres an Establishment Clause problem, but if the court attacks religion, then theres a Free Exercise Clause problem. How can these things be balanced out? When is it appropriate to accommodate religion? What are other examples of the court accommodating religion?

    4. World Vision brief,

      What is the World Vision Brief? Is this apart of the amicus brief? Im confused and already not familiar about what exactly an amicus brief is.

    5. Neil Gorsuch

      I think justice Gorsuch is another one of the majority voters here. He seems very secure on the basis of religious discrimination as opposed to the questions of sotomayor and kagan who seemed to recognize it as a possible issue with the inclusion of other religions. He already seems convinced that it was a case of discrimination against the church.

    6. For example, in that case, we have independent decisionmaking, which has been key to many of this Court's decisions.

      Layton is in majority rule for the church funding the playground by his statement of independent decision making. He specifically says its in the hands of the state.

    7. But there's -- there's government coercion when you say there's a public benefit, and the only way you could receive that public benefit is if you do not exercise your religion.

      I understand the idea that public benefit from the government and religious states should not mix. Are there other examples of government coercion to public benefit you could provide as examples?

    8. we don't want to, as a country -- well, the vast majority of States, to fund houses of worship.

      I also read this as a sign of a dissenting justice. I believe Sotomayor is a dissenting justice because she strictly says the state does not fund places of worship. She goes on to say that if the state is free from places of worship, then funding it would affect free exercise.

    9. Elena Kagan

      I think this is a great point brought up by justice Kagan. It ties back to one of my questions I left earlier. She seems to think that there may be a risk of favoritism and a violation of that establishment clause that Cortman keeps talking about but going the other way. And again Cortman doesn't do a good job answering that question, in fact in this example he sidesteps it all together and simply says the system is set up to not discriminate and be "religion blind" Although that sounds great, the problem is discriminatory people wont be "religion blind" which is something she seems to realize.

    10. And so on one side you have the Establishment Clause.

      I looked up the establishment clause and it is essentially a clause put within the fifth amendment that prohibits congress from establishing religion. To me it seems like funding a religion is a very good way to establish it so I'm not sure exactly what his point is here. Unless he is suggesting that all religious schools recieve the same public benefits/funding. And unfortunately I have a hard time believing that certain states would ever fund anything other than christianity if it was left to a state level decision.

    11. Okay?

      Based on Justice Breyer's tone in this section, which seems to indicate annoyance with the respondant, I'm going to conclude that he was one of the Justices who voted with the majority. While it is possible that his tone is merely a tool to probe the strength of Layton's legal argument, it sounds more like he has already made up his mind and is growing impatient with having to hear Layton's case.

    12. I know your white light is on.

      Do any of my fellow students know what Justice Kagan is referring to here? Is Cortman's "white light" perhaps a five-minute warning light, since we are reaching the 25-minute mark, and each party gets 30 minutes? Or perhaps it just means "it's time to wrap it up?"

    13. That's a history that's even longer than the Locke history.

      Although I wasn't feeling sure beforehand, this moment from Justice Sotomayor fortified my notion that she was the second dissenting Justice in this case. Just as Ginsberg did, she chose to utilize the Stare Decisis method of decision making, and asserts here that the older a legal precedent that has been set is, the more firmly it holds as an establishment of proper interpretation of law. This solififies her argument that follows, that as a country we should not fund religious places of worship.

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  2. Sep 2021
    1. s. This study originated from the desire of tenants to obtain reliable data which they could use for their cause. They did not carry out the study but they were consulted so that its form would serve their needs. They subsequently made use of the findings to argue their case both to the media and to the local authori

      The study had benefit for the communities.

    2. Damp ho

      Damp rental homes creating health issues in Scotland.

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    1. Because the kind of examples Your Honor is giving are examples where the -- the benefits are universal. They are not selective, which they are here; they are universal. So we start on the endorsement side.

      This is a very good point that I feel like is ignored. I have to wonder why this was not expanded on further - both by Layton himself or one of the justices.

    2. how Missouri interprets the term "church" in its constitution?

      This question by Justice Alito made me realize that each state may have its own definition of "church". If this is to be one of the deciding factors of this particular case, and a case of the same material opens up in a different state, would the Supreme Court use Trinity Lutheran v. Comer to decide in a similar manner? Or would they have to judge with no stare decisis because of the different terms within the different state constitutions?

    1. Refusing to stand convicted on the teacher's charges of laziness, I'd spend four hours a night on my homework,working even longer whenever we were assigned an essay. I suppose I could have gotten by with less, but I wasdetermined to create some sort of an identity for myself. We'd have one of those "complete the sentence"exercises, and I'd fool with the thing for hours, invariably settling on something like, "A quick run around thelake? I'd love to. Just give me a minute to strap on my wooden leg." The teacher, through word and action,conveyed the message that, if this was my idea of an identity, she wanted nothing to do with it.

      trying really hard to make himself stand out. spending alot of time on his work maybe going above and beyond. its all for nothing though teacher doesn't seem amused

    2. When called upon, I delivered an effortless list of things I detest: blood sausage, intestinal pâté, brain pudding.I'd learned these words the hard way. Having given it some thought, I then declared my love for IBM typewriters,the French word for "bruise," and my electric oor waxer. It was a short list, but still I managed to mispronounceIBM and afford the wrong gender to both the oor waxer and the typewriter. Her reaction led me to believe thatthese mistakes were capital crimes in the country of France.

      he thought he was doing well until he mispronounced ibm and learns that it was a mistake he shouldn't of made because of how the teacher was ridiculing every single student he was confused as to why the teacher was referring to objects as genders it just didn't make sense to him

    3. While the optimist struggled to defend herself, I scrambled to think of an answer to what had obviously becomea trick question. How often are you asked what you love in this world? More important, how often are you askedand then publicly ridiculed for your answer? I recalled my mother, ushed with wine, pounding the table lateone night, saying, "Love? I love a good steak cooked rare. I love my cat, and I love . . ." My sisters and I leanedforward, waiting to hear our names. "Tums," our mother said. "I love Tums.

      he realized at this moment he was screwed becasue of the teachers attitude towards everyone. he was reminded of his childhood and how he felt towards his mother.

    4. The second Anna learned from the rst and claimed to love sunshine and detest lies. It sounded like a translationof one of those Playmate of the Month data sheets, the answers always written in the same loopy handwriting:"Turn-ons: Mom's famous ve-alarm chili! Turnoffs: Insincerity and guys who come on too strong!!!

      very cliche he probably felt like she was boring

    5. Oh, really," the teacher said. "How very interesting. I thought that everyone loved the mosquito, but here, infront of all the world, you claim to detest him. How is it that we've been blessed with someone as unique andoriginal as you? Tell us, please."

      very sarcastic towards the student

    6. 've moved to Paris in order to learn the language. My school is the Alliance Française, and on the rst day ofclass, I arrived early, watching as the returning students greeted one another in the school lobby. Vacations wererecounted, and questions were raised concerning mutual friends with names like Kang and Vlatnya. Regardlessof their nationalities, everyone spoke what sounded to me like excellent French. Some accents were better thanothers, but the students exhibited an ease and condence I found intimidating. As an added discomfort, theywere all young, attractive, and well dressed, causing me to feel not unlike Pa Kettle trapped backstage after afashion show

      hes feeling nervous apparently and is aware of his surroundings and kind of feels out of place.

    1. Đọc sách nghe tưởng chừng là việc quen thuộc và phức tạp vô cùng đối với nhiều người mà lại trở nên đơn giản đến không tưởng với cách diễn tả sâu sắc qua từng câu chuyện của tác giả Phan Thanh Dũng.

    1. The main idea comes at the beginning, the bodyparagraphs support the main idea, and the conclusion wraps up the whole thing

      This is good to know and remember so you know what to look for when reading something. i have to make sure to have these 3 components when writing any kind of essay.

    1. art. D. 411-2 du code de l’éducation).

      Le conseil d'école vote le règlement intérieur de l'école, établit le projet d’organisation pédagogique de la semaine scolaire, dans le cadre de l'élaboration du projet d'école à laquelle il est associé, donne tous avis et présente toutes suggestions sur le fonctionnement de l'école et sur toutes les questions intéressant la vie de l'école (par exemple, intégration des enfants handicapés, activités périscolaires, restauration scolaire, hygiène scolaire, sécurité des enfants, art. D. 411-2 du code de l’éducation).

  3. Aug 2021
    1. Task 2 Briefly not the main topics throughout each section of the text. This section explains the differences in philosophy from other types of science. It shows how they collect knowledge and that there is not a definite answer to philosophical questions. Restate the main point of th opening paragraph in your own words. The opening paragraphs main point is that philosophy is the study of value. Many time it is undermined by other types of science that claim it is pointless. These people do not allow any kind of growth outside of said science. Estate the main point of the closing paragraph in your own words Philosophy’s goal is not to come to a conclusion but instead expand you thoughts. This is the knowledge that makes it possible to grow how we think. Everyone find and define two vocabulary words Unalloyed-complete and unreserved Dogmatism-the tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true.

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    1. Hillus, David, Tatjana Schwarz, Pinkus Tober-Lau, Hana Hastor, Charlotte Thibeault, Stefanie Kasper, Elisa T. Helbig, et al. “Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of Homologous and Heterologous Prime-Boost Immunisation with ChAdOx1-NCoV19 and BNT162b2: A Prospective Cohort Study,” June 2, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.19.21257334.

    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘RT @theosanderson: Introducing 🌳https://t.co/m8MusGFkpI: a new tool that lets you dive into a tree of more than a million public SARS-CoV-2…’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 16 August 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1412418927871864835

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    1. Prof. Devi Sridhar. “Rest of the World Watching Closely: ‘In Scotland, Estimated That 92.5% of Adults Would Have Tested Positive for Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 on a Blood Test in the Week Beginning 12 July 2021’- Is This Enough to Dampen Transmission & Protect under 12s from Infection? Under 18s?” Tweet. @devisridhar (blog), August 4, 2021. https://twitter.com/devisridhar/status/1422852550957617157.

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    1. I like the differentiation that Jared has made here on his homepage with categories for "fast" and "slow".

      It's reminiscent of the system 1 (fast) and system2 (slow) ideas behind Kahneman and Tversky's work in behavioral economics. (See Thinking, Fast and Slow)

      It's also interesting in light of this tweet which came up recently:

      I very much miss the back and forth with blog posts responding to blog posts, a slow moving argument where we had time to think.

      — Rachel Andrew (@rachelandrew) August 22, 2017
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

      Because the Tweet was shared out of context several years later, someone (accidentally?) replied to it as if it were contemporaneous. When called out for not watching the date of the post, their reply was "you do slow web your way…" #

      This gets one thinking. Perhaps it would help more people's contextual thinking if more sites specifically labeled their posts as fast and slow (or gave a 1-10 rating?). Sometimes the length of a response is an indicator of the thought put into it, thought not always as there's also the oft-quoted aphorism: "If I Had More Time, I Would Have Written a Shorter Letter".

      The ease of use of the UI on Twitter seems to broadly make it a platform for "fast" posting which can often cause ruffled feathers, sour feelings, anger, and poor communication.

      What if there were posting UIs (or micropub clients) that would hold onto your responses for a few hours, days, or even a week and then remind you about them after that time had past to see if they were still worth posting? This is a feature based on Abraham Lincoln's idea of a "hot letter" or angry letter, which he advised people to write often, but never send.

      Where is the social media service for hot posts that save all your vituperation, but don't show them to anyone? Or which maybe posts them anonymously?

      The opposite of some of this are the partially baked or even fully thought out posts that one hears about anecdotally, but which the authors say they felt weren't finish and thus didn't publish them. Wouldn't it be better to hit publish on these than those nasty quick replies? How can we create UI for this?

      I saw a sitcom a few years ago where a girl admonished her friend (an oblivious boy) for liking really old Instagram posts of a girl he was interested in. She said that deep-liking old photos was an obvious and overt sign of flirting.

      If this is the case then there's obviously a social standard of sorts for this, so why not hold your tongue in the meanwhile, and come up with something more thought out to send your digital love to someone instead of providing a (knee-)jerk reaction?

      Of course now I can't help but think of the annotations I've been making in my copy of Lucretius' On the Nature of Things. Do you suppose that Lucretius knows I'm in love?

    1. RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-GENO-100402-2

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  4. Jul 2021
    1. Well, no. I oppose capital punishment, just as (in my view) any ethical person should oppose capital punishment. Not because innocent people might be executed (though that is an entirely foreseeable consequence) but because, if we allow for capital punishment, then what makes murder wrong isn't the fact that you killed someone, it's that you killed someone without the proper paperwork. And I refuse to accept that it's morally acceptable to kill someone just because you've been given permission to do so.

      Most murders are system 1-based and spur-of-the-moment.

      System 2-based murders are even more deplorable because in most ethical systems it means the person actively spent time and planning to carry the murder out. The second category includes pre-meditated murder, murder-for-hire as well as all forms of capital punishment.

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    1. Zebrafish: Tg(mbp:egfp-caax)ue2

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    3. Zebrafish: Tg(sox10(4.9):nls-eos)w18

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    1. ZFIN ID: ZDB-ALT-140424-2

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    1. Barros-Martins, J., Hammerschmidt, S. I., Cossmann, A., Odak, I., Stankov, M. V., Morillas Ramos, G., Dopfer-Jablonka, A., Heidemann, A., Ritter, C., Friedrichsen, M., Schultze-Florey, C., Ravens, I., Willenzon, S., Bubke, A., Ristenpart, J., Janssen, A., Ssebyatika, G., Bernhardt, G., Münch, J., … Behrens, G. M. N. (2021). Immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants after heterologous and homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/BNT162b2 vaccination. Nature Medicine, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01449-9

    1. A Digital Scholarly Edition: The Willa Cather Archive

      This website is what I kept picturing when I heard the words "digital humanities project". This is like most of the websites I have interacted with, with posts on the main page and categorized tabs at the top for anything else you are looking for. I think I could probably branch out and explore different ones now that I know the wide variety out there.

    2. A searchable map of the addresses contained in the 1956 Negro Travelers’ Green Book, which the user can filter by state or establishment type.

      I think that this idea for a digital project is really interesting. I like that they have mapped it out and you can click on a point to filter by state or establishment type to zero in on what interests you. I never thought that a digital humanities project could look like this. I think it is really cool how different all of these projects are on this site, yet they all fall under the umbrella of digital humanities.

    3. Many  students tell me that in order to get started with digital humanities, they’d like to have some idea of what they might do and what technical skills they might need in order to do it.

      I am usually that person who likes to know what they're getting into before they start. I like to know what skills I need as well so I can see if I will be able to do it easily or if it will be more of a learning curve. I definitely did not know anything about digital humanities before I started this class, but I am learning with each exercise we do. I think a lot of people like to be confident in what they are doing so to have some idea of what they are going to do and what skills they need is reassuring.

    1. Informal and pre-or postpublication communication with fellow scholars to share research questions or results was traditionally carried out through letter-writing, then by phone or fax and in the digi-tal age variably through Gophers, forums, chat rooms, RSS feeds, wikis, listservs and e-mail. Blogging is a way of discussing or sharing informa-tion on the web by uploading posts (discrete, usually brief notices). These are often displayed with the most recent item at the top.

      Blogging is a convenient way to get information out to an audience. Rather than letter-writing or phone, and then into email and chat rooms, blogging allows you to share information and knowledge by posting your thoughts. It can stay up for as long as you like, allowing a variety of people to view it. I think it is a way to share your ideas and get information out faster.

    2. Might we be approaching the time when the distinction created by the term homo Jaber, the human as maker, outside and above the world of her creations, becomes meaning-less in the world of the semantic web and 3D bacterial printing?

      I do not think the term homo faber, or human as maker has become meaningless because of the digital world of the web and 3D printing. The digital is using that term in a different way. Yes, digital things are done online with the help of certain tools and software, but it is still the human behind the screen. It is the human as maker with the ideas and creativity for these new digital concepts and the ability and knowledge to develop them. People can use the digital to enhance their ideas.

    3. Only most recently with the digital has this kit of tools begun to change rapidly and fundamentally. Yet in many ways these new digital tools carry on, in analogous ways, the same functions of the traditional humanities.

      I think it is true that for the most part the environments of the humanities have been things like the scholar's desk, lecture halls, campuses, and convention halls. In the last little bit there has been a shift from these environments in that the digital has now come in to play. I agree that the digital tools carry on the same functions as traditional humanities in comparable ways. We are still learning about the humanities by using a digital form, it is just a newer way of presenting them.

  5. Jun 2021
    1. Oversharing. Crying, disclosing intimate details, and telling long (unrelated and/or unsolicited) stories about one’s personal life may indicate the lack of an essential social work skill: personal boundaries.

      Testing out the annotate feature. Student 1 will highlight sections according to the prompts, as shown HERE.

      For example: "This is me during interviews. I say too much and veer off topic."

    1. ZFIN: ZDB-ALT-061204-2

      DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.05.042

      Resource: (ZFIN Cat# ZDB-ALT-061204-2,RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-ALT-061204-2)

      Curator: @Naa003

      SciCrunch record: RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-ALT-061204-2


      What is this?

    2. ZFIN: ZDB-ALT-150324-2

      DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.05.042

      Resource: (ZFIN Cat# ZDB-ALT-150324-2,RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-ALT-150324-2)

      Curator: @Naa003

      SciCrunch record: RRID:ZFIN_ZDB-ALT-150324-2


      What is this?

    1. Miguel Hernán. (2021, February 15). To all who claim that there’s no evidence that #SARSCoV2 is transmitted in bars: If the risk of transmitting #SARSCoV2 is provenly greater in crowded indoor places, why should bars be magically protected? Burden of the proof is on bar’s owners, not on scientists @BillHanage [Tweet]. @_MiguelHernan. https://twitter.com/_MiguelHernan/status/1361463022187864066

  6. May 2021
    1. One solution that fixed this issue with my ISP was that when I went through the first and second line and got in touch with the people that fixed my problem, I asked them if they could give me one of their personal numbers in case the same problem happened again. The problem did occur a couple more times, and I just directly called the same guy.
    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This study presents a novel machine learning tool (termed T-REX) for automated analysis of single cell cytometric data that is capable of identifying rare cell populations, such as antigen-specific T cells. This ability to detect low frequency cells is a distinct advantage over existing tools. The demonstration of this ability is appropriately shown by examining antigen-specific CD4+ T cells before and after rhinovirus infection in a challenge study. Useful demonstrations are also included for examining SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and changes in cellular populations in cancer patients upon treatment. These examples use both mass cytometry and fluorescence-based cytometry. Since both of these are commonly-used single-cell technologies that generate highly complex data sets, new automated analysis methods such as T-REX are needed.

      The first data set examined changes in cell phenotype before and 7 days after rhinovirus infection in healthy adults. The flow cytometric staining panel included markers of T cell differentiation and activation as well as rhinovirus-specific tetramers. The results of T-REX convincingly demonstrate "hotspots" that are expanded at 7 days and enriched for tetramer-staining cells. Thus, this study succeeds at demonstrating the utility of this method for identification of rare cells and the authors use this data set to appropriately determine the model parameters. Combining the results of this algorithm with the "Marker Enrichment Modeling (MEM)" method to characterize the markers expressed on those cell populations identified through T-REX is also very informative since this automates the characterization (that traditionally needs to be done by manual investigation).

      This first data set is relevant for this demonstration, but in some aspects it represents a best case scenario. "Phenotypic" identification of antigen-specific T cells in this way is only possible because the time point was chosen to capture the relatively narrow window when T cells would be activated, and there was access to a baseline sample for comparison. The authors do address the second point, and perform the analysis comparing day 7 to a later time point, day 28, as an appropriate alternative. The first concern limits the generalizability of this approach. In fact, the second example dataset examining mass cytometry data in patients with COVID-19 does in fact demonstrate limited ability to detect change in cell populations for many study participants.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The use of convalescent plasma (CCP) to treat patients with Covid-19 has changed over the course of the pandemic (from rates as high as 40% of hospitalized patients in October, 2020 to a low of less than 10% by March 2021). To explore the efficacy of CCP therapy and the impact of the drop in CCP use, the authors assess whether there was a link between CCP use and patient mortality rates over time in the U.S. Using information from blood centers to estimate CCP usage and population level information on deaths from public databases, they found a strong inverse correlation between CCP usage per hospital admission and deaths due to Covid-19 after admission. The model estimates that the case fatality rate decreased by 1.8 percentage points for every 10 percentage point increase in the rate of CCP use. The detailed analysis suggests that the observed effect could not be attributed to changes in patient ages over time or the emergence of variant viruses. Other cofounders such as changes in the use of additional therapeutic agents or clinical interventions were not analyzed. The authors acknowledge the main limitation of this type of analysis i.e. that establishing a correlation does not prove a causal role. With that caveat, they conclude that the decline in usage may have resulted in excess deaths, possibly 29,000 to 36,000 over the past year in the U.S. Because the decreased usage of CCP occurred during the time that several randomized clinical trials and some media coverage reported no benefit of CCP, the authors suggest that resultant "plasma hesitancy" may have contributed to increased mortality. These findings add an important perspective to future considerations for clinical care, treatment guidelines and regulatory approvals of CCP. Emphasizing the importance of using high-titer units and administering CCP early in the disease course, the authors urge a more nuanced interpretation of the available evidence and a holistic approach to decisions about the use of CCP in individual patients.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The authors should be commended on the sharing of their data, the extensive experimental work, the experimental design that allows them to get opposite predictions for both hypotheses, and the detailed of analyses of their results. Yet, the interpretation of the results should be more cautious as some aspects of the experimental design offer some limitations. A thorough sensitivity analysis is missing from experiment 2 as the safety margin seems to be critical to distinguish between both hypotheses. Finally, the readability of the paper could also be improved by limiting the use of abbreviations and motivate some of the analyses further.

      Major:

      1) The text is difficult to read. This is partially due to the fact that the authors used many abbreviations (MA, PO, IMD). I would get rid of those as much as possible. Sometimes, having informative labels could also help FFcentral and FFlateral would be better than FFA and FFB.

      2) The most difficult section to follow is the one at the end of the result sections where Fig.5 is discussed. This section consists of a series of complicated analyses that are weakly motivated and explained. This section (starting on line 506) appears important to me but is extremely difficult to follow. I believe that it is important as it shows that, at the individual level, PO is also superior to MA to predict the behavior but it is poorly written and even the corresponding panels are difficult to understand as points are superimposed on each other (5b and e). In this section, the authors mention correcting for Mu1b and correcting for Sig2i/Sig1Ai but I don't know what such correction means. Furthermore, the authors used some further analyses (Eq. 3 and 4) without providing any graphical support to follow their arguments. The link between these two equations is also unclear. Why did the authors used these equations on the pooled datasets from 2a and 2b ? Is this really valid ? It is also unclear why Mu1Ai can be written as the product of R1Ai and Sig1Ai. Where does this come from ?

      3) In experiment 1, does the presence of a central target not cue the participants to plan a first movement towards the center while such a central target was never present in other motor averaging experiment. In the adaptation domain, people complain that asking where people are aiming would induce a larger explicit component. Similarly, one could wonder whether training the participants to a middle target would not induce a bias towards that target under uncertainty

      4) The predictions linked to experiment 2 are highly dependent on the amount of safety margin that is considered. While the authors mention these limitations in their paper, I think that it is not presented with enough details. For instance, I would like to see a figure similar to Fig.4B when the safety margin is varied.

      The sensitivity analysis is very difficult to follow and does not provide the right information. First, this is only done for exp2 and not exp1. For exp1, it would be good to demonstrate that, even when varying the weight of the two one-target profiles for motor averaging, one never gets a prediction that is close to what is observed. It is unclear in the text that the performance optimization prediction simply consists of the force-profile for the center target. The authors should motivate this choice. For the second experiment 2, the authors do not present a systematic sensitivity analysis. Fig. 5a and d is a good first step but they should also fit the data on exp2b and see how this could explain the behavior in exp 2a. Second, the authors should present the results of the sensitivity analysis like they did for the main predictions in Fig.4b. While I understand where the computation of the safety margin in eq.2 comes from, reducing the safety margin would make the predictions linked to the performance optimization look more and more towards the motor averaging predictions. How bad becomes the fit of the data then ? How does the predictions look like if the motor costs are unbalanced (66 vs. 33%, 50 vs. 50% (current prediction), 33 vs. 66% ). What if, in Eq.2 the slope of the relationship was twice larger, twice smaller, etc. The safety margin is the crucial element here. If it gets smaller and smaller, the PO prediction would look more and more like the MA predictions. This needs to be discussed in details. I also have the impression that the safety margin measured in exp 2a (single target trials) could be used for the PO predictions as they are both on the right side of the obstacle.

      5) On several occasions (e.g. line 131), the authors mention that their result prove that humans form a single motor plan. They don't have any evidence for this specific aspect as they can only see the plan that is expressed. They can prove that the latter is linked to performance optimization and not to the motor averaging one. But the absence of motor averaging does not preclude the existence of other motor plans.... Line 325 is the right interpretation.

      6) Line 228: the authors mention that there is no difference in adaptation between training and test periods but this does not seem to be true for the central target. How does that affect the interpretation of the 2-target trials data ? Would that explain the remaining small discrepancy between the refined PO prediction and the data (Fig.2f) ?

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      The authors established a comprehensive map of neurogenetic sites with evolutionary conserved neurogenic and postmitotic gene expression in a common octopus, Octopus vulgaris that has been a historically important species in comparative neuroscience and behavioral studies. The selected molecules include representative regulatory genes such as achaete-scute, neurogenin, and neuroD, and also proliferating cell markers such as elav and PCNA. In subsequent experiments by using a fluorescent dye, the authors carefully traced the migratory pathways from the target ectodermal sites surrounding eyes to many developing brain lobes of clearing staged embryos with light sheet microscopy for 3D reconstruction.

      They found that the special regions called lateral lip and other special ectodermal areas produced a pool of migratory postmitotic neurons that might contribute a novelty for developing octopus large and complex brains as in mammals, in contrast to those of other invertebrates such as flies or worms.

      I find the bodies of evidence convincing. A good study usually opens many new questions. Before publication, I found two major points that may enhance the author's conclusions.

      1) Are the migratory cells only neurons, or could they also be glia, neurosecretory, blood, or immune cells? The enlarged views of the migratory cells and the cytological features must be clarified.

      2) The expression of canonical neurogenic genes disappears during middle and late stages, meaning that octopus has very unique neurogenic mechanisms compared to mammals? Consider the octopus-specific novelty.

    1. Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      In this work, Corbett and colleagues investigate how value influences speeded decisions. In a random dot motion task with speed pressure, shortly before motion onset it is indicated which of both choices has a higher value if answered correctly. EEG recordings show a buildup of motor beta in response to the cue (earlier for high value choices, steeper for low value choices) and a dip in LRPs for low value choices in response to stimulus onset. A computational model constructed based on these findings provides a good account of the data. The EEG informed modeling is impressive and deserves merit. The paper is well-written, but rather dense.

      • I am struggling with the idea that cue-evoked motor beta reflects urgency. As it currently reads, this is more taken as a given than actually demonstrated. Could this claim be corroborated by e.g. showing that response deadlines modulate this signal? Related to that, how can we be sure that the pre-stimulus patterns seen in motor beta feed into the decision making process itself? It is not hard to imagine why left and right pointing arrows directly trigger motor activity (i.e. simple priming), but does that also imply that such activity leaks into the decision process?

      • I had a hard time understanding the choice for this specific design. As the authors write they "primarily focused on the value biasing dynamics in common across these challenging regimes" so I wonder whether conditions with different value differences could have been more instructive (e.g., according to the author's hypothesis different levels of value should parametrically affect motor beta, whereas if this reflect a simple priming process value itself should not matter). Alternatively, it should be better explained why these conditions where crucial for the current findings.

      • One of the main selling points of the paper is that we currently lack a model that can explain fast value-based decisions, mostly because the constant drift rate assumption in evidence accumulation models seems invalid. This conjecture is very similar to literature on response conflict, where performance in conflict tasks (such as Stroop, Flanker, etc.) is best modelled using a time-varying drift rate. I wonder to what extent current data reflect the same process, i.e. the value cue "primes" a response, which then has to be suppressed in favor of the correct response. A clear difference is that the value remains relevant here, but could e.g. the motor beta effect just reflect priming?

      • If I understand correctly the model was fit to all data effectively ignoring between-participant differences. It is unclear why this was this done (rather than fitting data separately per participant or fitting the data using a hierarchical model), because it induces substantial variance in the fits caused by between-participant differences.