50 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. From this perspective, the work novices do to enter a practice, and the work all learners do to gain new understandings, tools, and exper-tise, is also the work of reinventing that practice

      This made me think of the skatepark discussion as well. It seems that the concept that they are discussing, the idea that "work novices do to enter a practice" is "also the work of reinventing that practice" can be tied to the idea of "editing" spaces that we saw in the skateparks reading.

  2. Oct 2015
    1. We consider how material arrangements in the built envi-ronment of skateparks are recruited by and simultaneously influence skateboarders’ learning.

      The very smart authors of this article are arguing that not only does the physical configuration of a skatepark (or really anywhere) influence the skater's learning, but the skaters also use (or edit) the physical environment for their own learning ends.

    2. More experienced skaters, positionedas audience members in such instances, would occasionally be willing to watch the novice per-formers and applaud their efforts or share some wisdom. In one of our visits to the outdoor park,we met 9-year-old Peyton (Figure 2, in midtrick), wh

      Seems similar to a structure in inquiry based learning in the classroom. A teaching (who is more experienced) sits back and watches as the novice performers practice towards their goals, and exchanges wisdom or information on their performance.

    3. might be urgent and accompaniedwith a certain thrill

      Highlights the importance of skating as an art form.

    4. When the skaters incorporated different variations of 50-50 grinds into theirturns, she commented on them by cheering, asking them to repeat it, and comparing her ownabilities and recent attempts

      This is learning in its most simplest form. Just by conversing with one another they are able to learn different skate tricks

    5. . Several suggested that their school experiences were not positive (e.g., Karl,2ahigh school junior, reported that he was often kicked out of class), and many of the skaters spentlong hours at the skateparks or skating around town, especially during weekday afternoons andevenings.

      I think this can also be seen as a point of learning to observe because you can figure out why each of the skaters come to the skate park, i.e. what it does for them psychologically. How it helps them.

    6. These early skaters approximatedthe movement of surfing, looking for surfaces with curvature that emulated riding on waves. Theyused cement banks, treating them as waves by “carving” (skating wide curves) across them andexecuting turns reminiscent of surfing turns.

      For the early skaters, their context of learning also included surfing and the ocean.

    7. Skateboarding is a particularly rich site for the exploration ofthe relationship between learning and spatial production, as space is a highly salient aspect ofskateboarding both in its history of development as well as in activity.

      The context of learning includes not only their skateboard, but the spatial production and the integration of all the people around them.

    8. Although it was possible, and accepted practice, to innovate and utilize space in differentways in a skatepark, members of this community responded to what they considered to be Zack’sinappropriate use of the space. According to Roy, issues of power and status—Zack was neithera well-liked member of the community nor an experienced skater—influenced what they did

      I have a feeling that if Tony Hawk or Bob Burnquist went in and did the exact same thing there'd be awe at first, perhaps some considerations of how "innovative" that use of the park was, leading to many attempting to do the same thing later on.

      What Zack seemed to lack was a legitimacy to do this sort of thing. By using the park that way, as the authors write, [he edited the park] in ways that did not aling with the setting as they conceived of it." But if we accept that the riders' own conception of what is and isn't appropriate was itself created by these sorts of "edits" in the past, then you have to wonder what makes an edit accepted and not.

      It seems here that the edit conflicted with the established conception of how it was to be used. One has to wonder, then, how bigger, more fundamental "edits" to spaces can occur once norms begin to take firmer root. How would a paradigm shift occur in this kind of space?

    9. engaged the spaces around them in different ways.

      I think this is key when thinking about context and learning. The key "feature" of the space, it seems, isn't so much that it is designed with a particular "learning goal" in mind or anything of the sort. Rather, it allows each individual participant/learner to "co-opt it", so to speak - to relate to it in his own way, and to construct meaning that way. Given the same context, the expert or the novice will relate to the space differently - and it is exactly that "flexibility" of the space that makes it such a rich learning environment. Novices, experts, young, and old can be legitimate participants in this shared environment.

    10. They treated contextas the relationship between a physical space with durable properties (arena) and an experiencedspace constructed by individuals through their activity (setting).

      So when we have to consider "context" in relationship to learning, it is insufficient to think about how the physical layout of the skatepark does or does not promote learning opportunities. We must instead consider how that physical space, COMBINED with the norms and practices that emerge from the interactions of skaters with it, come together to promote learning

    11. Opportunities to participate in the practices of thesetwo parks emerged as skaters, in activity, engaged the spaces around them in different ways.

      So then part of the relationship between the "bits" (being learning and context) is activity - both in order to create learning opportunities (editing) and as a result of participation (learning)

    12. by examining how skaters“edit” spaces

      So skateboarders (here we don't know yet if it is all skateboarders or particular skateboarders) have rights/access and capabilities to alter the space for their purposes.

    13. spaces of learning as more complex than simply prefabricated containersand as passive background to activity. We consider how material arrangements in the built envi-ronment of skateparks are recruited by and simultaneously influence skateboarders’ learning

      I think we can begin to see where the argument is going in terms the relationship between context and learning (or opportunities to learn) - they are mutual accomplished, or mutually enacted, influencing one another throughout (temporally) activity.

    14. Laura created a particular kind of learning opportunity for herself by inviting Austin, a moreexperienced skater, to come with her and then soliciting his help regarding a trick that she waseager to learn. From their talk it was clear that he was going to help her learn something; togetherthey produced the mini-ramp room as a setting for private tutoring, rather than just a low-riskpractice area.

      This is the type of analysis this theoretical lens can give! "together they produced a setting..."

    15. Flatland was a setting where Karl and Hal caught their breath and commented on theirown and each other’s performance

      A space socially constructed

    16. In particular, we looked for learning eventsthat were treated by the skaters as learning, by attending to how they oriented to ongoing activityand positioned themselves and each other as teachers or learners (Stevens,2010).

      Focusing on the events that skaters define as learning through identification and positioning (social and embodied).

    17. We say that these learning opportunities emerged from editing and the social production ofspace

      This is important. Opportunities emerge from the the social production of space and the way that space is edited or disciplined.

    18. settings, or socially produced space, is not uniformly experienced

      Interesting. So Ma and Munter are pointing out that it is important to study the difference in produced setting from individuals and embrace the conflict/congruence.

    19. we consider how skateparks are producedin socially negotiated activity

      Therefore, this article interrogates the social/interaction data obtained by different means.

    20. Teachers and studentsare dis/placed when these official practices exclude and discount them, forcing them to existin marginal spaces, devalued and suppressed. This work illuminates how the interrogation ofsocial spaces provides insight into the boundaries drawn around material places and practiceslike schools and schooling, and what happens within these spaces and at their intersections

      This is a very important part, and is the driving "why" to study spaces like skateparks and other non-school places to better understand how learning can take place in school.

    21. However, the spatialarrangement of the park was such that it was conceived of and experienced as a particular kindof setting for other skaters

      Same arena, different setting. The context in play changing the interaction with the surrounding space

    22. To gather enough speed tocomplete the trick, the two had to skate to the other end of the park, giving them both enough timeto watch the other

      Turning the arena into a setting for the trick. Context?

    23. These skateparks still contained pools, bowls, and half-pipes, but also includedimitations of urban street elements like stairs, rails, and planter boxes

      Artificial settings mimicking previously used structures. That is intended placement of the contextual environment I think

      Edit: ... that is creating an arena to elicit reproduction of context

    24. The termdialecticallyis used here in the way thatLave (1988) defined it: “A dialectical relation exists when its component elements are created,are brought into being, only in conjunction with one another”

      I like the discussion and consideration of Context as a dialectical relationship between setting and activity (both social interactions and isolated activity), but then adding in the factors of spatial arena and that there are many participants in the space, each with a specific and particular understanding. This is key in the relationship between context and learning that takes place within that context.

    25. he teaching andlearning opportunity did not emerge through talk or “telling.

      This really stood out to me throughout the reading. Talking (much like lecturing) is not necessary for learning to occur. Behavior and actions work as teaching tools instead.

    26. As Roy described it, they “snaked” him: “Four of ’em just following this kid around the parkeverywhere he skates,” sometimes cutting him off, until finally he left the park in frustration

      Wow. Kind of harsh. Who gets to decide how this space is used? Just a paragraph up it says "the arena was, in fact, amenable to carving." So even though the space MAY be used for that, someone and some point established the rules against carving in that space. So is that the right of the old-timer? To set and enforce rules?

    27. Austin responded by dropping in anddemonstrating

      So different than a classroom. Here learning is so much dependent on observation and trial and error.

    28. Laura then proceeded to ask questions about howto execute the trick [2.07]. She didn’t wait for an answer, but took her turn, trying the trick

      Definitely seems different than intent participation, more like guided participation. There is observation but participation is almost immediate. In this context, this seems the most valuable/effective way to learn a trip.

    29. For example, a 16-year-old skater told us that he learned to ollie “the cheatin’ way”by watching an online trick tip video

      This is really interesting to me. While I think in general the best way to learn is by doing, this "rule" doesn't allow for different learning styles. There seems to be a sense of exclusivity in this community that I imagine can be really terrifying to new-comers.

    30. It is from this rela-tionship between activity and setting that the learning opportunities that we describe emerge

      The interplay between activity and setting allows for learning through participation in practices.

    31. depicts a simplified version of the relationship between arena, setting and sociallyproduced space, activity, and opportunities to learn, as extended by our framing.

      This is how Ma and Hunter define context.

    32. “world in a box,”

      how is this similar to/different from a figured world?

    33. trying and demonstrating dominated talking about thetrick.

      learning and teaching by doing/participating.

    34. Learning was not separate from participation in the community of prac-tice

      when is learning separate from participation in the CoP? Why would it be?

    35. Seeking teaching as a teacher might have included watching and offering cri-tique and encouragement (mini-ramp and Flatland), sharing experience (Karl and Hal), assessingand disciplining (Zack), or just making oneself visible and available for observation.

      saw examples of all of these (except discipline) in my own observation

    36. eeking teaching—skaters at times posi-tioned themselves to learn from others (seek others to teach them) and other times positionedthemselves to help others (seek to be teachers).

      learning opportunities through positioning

    37. snaking skaters found the space being edited for them, in ways that did not align withthe setting as they conceived of it. That is, their activity within the setting was constrained byZack’s skating patterns. Zack’s use of the space violated one of the goals of the community, toskate without getting in the way of others.

      Zack was limited in his ability to access the space or gain acceptance into the CoP and eventually left since his behavior didn't align with the values/goals of the CoP.

    38. was in conflict with most skaters’ conceptions of the space.

      Here we see an instance where the oldtimers' perceived the design intention of the space to be in conflict with a newcomer's perception of what the space could/should be used for (I'm calling Zack a newcomer because he is described as a "novice skater"). But how would Zack know it isn't supposed to be used that way? What resources does he have to tell him that? How are newcomers acclimated to the space, given access, granted legitimate participation? Poor Zack :(

    39. she said, “I wanna learn those,

      Following up on my initial comment about Laura explicitly naming that she is learning...None of the male skaters studied (or named in this article) explicitly acknowledge that what they're doing is engaging in a process of learning and teaching, even though all of them are. I would be interested to see if there is a connection to gender here.

    40. I like to use it as like a practice or learning type thing.

      interesting to me that this skater (Laura) explicitly states that she likes to use the mini ramp as a place for learning.

    41. illustrate how learning opportu-nities emerged from the dialectical relationship between activity and setting—in this case, fromskaters’ productions of space in skateparks.

      editing space, emergence of learning opportunities.

    42. rom a sociocultural perspective, learning is partic-ipation in increasingly central ways in a community of practice (Lave & Wenger,1991;Wenger,1998). Thenopportunitiesto learn refers to access to participation (Gresalfi,2009).Broadly, this means opportunities to make contributions to the shared goals of the commu-nity

      clarifying definition of learning and framing opportunities to learn as access to participation. "Opportunities to make contributions to the shared goals of the community" helps me better understand these concepts and ideas.

    43. repeatedly (re)produced. At the same time, they help shape meaning and direc-tion for activity and provide resources for individual participants. They are socially producedin the broader ideological context through activity and as a part of activity (Lefebvre,1991).Skateparks and the skateboarding that occurs inside them are shaped by and recognizable in rela-tion to other activities and spaces, including surfing, street skating, and angry city publics.

      does this mean that skatepark skating is inauthentic or less credible/authentic than skating on the street? what if a skater has only ever skated in a skatepark? what are the differences in opportunities for learning in a skatepark versus on the street?

    44. Settings are experienced and (re)edited individually, continually, andrepeatedly.

      expanding on the difference between arena and setting. helpful.

    45. renas(built and designed spaces withintended physical, social, political, economic functions) and supermarkets assettings(experi-enced by shoppers repeatedly and probably in different ways each time)

      wondering if skateparks are arenas or settings?

    46. skaters have recruited and colonized different spaces for skateboarding over thecourse of its brief history, focusing on skateparks as an arena specifically designed for the activity.

      I feel like the word "colonize" has a negative connotation in most contexts and think it's interesting to think about when talking about skaters and how the public views them. Skaters tried (still try?) to use public spaces to practice skating but are redirected to skate parks or other arenas made just for skating to keep them "off the street" so to speak (not allowed to colonize spaces outside of these parks). There are a lot of stereotypes associated with skaters, many of them negative, but I think they'd hate to be seen as colonizers.

    1. onceproducedinstreets,squares,parks,businessdistricts,civiccentres,neighbourhoodstoresandcommunityinstitutionslikethe`Y’,thatallowedforunexpectedsightsandencounters,socialandaestheticdiversity,publicsolitude,people-watching,publicsociabilityandunprogrammedspacesofplay

      A space, is produced when/where people come together in informal, unstructured encounters of social diversity. This lens would see the skateparks of Ma and Minter as places where such spaces can be constructed

    2. Inpractice,however,teachersfrequentlyhave`vagueorlimitedlearninggoals’for®eldtrips

      The city created an arena, teachers are providing setting and activity yet little, if any, learning is happening. What is the missing ingredient that skate parks have that field trips don't?

    3. Thisde®nitionofyoungpeopleaspeoplewho`don’thavemuchtodo’inpublicre ̄ectsthedryingupofsafe,unprogrammedoutdoorsettingsandcommunity-regulatedinteriorsaccessibletokids,andtheirreplacementbyenclosedspaceswithstrongborderscontrolledbyinstitutionscentredoutsidetheneighbourhood.

      Is this similar to treatment of skaters and the creation of their "world in a box?" Although skaters edited the socially produced space, did creation of skateparks edit the neighborhood by creating boundaries for skaters?