144 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2015
  2. Sep 2015
    1. structure can not be directly reconstructed


    2. MEANING is whatever the relevant idiom means.’

      double quotes

    3. his is basicallysimilar

      deleted. There is no "unbasic similarity"

    4. IQ is determined by dividing a score in an intelligence test (the mental age) by chrono-logical age.

      That sounds strange. Would that mean that 60yr old would get half the IQ of a 30yr old based on the same results to a test?

    5. Müller, Stefan. 2014d. Kernigkeit: Anmerkungen zur Kern-Peripherie-Unterscheidung.In Andreas Nolda, Athina Sioupi & Antonio Machicao y Priemer (eds.),Zwischen kernund peripherie(studia grammatica 76

      ...In Antonio Machicao y Priemer, Andreas Nolda & Athina Sioupi (eds.), Zwischen Kern und Peripherie ;)

    6. X theory,76–162X theory, 80X-Theory,76,77,95,97,98,127,131,153,158,160,169,245,429,498,519,520,528,640,789X Theor

      There are many Index-entries which appears twice or in this case 4 times. It is probably a problem of the scope of \index \index{\textbf{x}} =/= \index{x}

    7. it is not possible to havea combination ofthewith a nominal constituent if this constituent was not already builtup from lexical material by Merge

      Probably, it would be helpful to know why one would like to analyse fragments of phrases. Fragments are not utterances, they don't have a truth value, they only appear as parts of bigger phrases and their grammaticality can not be judged. Furthermore fragments are highly ambiguous. "und auf die" e.g. could be a part of "Er wartet auf Maria ["und auf die" Kinder"], or "Er trinkt wieder ["und auf die" Kinder hat er wieder nicht aufgepasst]." In these 2 structures, what is coordinated are completely different things (PPs or CPs). It is the complete structure which reveals the function and the combinatorial potential of its parts.

    8. cousin. He

      Coindexation of "he" with "cousin" in (7a) and "she" with "cousin" in (7b) could make it more clear that it is not an interpretation like (6b) which is intended. The same conindexation could be used in (6) to make the marking consistent.

    9. gender

      italics for emphasis? since you have talk very much about sexus.

    10. by ten Hacken will never bea problem

      I thought that ten Hacken's problem was based rather on the assumption of "maximally-specific values", and since features must be maximally-specific, there is a problem saying that "cousins" has the value "gen", since "underspecified" is not maximally specific. One could say that values are "as maximally specific as necessary", but since the cases in 6 require gender marking it is problematic to assume that its plural don't (according to maximal specificity of values)

    11. I showedthat spurious ambiguities arise for a particular analysis of verbal complexes in Germanwhen one resolves the values of a binary feature (flip). This can be avoided by thecomplicated stipulation of a value in certain contexts

      It is not quite clear where the feature "FLIP" has been discussed, and what is the connection of FLIP and spurious ambiguities with gender.

    12. Japanisch


    13. a


    14. If the head is a N,

      an N

    15. littlev

      If I am right, little v means in your tree "Voice". I would keep the terminology consistent

    16. the the


    17. She/he is very smart, isn’t she/he?

      The point is quite clear, nevertheless I would recommend not to give the options in this way but: She is very smart, isn't she/*he?

    18. with ditransitive verbs inX Theory. InX Theory, it is assumed that a headis combined with all its complements at once

      But cf. Larson, Richard K. 1988. On the Double Object Construction. Linguistic Inquiry 19: 335-391. for a binary analysis of double object constructions in English, and the theories developing the VP shells (and later the Little vP).

    19. Englisch


    20. with

      who suffer from

    21. The affected family members have intellectualand linguistic problems together with motoric problems with facial muscles


    22. that has problems with language


    23. For problems of sufferers of Williams Syndrome in the area of morphosyntax, seeKarmiloff-Smith et al.(1997). The discussion about Williams Syndrome is summarizednicely inKarmiloff-Smith(1998)

      move to footnote

    24. associated

      directly associate

    25. and those

      and from those

    26. FoxP2 also occurs in animals.

      but it might have no particular expression in animals, so that is not an argument

    27. with the facial muscles, dealing with non-linguistic tasks


    28. seeBellugi, Lichtenberger,Jones, Lai & George(2000) for a discussion of the abilities of people with Williams Syn-drome)

      move to footnote

    29. I consider this is an extreme

      I consider this to be too extreme

    30. is does not

      is does not --> it does not

    31. ((s\np)/np)/np

      why don't you use the same notation with capital letters like in (3b)?

    32. Zwischen kernund peripherie

      Zwischen Kern und Peripherie

    33. sign language,451–452American (ASL),450,502Sign Language,26

      they belong together

    34. lexical entry

      ...like (3b)

    35. post syntactically

      postsyntactically or mit Bindestrich

    36. However, gender is normally a grammatical notion

      The numerous (gender)masculine forms in German which can be used for both sexus-feminine and sexus-masculine are further examples, e.g.: "Jeder hat es gelesen." >> sex-masc and sex-fem "Jede hat es gelesen." >> only sex-fem. The (gender)masculine form in German does not encode sexus, more than that, it is underspecified with respect to it.

    1. subjunctive (I and II)

      As far as I know: Konjunktiv I und Konjunktiv II are named "present subjunctive" and "past subjunctive" respectively. I am not sure if this terminology is familiar to the English speakers.

    2. f being a murderer is expressed as beingpossible or probable.

      of beeing a murderer is expressed as being possible or probable, but not as being true properties of the modified noun.

    3. (43)

      To make the point of syncretism (and not of "portmanteau morphemes") clear, it would be better to give the example pairs that coincide "as (43a) and (43d) and (43c) and (43e) show".

    4. post

      italics for emphasis

    5. post

      italics for emphasis

    6. adverbs


    7. notes thatwois a kind of uninflectedrelative pronoun and remarks that this description runs contrary to the use of this termfor nominal, that is inflectional, elements.

      This sentence is slightly confusing.

    8. behaves exactly like the corresponding adverbs

      "... shows the same syntactic distribution", it does not behave exactly in morphological ways.

    9. Conjunctions

      This paragraph does not build a sense-unit with the example before, and should be therefore indented, similar to the next paragraph beginning with Interjections.

    10. above

      The number of the example would be helpful

    11. optimal

      Italics would help to understand that "optimal" is used here as an example.

    12. Tense (

      Perfect has not been taken into account, I guess because it is an analytic form(?)

    13. n the case that adverbs and prepositions cannot be assigned to a particular class,then adverbs are normally used as a kind of “left over” category in the sense that allnon-inflecting words, which are neither prepositions, conjunctions nor interjections, areclassed as adverbs

      This paragraph is slightly confusing

    14. adjectives have comparative and superlative forms:

      adjectives have positive, comparative and superlative wordforms

    15. One should avoid

      The terms ... are not adequate, since...

    16. person (1., 2., 3.)

      without "."

    17. scientific grammars

      in scientific linguistic work

    18. subdivded


    19. a


    20. a


    21. collapsed together


    22. F

      (F), (M), (N): Glosses of features in the stem are in the book normally marked with a period (.F, .M, .N)

    23. event variable for the typeevent


    24. Larson as-sumes that the littlevcontributes a causative semantics

      A minor point: The idea of causative light verbs was not used by Larson 1988. (I think it started in Hale & Keyser 1993.) Larson also didn't use the term 'little v' (I am not sure, but I think that term was introduced in Chomsky's black book).

    25. of the featuredouble slash

      Double slash is introduced more thoroughly around p.305. I would consider introducing it more thoroughly on p.284, or at least putting a comment that you are going to discuss it more fully on p. 305.

    26. as well as those who assume that the noun formsthe head of the phrase

      --> while others assume that the noun is the head of the phrase. Ich würde auch Bruening hier zitieren, da du ihn schon in der Bibliographie hast. Ich würde hier auch den Begriff "DP" bzw. "DP hypothesis" einführen, da der Begriff "DP" später auftaucht.

    27. mention


    28. theory, which

      The comma makes this have a non-restrictiveinterpretation (it is billed both as a theory and as being able to explain all languages). The expression "can explain all languages" might be better as 'is applicable to all languages'.

    29. showed

      claimed; his arguments were eventually shown to be without force

    30. One has to therefor

      One must therefore

    31. e valency has be encoded twice

      has TO be (bzw. must be)

    32. feature


    33. Neg head,

      I don't know if you say it elsewhere, but Neg heads bother me in that they require non-local selection. The intermediate Neg projection doesn't interfere with the strict sequence of auxiliaries and their ability to determine the inflectional fom of the V/Aux immediately below them (He might not have been being interviewed, He might have not been being interviewed etc.). One could use the Minimalist device of Agree to make sure that each Aux probes down to the next lowest V and alters its form. The probe could get past Neg, so that part of the problem disappears. But something would have to guarantee the correct order of English auxilaries, which in English is invariable. If we appeal to the Cinque hierarchy to predict that, we get problems like (a) the need to have several different Neg positions (e.g. for these seen in the examples above and (b) what to do with languages like German, where we get alternations of the type "er kann das gemacht haben" vs. "er hat das machen können". (I think there was an explicit claim that the Pollock theory of Neg requires non-local selection in Thomas Ernst 1992 "Phrase structure of English negation" in Linguistic REview).

    34. This problem can be solved either

      It might perhaps be worth mentioning that the problem for (12) does not exist if one assumes the DP hypothesis.

    35. A theory, which assumes these kind

      delete comma, since it is not true that if there is a theory, it will assume that kind of structure.

  3. Jul 2015
  4. May 2015
    1. transformational


    2. e linear combination of units) were not ex- cluded from the scope of phonology. Since its


    3. atio


    4. argument


    5. intuition


    6. rule


    7. n on various grammatical theories, Müller fills what was a major gap in the literature.” Karen Lehmann, Zeitschrift ür Rezen- sionen zur germanistischen Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “Stefan Müller’s recent introductory textbook, “Grammatiktheorie”, is an as- tonishingly comprehensive and insightful survey for beginning students of the present state of syntactic theory.” Wolfgang Sternefeld und Frank Richter, Zeit- schrift ür Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “This is the kind of work that has been sought after for a while. [...] The im- partial and objective discussion offered by the author is particularly refreshing.” Werner Abraham, Germanistik, 2012


  5. Apr 2015
    1. 6. Suprasegmental conditioning factors 2.4.7. Posit


    2. nding is not consistent with the hypothesis that temporal information is part of representations


    3. by


    4. s6

    5. c15

    6. turning


    7. tonation. This finding is not consistent with the hypothesis that temporal information is part of representations for intonational categories, contra H2 as well. Response times are only slightly higher when intonation is made ambiguous,


    8. ects in subjects’ responses due to the availability of intonationally unambiguous stimuli. That is, listeners’ at


    9. s5

    10. D6

    11. s4

    12. ntonation (bXfQdX), with ambiguous intonation (bXfAdX)61 and with statement intonation (bXfSdX). Temporal manipu


    13. stimuli with incongruous information (bXfQdS and bXfSdQ). Absence of a significant effect of temporal manipulations on b


    14. eover, if duration was a secondary (compared to f0 contour) prosodic cue to sentence modality contrasts, we would expect a stronger effect of tempo manipulation when intonation is ambiguous (bXfAdQ vs bXfAdA vs bXfAdS: see


    15. D5

    16. m9

    17. pulations is stronger if melodic information is made ambiguous or unavailable. The fact that our resynthesis procedure only yielded stimuli with acoustically (and not perceptually) ambiguous melodic information does not allow us to draw definitiv


    18. m8

    19. simplifying


    20. D3

    21. c4

    22. m4

    23. w that durational patterns might cue sentence modality contrasts. That is, meaning which is not lexical, yet non paralinguisti


    24. particular


    25. r to such phonological entities, which were assumed to bridge between durational differences (on the substantive side


    26. stimulus


    27. utterance


    1. 'We've tried that before, and nobody would take you,' said his mother; 'we must sell Milky-white and with the money start a shop, or something.'


    1. however, the establishment of phonological forms

      kommentar unten

    2. lationsh


    3. s will be


    4. mbination of only two tones, labelled as High (H) or Low (L). Intonation contours consist of a string of tonal events


    5. rn, serves as the input for the stage of phonetic implementation, ultimately generating an output which is comparable with