4 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2018
    1. Schematic diagrams exemplifying multiples hypothetical outcomes of human-induced shifts in plant phenology with implications for conservation. Human induced changes on abiotic and biotic factors affect the timing of plant and animal reproductive cycles and mutualistic interactions (A), ultimately with consequences for the conservation of biological diversity

      Fig. 2. (A)

      The abiotic and biotic effects of human activities on plant life cycles. Abiotic influences as a result of human activities include climate change, modifications of geochemical cycles, and frequency of fires. Biotic influences as a result of human activities include habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting, and species invasion. These factors collectively influence plant phenology, including leafing, flowering and fruiting, and seed germination and establishment.

  2. Dec 2017
    1. Flowering delays may result in a reduced overlap between plant flowering and pollinator activity (C). This plant–pollinator mismatch affects plant reproductive success (Hoye et al., 2013; Kudo and Ida, 2013; Memmott et al., 2007; Petanidou et al., 2014), and fruit production, with consequences on resource availability for frugivores, which may result in famine or death (Wright et al., 1999). Low fruit set affects the rates of seed dispersal and plant recruitment, which also occurs later in the wet season (C)

      Fig. 1. (C)

      Climate change has created longer, more intense dry seasons; which ultimately contributes to later plant reproduction, lower fruit yield, and lower germination rates. Delays in flowering might limit the the amount of time pollinators have to disperse pollen, which will reduce plants' abilities to produce viable offspring.

      BD, HW

    2. In this context, species producing leaves immediately after the first rains would delay leafing activity, thus overlapping with peak insect abundance (B) and, therefore, increasing herbivory damage, potentially affecting plant fitness (Aide, 1988, 1993)

      Fig. 1. (B)

      The effects of climate change on leaf production and insect activity. Climate change has resulted in later leaf production, which creates an increased overlap between leafing and insect activity. This increases the likelihood of herbivory damage to plants and ultimately decreases plans' abilities to survive and reproduce viable offspring.

      BD, HW

    1. “Ask them to tell an Iktomi story, mother.” Soothing my impatience, my mother said aloud, “My little daughter is anxious to hear your legends.”

      I believe that one of the most fascinating things to me is the telling of stories before writing was ever a thing. Stories were told verbally only, this making the idea of the stories that much more exciting. The older empires and civilizations were kept alive by the stories that their elders would tell. They held the knowledge of their people in their minds and would tell extravagant stories to their children and grandchildren to keep the ideas alive.