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  1. Jul 2019
  2. Jun 2019
    1. Primary culture of E. coli was grown in LB medium containing either ampicillin (Amp) and/or kanamycin (Kan) to final concentration of 100 j..tg/ml and 25 J..tg/ml respectively. Depending on the vector construct, antibiotics were used for expression of different proteins as described in Table 3.1. Medium was inoculated with 1 ml glycerol stock of E. coli and incubated overnight at 37 oc at 200 rpm.
    2. Preparation of primary culture of E. coli cells
  3. May 2019
    1. All the chemicals used for routine molecular biology work were procured from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals (St Louis, MO, USA) unless otherwise mentioned. Taq polymerase for PCR and standard DNA markers and protein markers were purchased from MBI Fermentas. Tissue Culture materials like DMEM medium (for A549), Ham’s F-12 medium (for HPLD), Opti-MEM medium, 0.5% trypsin-EDTA, 100X antibiotic-antimycotic, freezing medium, fungizone, 200mM L-glutamine, fetal bovine serum (FBS), Lipofectamin-2000 and TRIzol were obtained from GIBCO BRL (Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA). CMRL medium was purchased from ICN laboratories. M-MLV reverse transcriptase, RNase inhibitor, dNTPs and MgCl2 were obtained from Invitrogen Corporation (Carlsbad, CA). ECL western detection kit and HybondTM- P were purchased from Amersham biosciences (GE Healthcare, UK).
    2. Chemicals and Reagents
    1. genome cloned in a ColEI-based replicon, and obtained from Dr. Manjula Reddy. pHYD2556 is spectinomycin resistant and carries the minimal nusA+ open-reading frame with its native ribosome-binding site between genomic nucleotide co-ordinates 3314061and 3315548 cloned downstream of the ara regulatory region in a pSC101-based replicon, and obtained from Dr. Ranjan Sen. pHYD2557 is chloramphenicol resistant and carries a 2.3-kb PCR-amplified region between genomic nucleotide co-ordinates 3314061 and 3316393 (containing yhbC nusA region with its own promoter) cloned in a pSC101-based Ts replicon, and obtained from Dr. Ranjan.Plasmid DNA preparations were routinely prepared from recA strains such as DH5αand were stored in 10mM Tris-Cl (pH 8.0) plus 1mM EDTA at ─20 ̊C
    2. pWSK30 an Ampicillin resistant vector with pSC101 origin of replication and blue-white screening facility (Wang and Kushner, 1991). pHYD272 is a derivative of pMU575, an IncW-based single copy vector with Trimethoprim resistance marker carrying lacZYA reporter genes under proU promoter (Dattananda et al., 1991). pHYD751 a ColE1 replicon plasmid with ampicillin resistance marker and 2.1kb EcoRI-SalI fragment carrying nusG+cloned into EcoRI-SalI sites of pAM34 vector. The plasmid exhibits IPTG dependent replication (Harinarayanan and Gowrishankar, 2003). pHYD763 is a Ts (maintained at 30 ̊C but not at 37 ̊ or 39 ̊C), CmR, pSC101 derivative carrying 3.8 kb BamHI-SacI fragment of nusG+ cloned into BamHI-SacI sites of pMAK705 (Harinarayanan and Gowrishankar, 2003). pHYD1201 a ColE1 replicon plasmid with ampicillin resistance marker and 3.3kb HindIII-SalI fragment carrying rho+cloned into HindIII-SalI sites of pAM34 vector. The plasmid exhibits IPTG dependent replication (Harinarayanan and Gowrishankar, 2003). pHYD1622 is the derivative of pHYD1201 where the Ampicillin resistance marker has been replaced with Chloramphenicol using Wanner method of gene replacement. Cm gene was amplified from pKD3 plasmid (K. Anupama, unpublished). pHYD1623 is the derivative of pHYD751 where the Ampicillin resistance marker has been replaced with Chloramphenicol using Wanner method of gene replacement. Cm gene was amplified from pKD3 plasmid (K. Anupama, unpublished). pHYD2368 is a derivative of pBAD18 (AmpR) with 1.7 kb fragment encompassing RBS and coding region of uvsW from phage T4gt7 into SacI site of pBAD18 (K. Leela, unpublished). pHYD2554 is a derivative of pMBL18 with ampicillin resistance, carrying the 10-kb EcoRI-HindIII fragment between kilobase co-ordinates 3310.06 and 3320.08 of the E. coli
    3. to CCT mutation leading to a Glutamic acid to Glycine change at the 53rd amino acid and a Threonine to Proline change at the 55th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-I119T is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with ATC to ACC mutation leading to a Isoleucine to Threonine change at the 119th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-P116S is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with CCA to TCA mutation leading to a Proline to Serine change at the 116th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-Y97C is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with TAT to TGT mutation leading to a Tyrosine to Cysteine change at the 97th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pPMrhoCam is a Ts (maintained at 30 ̊C but not at 37 ̊ or 39 ̊C), CmR, pSC101 derivative carrying PuvII-HindIII fragment containing trxArho+ cloned into PuvII-HindIII sites of pPM103 (Martinez et al., 1996). pTrc99A an expression vector with ColE1 origin of replication and ampicillin resistance marker. Provides IPTG dependent induction of the insert (Amann et al., 1988). pUC19 is a high-copy-number ColE1 based E.coli cloning vector (500-700 copies/cell) with an Ampr selectable marker. It is one of a series of related plasmids constructed by Messing and co-workers and contains portions of pBR322 and M13mp19 (Yanisch-Perron et al., 1985). It carries a multiple-cloning site (MCS) region in the lacZα fragment, and therefore allows for blue-white screening of recombinant clones
    4. pAM34 is a pBR322-derived cloning vector with Ampr and Specr selectable markers. The replication of this plasmid is dependent on the presence of IPTG, the gratuitous inducer of the lac operon (Gil and Bouche, 1991). pBAD18 is an expression vector with a pBR322 derived origin of replication and allows for tightly regulated expression of the genes cloned under the PBAD promoter of the araBADoperon (Guzman et al., 1995). The vector also carries the araC gene, encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter. pBluescript II KS (pBKS) is also a high-copy-number ColE1 based cloning vector with Ampr selectable marker and blue-white screening facility (obtained from Stratagene). pCL1920 is a low-copy-number vector with pSC101 replicon (~ 5 copies/cell), that carries streptomycin (Str)/spectinomycin (Spec)-resistance marker (encoded by aadA) and also carries a MCS region within the lacZα that allows blue-white screening to detect recombinants (Lerner and Inouye, 1990). pCP20 pSC101-based Ts replicon, CmR AmpR, for in vivo expression of Flp recombinase (Datsenko and Wanner, 2000). pLG339 is a low-copy-number cloning vector with pSC101 replicon that has a Kanrselectable marker (Stoker et al., 1982). pLG-H-NS is a pLG339 derivative where the hns ORF had been cloned into the EcoRI-SalIsites of pLG339 vector (KanR, pSC101) (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NSΔ64 is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with AT base pair deletion after codon 63 in the hns gene resulting in a frameshift (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-L26P is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with CTG to CCG mutation leading to a Leucine to Proline change at the 26th amino acid in the H-NS protein (Willams et al., 1996). pLG-H-NS-E53G/T55P is a derivative of pLG-H-NS plasmid with GAG to GGG and ACT
    5. pACYC184 is a medium-copy-number cloning vector (~ 20 copies/cell) with Cmr and Tetrselectable markers. It carries the origin of replication from plasmid p15A (Chang and Cohen, 1978), which is related to and yet is compatible with that of ColE1. This property enables pACYC184 to co-exist in cells with ColE1 plasmid vectors, including all the ones mentioned above
    6. Plasmids that have been described elsewhere
    7. Bacterial strains
    8. All the bacterial strains that were used in this study are derivatives of Escherichia coliand their genotypes have been listed in Table 2.1 Bacterial strains were routinely stored on solid agar plates at 4°C and also as thick suspensions in 40% glycerol either at −20°C or at −70°C. Plasmid harboring strains, were reconstructed whenever necessary by fresh transformations
    1. TheE. coli strains used in this study with their genotypes are shown in Table 2.1. All strains other than BL21 (DE3) employed in protein overexpression experiments are derivatives of E. coli K12. Bacterial strains were routinely stored on solid agar plates at 4ºC and also as thick suspensions in 40% glycerol at –70ºC. Plasmid harboring strains were freshly prepared by transformation of the required plasmid. The bacteriophage P1kc from the laboratory collectionwas used for routine transduction tomove a locus from one strain to anotherand is referred to as P1 throughout this thesis.Table 2.1 E. coli strains used in this study
    2. Strains and bacteriophages
    1. 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1 mM EDTA Tris-Acetic acid EDTA (TAE) buffer:40 mM Tris base 0.5 M EDTApH was adjusted to 8.5 with glacial acetic acid.This was prepared as a 50 X stock solution and used at a 1 X concentration. Tris-Borate EDTA (TBE) buffer:90 mM Tris-borate 2 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) pH was adjusted to 8.3withHCl.This was prepared as a 10 X stock solution and used at a 1 X concentration.Both TAE and TBE were used asstandard gel electrophoresis buffers.HEPES buffer:This was used to prepare YNB medium of different pH.1M HEPESpH was adjusted to 7.5withNaOH.Bufferwas filter-sterilized and stored in an amber-coloured bottle. Citrate buffer(0.1M, pH 5.5):4.7 volume of 0.1 M Citric acid 15.4 volume of 0.1 M Sodium citrate
    2. Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS):137 mM NaCl 2.7 mM KCl10 mM Na2HPO42 mM KH2PO4pH was adjusted to 7.3.This was prepared as a 10 X stock solution andused at a 1 X concentration.Tris-HCl buffer:0.5 M TrizmaBase pH was adjusted to7.6 using concentrated HCl.This was prepared as a 10 X stock solution andused at a 1 X concentration.Tris-EDTA (TE)buffer:
    3. Common buffers
    4. Luria Bertani (LB):0.5% Yeast Extract1% Tryptone 1% NaCl LB-ampicillinand LB-kanamycin plates:LB medium50 μg/ml ampicillin30 μg/ml kanamycinSuper Optimal Broth (SOB): 0.5% Yeast extract2% Peptone 10 mM NaCl2.5 mM KCl10 mM MgCl210 mM MgSO4
    5. Bacterial medium
    6. All C. glabratastrains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Tables 2.1 and 2.2, respectively.Table 2.1: List of yeast and bacterial strains used in this study
    7. Strains and plasmids
    1. Stripping solutionfor DNA1% SDS0.1% SSCDesired volume was adjusted with sterile water. Alternatively, 0.4 M NaOH was also used to stripthe bound probes fromnylon membranes.HEPES [4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid] buffer1 M HEPESpH was adjusted to 7.5 with NaOH.HEPES was used as a buffering agent for preparing plates of YNB medium of different pH. Buffer was filter-sterilized and stored in an amber-coloured bottle.INOUE transformation buffer10 mM PIPES15 mM CaCl2.2H2O250 mM KCl55 mM MnCl2.4H2OpH was adjusted to 6.7 with 1 N KOH.Yeast transformation reagents1 M Lithium acetate 50% Polyethylene glycol2 mg/ml carrier DNADimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)Zymolyase cocktail buffer for yeast colony PCR2.5 mg/ml Zymolyase1.2 M SorbitolZymolyase buffer was prepared in 1X PBS
    2. pH was adjusted to 8.5 with glacial acetic acid.TAE buffer was prepared asa50Xstock solution and used at 0.5X concentration.Alkaline denaturing solution for DNAfor membrane preparation0.5 M NaCl0.25 M NaOHVolume was adjusted with sterile water.Denhardt’s solution (50X)1%Ficoll-4001% Polyvinyl pyrollidone1% Bovine serum albuminVolume was adjusted with water and solution was stored at -20°C.Saline Sodium Citrate (SSC) buffer(20X)3.0 M Sodium chloride0.3 M Sodium citrate Volume was adjusted with water and solution was sterilized by autoclaving.Prehybridization Buffer5X SSC5X Denhardt’s solution50% Filtered formamide1% SDSVolume was adjusted with sterile water.Post hybridization wash buffersWash buffer 12X SSC0.1% SDSWash buffer21X SSC0.1% SDS
    3. Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS)137 mM NaCl2.7 mM KCl10 mM Na2HPO42 mM KH2PO4pH was adjusted to 7.3 before autoclaving.PBS was prepared as a 10X stock solution and diluted to 1X concentration before autoclaving.Tris-HCl buffer0.5 M Trizma BasepH was adjusted to 7.6 using concentrated HCl.Tris-Cl buffer was prepared as a 10Xstock solution and used at a 1X concentration.Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1 mM EDTATris-Acetic acid EDTA (TAE) buffer40 mM Tris base0.5 M EDTA
    4. Common buffers
    5. Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose (YPD)1% Yeast extract2% Peptone2% DextroseYeast Nitrogen Base (YNB)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base2% DextroseFor alternate carbon source utilization experiments, dextrose was replaced withother carbon sourcesviz.,sodium acetate, ethanol, oleic acid, glycerol and citric acid.Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB) without ammonium sulphate and amino acids0.17% Yeast Nitrogen Base2% DextroseCasamino Acid (CAA)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base2% Dextrose0.6% Casamino acidsFor preparing plates, 2% agar was added tothe medium before autoclaving
    6. Yeast media
    7. Strains and plasmids
    8. All C. glabrataand bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 2.1
    1. Cell lysis Buffer
    2. Fixative
    3. TAE
    4. Resuspension solution(Solution I)
    5. Polydeoxy (Inosinate-cytidylate) (Poly dI-dC)
    6. Cytoplasmic extractionbuffer (without protease inhibitors)
    7. Fixative : 4% Formaldehyde
    8. Cell lysis buffer(RIPA Buffer)
    9. Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)
    10. Ammonium persulfate(APS)
    11. Acrylamide (29:1)
    12. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF)
    13. Benzamidine
    14. Aprotinin
    15. Leupeptin
    16. NP-40ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 10 mlNP-4010%1mlH2O9ml
    17. Dithiothreitol (DTT)ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 5 mlDTT1.0M0.7725gH2Oq.s
    18. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), pH 8.0ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 500 mlEDTA0.5M93.05gH2Oq.sThe pH is adjusted to 8.0 using 10M NaOH
    19. Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic acid (EGTA), pH 7.0ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 50 mlEGTA0.1M1.902gH2Oq.sThe pH is adjusted to 7.0 using 10M NaOH
    20. Potassium Chloride (KCl)ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 100 mlKCl2M14.91gH2Oq.s
    21. Sodium Chloride (NaCl)ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 100 mlNaCl5M29.22gH2Oq.s
    22. Potassium Chloride (KCl)
    23. HEPES pH 7.9ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 100 mlHEPES1M23.83gH2Oq.sThe pH wasadjusted to 7.9 using 10M NaOH
    24. Stock solution
    25. forpreparation ofregular buffers and solutions viz. Tris, Glycine, SDS, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Disodium Phosphate,NP-40, Tween 20, TritonX100, Formaldehyde, Glycerol, Agarose, Acrylamide,Bis-Acrylamide,Ammonium per sulphate (APS), TEMED,BSA, Propidium Iodide, RNase Aetc. were obtained from Sigma(St Louis, MO, USA). PVDF membrane, X –ray films and western blotting detection reagent (ECL prime) were obtained from GE Healthcare (Little Chalfont, UK). Proteaseinhibitor tablets were obtained from Roche (Penzberg,Germany). Anti mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies tagged to HRP (Horse radish peroxidise) were obtained from Bangalore Genei(Peenya, India). Secondary antibodies for Immunofluorescence (anti mouseIgGand anti rabbitIgG) conjugated to Alexa Fluor (488 and 594) from Molecular Probes, Invitrogen and Vectashield mounting medium with DAPI wasobtained from vector laboratories(Burlingame, CA, U.S.A).Antibodies from different sources were used in the present study. The list of different antibodies used in the present thesis is provided in Table 2.1.Table 2.1: List of antibodies used
    26. Media for cell culture (DMEM and Ham’s F12) and foetal bovine serum (FBS) were obtained from Gibco, Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA, USA). Cell culturereagents such asTrypsin, Phosphate Bufferedsaline (PBS), Antibiotics, Glutamine, etc. were also obtained from Gibco, Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA, USA). Chemicals for cell culture experiments Aphidicholin, Nocadazole, Polybrene, and Puromycinwere obtained from Sigma (St Louis, MO, USA). Cyclosporine A, MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), wortmannin, UO126, SP 600125, cycloheximide, camptothecin, Tacrolimus/FK506 , Tween 20 and Malachite green were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Specific calcineurin substrate RII peptide, calmodulin, eIF-2α inhibitor salubrinal, MG-132 and caspase inhibitor z-VAD FMK were obtained from Calbiochem (San Diego, CA, USA). Cytotoxicity detection kit (LDH) was obtained from Roche Diagnostics, (Mannheim, Germany).Live /Dead cytotoxicity assay kit was obtained from Molecular probes, Life technologies, USA.Lipofectamine-2000 and Opti-MEM for transient transfections were also obtained from Invitrogen(Carlsbad, CA, USA).Growth media for bacteria (LB) was obtained from HiMedia laboratories (Mumbai,India). Enzymes used for recombinant DNA experiments (Restriction endonucleases, DNA ligase) were obtained from New England Biolabs (Ipswich, MA, USA). Markers for DNA and protein gels were from Fermentas (Vilnius, Lithuania). Various kits used for macromolecular isolation (Plasmid isolation kit-Mini and midi, Gel extraction kit, PCR purification kit, RNA isolation kit) were procured from Qiagen(Hilden, Germany) or HiMedia (India).Trizol reagent for RNA isolation was obtained from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA, USA). BCA protein estimation kit was from Pierce (Rockford Illinois, USA). Cell fractionation kit was obtained from Fermentas (USA). Kitfor TUNEL assay kit wasobtained from Invitrogen(Carlsbad, CA, USA). PCR reagents (PCR buffer, dNTPs, MgCl2, Taq DNA polymerase) were obtained from Fermentas. Polymerasefor long PCRs (AccuTaq) was obtained from Sigma. Reverse transcriptase (SuperScript III) was obtained from Invitrogen. Various chemicals required
    27. Media, reagents, chemicals and antibodies
    1. Extraction buffer
    2. MTT reagent
    3. For Cytotoxicity assays
    4. 6XEMSA sample loading dye
    5. 5X EMSA buffer
    6. Native EMSA PAGE
    7. 10XBinding buffer
    8. For Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA)
    9. For preparation of Ultra competent cells
    10. Inoue buffer
    11. 6X DNA loading dye
    12. Agarose gel
    13. TAE
    14. For DNA electrophoresis
    15. Nuclear lysis buffer (without protease inhibitors
    16. Cytoplasmic extraction buffer (without protease inhibitors)
    17. For Cell fractionation
    18. Blocking buffer: 2% BSA
    19. Permeabilisation buffer: 0.2% Triton X100
    20. 4% Formaldehyde fixative
    21. For Immunofluorescence(IF)
    22. Stripping buffer
    23. Blocking buffer
    24. TBS-T
    25. Transfer buffer
    26. (f) Running buffer
    27. (e) Stacking polyacrylamide gel
    28. (d) Resolvingpolyacrylamide gel
    29. (c) 6X Protein loading buffer (Lammeli buffer)
    30. (b) Celllysis buffer B(For IB)
    31. Cell lysis bufferA(For IP)
    32. II. For Immunoprecipitation(IP)and Immunoblotting(IB)
    33. Table 2.1: Commonly used buffers and solutionsI. General buffers(a)Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)
    34. The following antibodies were used in the present study:Primary antibodies against GAPDH (anti-rabbit), FLAG (anti-mouse), Immunoglobulin (IgG, anti-rabbit or anti-mouse),profilin-1 (anti-rabbit), tubulin (anti-mouse) and ubiquitin (anti-rabbit) were obtained from Sigma Aldrich Chemicals(St Louis, MO, USA). Antibodies againstAKT (anti-rabbit), cleaved caspases-3, 8 and 9 (anti-rabbit),HA-tag(anti-rabbit), Myc-tag (anti-rabbit), p21 (anti-rabbit), phospho-p53 (anti-mouse), PTEN (anti-mouse), phospho-AKT (Ser473; anti-rabbit), phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9; anti-rabbit), phospho-IKKα/β (Ser177/181; anti-rabbit), phospho-IκBα (Ser32; anti-rabbit), and phospho-p65 (Ser276; anti-rabbit) were obtained from Cell Signaling Technologies(Danvers, MA, USA), whereas antibodies for cox-2 (anti rabbit), c-Rel (anti-rabbit), ICAM-1 (anti-rabbit), IKKα/β (anti rabbit), IκBα (anti-rabbit), Mdm2 (anti-rabbit), PARP-1/2 (anti-rabbit), Rel-B (anti-rabbit), p50 (anti-rabbit), p53 (anti-mouse), p65 (anti-rabbit) were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology(Santa Cruz, CA, USA).HRP (Horse radish peroxidase)-conjugated secondary antibodies (anti mouse and anti-rabbit) were obtained from Bangalore Genie(Peenya, India). For immuno-fluorescencestudies, secondary antibodiesconjugated toAlexa Fluor (488 and 594, anti-mouse and anti-rabbit) were obtained from Molecular Probes, Invitrogen(Eugene, OR, USA)
    35. Antibodies
    1. 20 mM HEPES pH 6.8100 mM NaCl2 mM EDTA5 mM DTTYeast protease inhibitor cocktail and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail (added fresh to the buffer A)
    2. Buffer A
    3. EDTA (pH 8.0)186.1 g of EDTA.2H2O was dissolved into 800 mL of water stirredvigorously and the pH was adjusted with NaOH pellets. When the pH of the solution reached8.0 EDTA dissolvedcompletely and was made upto 1000 mL with water.Tris-HCl buffer (1M)121.1 g of Tris base was dissolved in 800 mLof water and pH was adjusted to 7.2 using concentrated HCl Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.01 mM EDTA Tris-Acetic acid EDTA (TAE) buffer 40 mM Tris base 1mMEDTApH was adjusted to 8.4with glacial acetic acid. TAE buffer was prepared as a 50X stock solution and used at 1Xconcentration.Tris-Saline20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.20.9% NaCl
    4. PhosphateBuffered Saline (PBS) 137 mM NaCl 2.7 mM KCl 10 mM Na2HPO42 mM KH2PO4pH was adjusted to 7.3 using HCl and NaOH beforeautoclaving. PBS was prepared as a 10X stock solution and diluted to 1X concentration before autoclaving
    5. Common buffers
    6. Yeast synthetic complete medium without leucine(SC-Leu)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base without amino acids 76mg/L His76mg/L Ura76 mg/mL Trp76 mg/mL Met2% DextroseYeast sporulating medium1% Potassium acetate0.05% Dextrose
    7. Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose (YPD)1% Yeast extract2% Peptone 2% Dextrose Yeast synthetic complete medium(SC)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base with amino acids 2% Dextrose1.92 g/LYeast Synthetic Drop-Out media supplement without Uracil76 mg/L uracilYeast synthetic complete medium without histidine(SC-His)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base without amino acids 1.92 g/L Yeast Synthetic Drop-Out media supplement without histidine2% DextroseYeast synthetic complete medium without uracil(SC-Ura)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base without amino acids 1.92 g/LYeast Synthetic Drop-Out media supplement without Uracil2% DextroseYeast synthetic complete medium without methionine(SC-Met)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base without amino acids 380mg/L Leu76 mg/L His76mg/L Ura2% DextroseYeast synthetic complete medium without tryptophan(SC-Trp)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base without amino acids 380mg/L Leu76mg/L His76mg/L Ura76 mg/L Met2% Dextrose
    8. Yeast media(Media composition was followed as described by Sigma product data sheet)
    9. All S. cereviseae and bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 2.1and 2.2
    10. Strains and plasmids
    1. Plasmid preparations were routinely made from recA strain DH5 and were stored in 10 mM Tris-Cl (pH-8.0) with 1 mM EDTA at -20 oC. This plasmids construct used in the study are given in Table 2.1

    1. The following chemicalswere used in the present study: Ampicillin, EDTA (USB), dNTPs, Taq DNA polymerase(Fermentas), Pfu DNA polymerase (Stratagene), DpnI (New England Biolabs), Plasmid miniprep, midiprep, and maxiprepkits(Qiagen, and Invitrogen), glycine, EGTA, NaCl, Tris (Fisher Scientific), NH4Cl, acrylamide(SRL), Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, MG132,Cadmium chloride,Nonident P-40, propidium iodide (PI),bis-acrylamide, SDS, TEMED, Ammonium persulphate (APS), CoomassieBrilliant Blue, DAPI, IPTG, kanamycin, Aprotinin, pepstatin, PMSF, -Glycerophosphate, Sodium Fluoride (NaF),Biotin, and DMSO(Sigma), Luciferase assay kit (Promega#1500), Gateway cloning kit, DMEM, FBS, RPMI, Opti-MEM medium,Met-/Cys-DMEM, dialyzed FBS,trypsin-EDTA, L-glutamine, PBS, Lipofectamine 2000, Oligofectamine, (Invitrogen), PEI(Polysciences), milkpowder (Warana), protein G agarose beads, Streptavidin sepharose beads, Glutathionesepharose beads, MBP beads (GE Healthcare), S-protein beads (Novagen/Calbiochem), HA beads(Covance), LB media(Himedia)
    2. Chemicals and reagents
    1. PBS was prepared as a 10X stock solution and used as a 1X concentration.Tris-HCl buffer0.5 M Trizma BasepH was adjusted to 7.6 using concentrated HCl.Tris-Cl buffer was prepared as a 10X stock solution and used as 1X concentartion.Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1mM EDTATris Acetic acid-EDTA (TAE) buffer40 mM Tris base0.5 M EDTApH was adjusted to 8.5 with glacial acetic acidTAE buffer was prepared as a 50 X stock solution and used at 1 X concentartion.Potassium Phosphate buffer (0.1 M)1 M Potassium phosphate dibasic (K2HPO4)1 M Potassium phosphate monobasic (KH2PO4)61.5 ml of 1 M K2HPO4was mixed with 38.5 ml of 1 M KH2PO4, pH was adjusted to 7.0 and volume was adjusted to 1 L with H2O
    2. Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS)137 mM NaCl2.7 mM KCl10 mM Na2HPO42 mM KH2PO4pH was adjusted to 7.3 before autoclaving
    3. Common buffers
    4. 10 mM Ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe(III)EDTA)100 mM Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)Working solution 0.18% Xylose 670 μM L-Methionine10 mM Sodium glutamate14.7 mM Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)40 μM Mangenese sulphate (MnSO4)240 μM Ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe(III)EDTA)5 mM Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)1.2% AgarLuria Bertani (LB)0.5% Yeast extract1% Tryptone1% Sodium cholride (NaCl)Media and solutions were sterilized either by routine autoclaving at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 min or by filtration through membrane of 0.22 μM porosity
    5. Peptone Sucrose (PS)1 % Peptone1 % SucroseFor preparing plates, 1.2 % agar was added to the medium before autoclaving.Minimal Medium (MM9)Stock SolutionMinimal Salt (2X) for 250 mL 5.25 g di-Potassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) 2.25 g Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)0.5 g Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO40.25 g Tri-Sodium citrate (Na3citrate)1 M Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate (MgSO4.7H2O) -250 μl 25 mg/mL L-Methionine-1 ml25 mg/mL Nicotinic acid-1 ml10 mg/mL Glutamic acid-25 ml20% Glucose-12.5 ml3% Agar-100 mlPlant mimicking medium (XOM2)Stock preparation100 mM L-Methionine1 M Sodium glutamate1 M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)10 mM Manganese sulphate (MnSO4)
    6. Bacterial media
    7. Allbacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 2.1
    8. Strains and plasmids
    1. 10 mg/ml carrier DNA 5 μlAbove-mentioned reagents were added to prepare thetransformation mixture, and the volumes indicated wereused per transformation.500-1,000 ng of desired transforming DNA was added to this transformation mixture and final volume was adjusted to 360 μl with sterile water.Carrier DNA (Sonicated salmon sperm DNA, Stratagene, 201190) washeat denatured at 95⁰C for 10 min and transferred on ice before additionto the transformation mixture.43 μl DMSO was added to each transformation mixture before heat shock.Zymolyase cocktail buffer for yeast colony PCR2.5 mg/ml zymolyase (MP Biomedicals, 0832092)1.2 M SorbitolThe cocktail was prepared in sterile water
    2. Tris-acetic acid EDTA (TAE) buffer40 mM Tris Base0.5 M EDTAFinal pHof the bufferwas adjusted to 8.5 with glacial acetic acid.TAE buffer was prepared as a 50 Xconcentrate and diluted to 0.5X concentration prior to use as agarose gel electrophoresis running buffer and to cast agarose gels.HEPES [4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid] buffer1 M HEPESFinal pHof the bufferwas adjusted to 7.5 with NaOH.HEPES was used as a buffering agent forpreparationof different pHmedium. Buffer was filter-sterilizedby usinga0.22 μm membrane filterand stored at 4°C.INOUE transformation buffer10 mM PIPES15 mM CaCl2.2H2O250 mM KCl55 mM MnCl2.4H2OFor preparation ofINOUE transformationbuffer,above-mentioned solutes were dissolved in appropriate amount in 800 ml of water and then 20 ml of 0.5 M PIPES(piperazine-1,2-bis[2-ethanesulphonic acid])(pH 6.7) was added. Final volume was adjusted to 1 litre with water, buffer was filter sterilized by usinga0.22 μm membrane filter and stored at -20°C. Stock solution of PIPES was preparedseparatelyby dissolving 15.1 gm of PIPES in 80 ml of water, pH was adjusted to 6.7 using 5 M KOH and volume was adjusted to 100 ml.Yeast transformation reagents1 M lithium acetate 36 μl50 % polyethylene glycol 240 μl
    3. Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS)137 mM NaCl2.7 mM KCl10 mM Na2HPO42 mM KH2PO4Final pH of the buffer was adjusted to 7.3with 11.6 N HCland volume was adjusted to 1 Lbefore autoclaving.PBS was prepared as a 10X stock solution and diluted to 1 X concentration before autoclaving.Tris-HCl buffer0.5 M Trizma BaseFinal pHof the bufferwas adjusted to 7.6 using 11.6 NHCl.Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)1 mM EDTATE buffer was prepared as a 10 X concentrate and diluted to 1 X concentration before use
    4. Common buffers
    5. 2.5 mM KCl10 mM MgCl210 mM MgSO4SOCSOB mediumwas modified to prepare the SOC medium.20 ml of sterile 1 M glucose solution was added to the autoclaved SOB medium to obtainafinal concentration of 20 mM glucosein 1 litre of medium.AntibioticsAmpicillin 60 μg/mlKanamycin 30 μg/mlStock solution of antibiotics (50 mg/ml) were prepared in sterile water. Prior to storage at -20°C,antibioticswere filter sterilizedthrougha0.22 μm membrane filter. Before pouring the plates,antibiotics were added to moderatelywarm LB-agar medium
    6. Luria Bertani (LB)0.5% Yeast Extract1% Tryptone1% NaClSuper Optimal Broth (SOB)0.5% Yeast Extract2% Peptone10 mM NaCl
    7. Bacterial media
    8. All C. glabrataand bacterial strains,and plasmids used in thisstudy are listed in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2, respectively.Table 2.1: List of C. glabrataand bacterial strains used in the study
    9. Strains and plasmids
    1. Other plasmids used for lentivirus generation: VSV-G, VSV-GP (gifts from Dr. Renu Wadhwa, AIST, Japan) and psPAX2 (a gift from Dr. Didier Trono, Addgene plasmid # 12260)
    2. Plasmids