237 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2022
    1. “an idea, behavior, style, or usage that spreads from person to person within a culture,” originating in the same root as “imitation.”

      i might be so dumb but how is that a culture? like do they use culture I'm just really lost.

    1. Now imagine doing it in front of millions of people and the international media. And imagine doing it without the benefit of a true celebrity’s phalanx of staff and bodyguards or the lucre such a status normally confers. Instead, all you have is that same vulnerability before a vast crowd that feels entitled to the most intimate parts of your life. How difficult would it be to conduct that relationship on your own terms?

      in feel like that would be really hard especially since i don't really know that person i will end up looking like a fool to be honest.

    2. The problem, of course, was that she was telling a story about two people who had no idea they’d been cast as leads in a riveting story for thousands of strangers.

      This is actually really scary. if that ever happened to me i would probably die,

  2. Sep 2022
    1. But someone who sends pipe bombs to Democrats; plows through a crowd of anti-racism protesters in Charlottesville, Va.; or shoots up a church in Charleston, S.C., will not face domestic terrorism charges.

      No because this is so true, if it was someone else that was not black or white and they have anything that has to do with bombs they are a terrorist but if a white or black person has anything to do with that then its okay. How is it fair that they will not face any domestics terrorism charges just because of there skin color.

    1. You can dig into this if you want, and look through the numerous links in that Wikipedia page that support this description.

      I actually think that its really interesting on how you can dig into something and find out whether its real or not. A lot of people don't do that they just go along with what ever they see. Like they don't care or bother to se if the information that they have if real or right.

  3. Jul 2022
    1. Published in 2010, Rebecca Skloot’s book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, offers a three-fold story.  It is the story of the development of the first immortal human cell line (called HeLa) and the scientific advances facilitated thereby. It is also the story of the African American woman from whom the cell line came: Henrietta Lacks was the great-great granddaughter of slaves, who grew up in extreme poverty in Virginia in the 1920s and who died of an aggressive cervical cancer in 1951 in the ward for “colored people” at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Finally, it is the story of her family members, who had no idea about the existence, importance and the financial gains made from HeLa cells until Skloot began her research.   This book sparked more than just an HBO film by the same name starring Oprah Winfrey, it also sparked an attempt at broad policy change in the U.S. regarding consent procedures for human tissue research. Currently, the regulations on research with human subjects issued by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) mandate informed consent for the use of biospecimens in research when those specimens are taken specifically for the purpose of research. However, no informed consent for research use is required for tissue samples taken in the course of clinical practice. In 2015, HHS proposed a rule change to give patients much greater control over the use of their biospecimens in research. Yet this effort failed due to backlash from the scientific community.   In this paper, I shall address some of the major arguments against such regulatory changes. For instance, Chadwick & Berg stress a duty to participate in research for the benefit of others; Knoppers & Chadwick further criticize the emphasis on individualism and autonomy over the value of solidarity in contemporary research ethics and policy. My aim is to counter these arguments and to support the proposed regulatory changes in the U.S. regarding tissue research. I hope to highlight important contemporary lessons we have yet to fully appreciate from the case of Henrietta Lacks.

      Skloot sparks interest in HeLa cells.

    1. That day in Erika Johnson’s high-school biology class, some 20 years ago, is seared into her memory. The teacher was leading the students through experiments involving cells from a widely used line known as HeLa. The cell line originated from tissue taken from a woman named Henrietta Lacks — and Johnson’s mother was a Lacks. “This is my great-grandmother I’m holding in my hand,” Johnson remembers feeling. “It was a very surreal situation.”Last month marked 100 years since Lacks’s birth. She died in 1951, aged 31, of an aggressive cervical cancer. Months earlier, doctors at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, had taken samples of her cancerous cells while diagnosing and treating the disease. They gave some of that tissue to a researcher without Lacks’s knowledge or consent. In the laboratory, her cells turned out to have an extraordinary capacity to survive and reproduce; they were, in essence, immortal. The researcher shared them widely with other scientists, and they became a workhorse of biological research. Today, work done with HeLa cells underpins much of modern medicine; they have been involved in key discoveries in many fields, including cancer, immunology and infectious disease. One of their most recent applications has been in research for vaccines against COVID-19.But the story of Henrietta Lacks also illustrates the racial inequities that are embedded in the US research and health-care systems. Lacks was a Black woman. The hospital where her cells were collected was one of only a few that provided medical care to Black people. None of the biotechnology or other companies that profited from her cells passed any money back to her family. And, for decades after her death, doctors and scientists repeatedly failed to ask her family for consent as they revealed Lacks’s name publicly, gave her medical records to the media, and even published her cells’ genome online. (Following an outcry, the genome was soon removed.) Nature later published the genome of another HeLa line1 after the Lacks family reached an agreement with the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) to approve its release. Racism in science: the taint that lingers Now, the extraordinary events of 2020 — the #BlackLivesMatter movement for racial justice, and the unequal toll of COVID-19 on communities of colour — are compelling scientists to reckon with past injustices. Some have called for a reduction in the use of HeLa cells in research, or even an end to their use entirely. The argument is that, because the cells were obtained without Lacks’s knowledge or consent (even though this was legal at the time), any use of them is unethical and perpetuates an injustice.But that is not what many Lacks family members want. Henrietta Lacks has dozens of descendants, several of whom are leading a new effort in her centennial year, #HELA100, that instead calls for people to celebrate her life and legacy. “I want scientists to acknowledge that HeLa cells came from an African American woman who was flesh and blood, who had a family and who had a story,” her granddaughter Jeri Lacks-Whye told Nature.And there is so much to her story. Henrietta Lacks loved to cook — spaghetti was a favourite — and she loved to dance, often with one of her five children in her arms. She dressed stylishly and wore red nail polish. She was the emotional and psychological centre of a home where the extended family gathered and where the door was always open to anyone in need.To her grandson Alfred Lacks Carter, the most important thing about HeLa cells is how they have advanced cancer research — a fitting tribute, given that Lacks died of the disease. Many people have also told him that they were able to conceive a child because of in vitro fertilization, which was developed with the help of HeLa cells. “They were taken in a bad way but they are doing good for the world,” he says. And they do so for people of all ethnicities.Policy reviewOver the past decade, scientists and the Lacks family have worked together to establish stronger rules to govern the use of these precious specimens. But there is still much work to be done.First is action on consent. NIH director Francis Collins has signalled that he wants the research community to consider changing the Common Rule, the set of policies that protect human participants in research funded by the US government2.This revision would require consent to be obtained from anyone from whom biological specimens are taken before the samples are used in research — even if the specimens are “deidentified” from the person they came from. Most popular human cell in science gets sequenced Earlier efforts to make this change failed in 2017, but now is the time to revisit the Common Rule, and to reconsider the question of consent. In the past, some researchers have warned that this would impose additional burdens. But a compromise must be found. The last time the US Department of Health and Human Services worked to revise the Common Rule, it proposed a series of other changes at the same time; perhaps one way forward is to tackle the question of consent for biospecimens on its own, and with thorough discussion involving not only scientists, but also the public.A second, separate step must be to acknowledge and undo the disparities that are baked into basic research — because the systemic racism that existed when Lacks’s cells were taken still exists today.In the current climate of reckoning with racial injustice, some researchers who use HeLa cells have concluded that they should offer financial compensation. For example, a laboratory at the University of California, San Diego, and a UK-based biomedical company have announced donations to the Henrietta Lacks Foundation, which was established in 2010 by Rebecca Skloot, the author of a book about Lacks. The foundation awards grants both to Lacks’s descendants and to family members of others whose bodies have been used without consent for research. Other institutions and researchers must examine whether — and how — their own work builds on past injustices. And they must consider how best to make amends.COVID-19, a disease that is disproportionately affecting Black people in a number of countries, offers an opportunity for those who wish to usher in a fairer era of research. To give back now, researchers should not only study why the disease is more prevalent and severe among Black people, but also help to implement solutions to close the gap. And, once a vaccine is available — possibly as a result of work with HeLa cells — researchers must work with marginalized communities to see that it reaches those who need it most.The fact that Lacks’s cells were taken in a different era of consent will never justify what happened. The past cannot be undone, but we must acknowledge the wrongs of previous generations, and those wrongs that persist today. Justice must be done, and the time to start is now. Nature 585, 7 (2020)

      Great article by Nature.com about HeLa cells and their 100 year anniversary. Most recently used with Covid-19 vaccines

    1. According to the Daily Beast, the Trump administration even disbanded a unit in the Department of Homeland Security dedicated to domestic terrorism and right-wing extremists, upsetting many intelligence and law enforcement officials.

      In a shocking tun of events, an administration that had demonstrated it cared little for the lives of marginalized groups disbanded the one unit that could have focused on fighting an actual threat to the country instead of imagined strawmen. Republic of Gilead, here we come.

      Sarcasm aside, it is terrifying to me how easily people in power can look the other way because changing the status quo is too inconvenient; in this case actively stymying efforts to protect people from a growing danger.

    2. Pressley: How many extremist murders has the FBI linked to Black Lives Matter or similar black activist groups? McGarrity: We don’t work Black Lives Matter it’s a movement. It’s an ideology. We don’t work that. Pressley: So the answer is none. Can you just say that for the record? There has been no killing that the FBI can link to black Lives Matter or similar black activist groups, to your knowledge.McGarrity: To my knowledge—I’d have to go back—but to my knowledge, right now, no

      This angered me though it didn't surprise me.

    1. Holden embraced the choice that had been made for him; his companion clearly hasn’t. She’s since taken her Instagram offline after receiving some harassing comments, at least one of which was related to Blair’s speculation about what happened when the pair simultaneously got up to use the restroom (and Holden’s cheeky comment that “a gentleman never tells” when asked about it). Of course, the sexual implication is something he’d be praised for, while the woman is attacked.

      Holden is praised for his comments while his seatmate is vilified. It doesn't seem right, should it be the other way around?

    2. As with so much else that is mediated by the internet, the medium’s dissociative effects prevent us from centering the humanity of the people involved.

      Holden's and his seatmate's story became something they did not intend and this is the inherent danger in social media. Its almost like a free for all with no consequences

    3. The mystery man revealed himself on Twitter as former soccer player Euan Holden and gave Blair permission to share his Instagram and reveal his name. He has eagerly taken a liking to his newfound social media fandom and embraced the moniker of “Plane Bae,” even appearing on NBC’s Today to bask in the attention.

      Did Euan Holden's consent make it okay? "Milking it" for publicity? What about her consent? This is disconcerting.

    4. Public experiences can easily be captured, displayed in social media by an unknown source , generating unlimited intentions. What privacy?

    1. Richard Dawkins is credited as having coined the term in The Selfish Gene (1976). Memes are the units that transmit ideas, behaviors, styles and usage within a culture through a variety of media, like nursery rhymes passed down from parent to child.

      Appreciate this simple explanation..passing information using many different modes

    2. so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation.”

      Great analogy explaining memes pre-internet. Replicating and spreading just as memes in the present do. Interesting that term "meme" coined in 1976 by Dawkins

    3. Lantagne and Patel agree on the inability of copyright law to fully address the subject of memes, given their cultural importance as what Lantagne calls “pure engines of expression with their own symbolic vocabulary” while also relying, in Patel’s words, on “massive unauthorized copying” to attain such importance.

      Copyright laws and memes. If memes are considered ideas then they are not protected under copyright.

    1. Truog, Robert D.Kesselheim, Aaron S.Joffe, StevenSource:Science. 7/6/2012, Vol. 337 Issue 6090, p37-38. 2p.

      Payment for tissue" donation " without consent

    1. While doxxing has become mainstream, these examples show how this act can lead to danger. What are the ethical rules around it? What about the right to privacy?

    1. When a story is truly breaking, this is what it looks like. Our technique here is simple. Select some relevant text. Right-click or Cmd-click to search Google When you get to Google don’t stop, click the “News” tab to get a more curated feed Read and scan. Investigate more as necessary.

      The "check for other coverage" technique is a quick and easy way to verify whether a news story has been reported by other recognizable sources. This is especially helpful when you run across a news story as part of an informal conversation on social media. Show me the references, people!

    2. Or maybe — here’s a thought — find a similar article from some other site that hasn’t been called a white supremacist organization by half a dozen mainstream groups. Because no matter what you think of the article, funneling friends and family to a site that has published such sentences as “When blacks are left entirely to their own devices, Western civilization — any kind of civilization — disappears” is not ethical — or likely to put you in the best light.

      What we share says so much about who we are. Not to minimize this topic---it's like a bumper sticker...you get a sense of who they are.

    3. In this case, the URL does match. What does this look like if the site is fake? Here’s an example. A while back a site at bloomberg.ma impersonated the Bloomberg News site. Let’s see what that would look like: You do the same steps. In this case Bloomberg News is not the top result, but you scroll down and click the Bloomberg News link, and check the URL and find it is different. If you’re lazy (which I am) you might click that link to get to the real site.

      This is very useful information that I can apply to my rersearch and web-browsing. Thank you

    4. More people than you would think believe that the blue checkmark = trustworthy. But all the blue checkmark really does is say that the person is who they say they are, that they are the person of that name and not an imposter.

      The phrase "legitimate news site" is the nagging grey area here. It is indeed a broad statement which can be implemented to just about any news source, regardless about whether the information is correct. Majority of the nation may believe that CNBC isn't really a trustworthy source, whereas Fox News is. Tucker Carlson and Christina Wilkie both have a blue check mark on Twitter and are verified for government/news/entertainment.

    1. The FBI said it has stopped using the "Black Identity Extremist" tag and acknowledged that white supremacist violence is the biggest terrorist threat this country faces.

      The Root was a black justice community organizer, but after scrolling over the check, I discovered it is a digital magazine platform something which shares previously believed information from numerous black perspectives. I was using the majority opinion for other coverage and discovered that there is no actual news on this and that the link in the tweet shared is to their blog post.

    1. Today, these incredible cells — nicknamed "HeLa" cells, from the first two letters of her first and last names — are used to study the effects of toxins, drugs, hormones and viruses on the growth of cancer cells without experimenting on humans. They have been used to test the effects of radiation and poisons, to study the human genome, to learn more about how viruses work, and played a crucial role in the development of the polio and COVID-19 vaccines.Although Mrs. Lacks ultimately passed away on October 4, 1951, at the age of 31, her cells continue to impact the world.

      Fascinating information

    1. e of artistic methods to treat psychological disorders and enhance mental health is known as art therapy. Art therapy is a technique rooted in the idea that creative expression can foster healing and mental well-being.1

      l feel that expression through art has a healing affect as well as being therapeutic.

  4. May 2022
    1. I wryly grin at these fulanos and let my smile speak on my behalf. It answers, “Yes, bitch, in México, there are things to publicize such as our own fucking opinions about YOU.”

      well, people think that they can write about other people or other countries about a lot of stuff so people can see them as people with power, but things are not like that, everyone has the option of to say what ever they want and been heard by other people.

    1. More people than you would think believe that the blue checkmark = trustworthy. But all the blue checkmark really does is say that the person is who they say they are, that they are the person of that name and not an imposter.

      I found this paragraph interesting because it holds the reality of how people believe some news, the user behind that account maybe don't know all the information and don't understand the effects that this will have on other people, so people have to make their investigation so we don't make many mistakes because of the misunderstanding.

  5. Apr 2022
    1. oday’s news reveals that Russian-connected entities were trying to spoof sites like the Hudson Institute for possible spear-phishing campaigns. How do we know if the Hudson Institute site we are on is really the real site? Here’s our check: The steps: Go up to the “omnibar” Strip off everything after the domain name, type wikipedia and press enter This generates a Google search for that URL with the Wikipedia page at the top Click that link, then check in the sidebar that the URL matches. Forty-nine out of fifty times it will. The fiftieth time you may have some work to do.

      It's interesting to know how easy it is to verify whether information on the web is true

    2. One of the things I’ve been trying to convince people for the past year and a half is that the only viable literacy solution to web misinformation involves always checking any information in your stream that you find interesting, emotion-producing, or shareable. It’s not enough to check the stuff that is suspicious: if you apply your investigations selectively, you’ve already lost the battle.

      I agree with this because multiple information that is found online can be misleading. Anyone can share something online and their information may not be true or only share what they want to share. I think it’s very important to go out and make sure everything you find is reliable.

    1. she perceives her own country through the eyes of a pearl-clutching American tourist.

      i just found this shocking. The author wrote Lydia as someone who doesn't know anything about the country she grew up in and she's learning about it by the American tourist she encounters. The author like many others have these beliefs that Mexico doesn't have the same education system as the US and belief that they don't know much about the world or even their own country.

  6. Oct 2021
    1. Of course, the sexual implication is something he’d be praised for, while the woman is attacked.

      I thought this was another key part of the issue with social media: how the same situation affects people differently. People think that because others benefitted with it from interviews and attention, it was a good situation, but the women on the plane was subjected to a lot of the double standards that affect women in American society and so this unasked for attention has actually become harmful to her. Even if they had asked for consent to share the story, this situation could have happened and it's interesting how posting online is a gamble depending on who you are.

  7. Sep 2021
    1. McGarrity: We don’t work Black Lives Matter it’s a movement. It’s an ideology. We don’t work that. Pressley: So the answer is none. Can you just say that for the record? There has been no killing that the FBI can link to black Lives Matter or similar black activist groups, to your knowledge.McGarrity: To my knowledge—I’d have to go back—but to my knowledge, right now, no.

      I thought this was interesting because even though McGarrity says that they don't work Black Lives Matter because it's an ideology, the amount of police resistance and government pushback that happened during the protests doesn't fall into line with what he's saying.

    1. always checking any information in your stream that you find interesting, emotion-producing, or shareable. It’s not enough to check the stuff that is suspicious:

      I thought this was interesting because it mentioned "Emotion-producing," which made me consider how if a story does produce an emption, was it trying to do that? Was that the specific emotion they wanted? And if it was, for what purpose? I thought it was interesting because it made me realize how a website could be manipulative or influencing without me consciously thinking about it, and always checking if the site is the right site, credible, and backed up can reveal if that emotion was manipulative for poor intentions, or just good writing trying to get you to engage with the article.

    2. Once you accept that, certain things become clear. Your methods of checking have to be really quick. They have to be habitual, automatic. They can’t be cognitively expensive. And those who teach media literacy have to be conscious of this trade-off between depth and efficacy and act accordingly.

      I can understand checking web misinformation that you stream for accuracy; however, what I don't understand is why you have to be "really quick" with checking this information?

  8. Jul 2021
    1. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free

      The fact that people would rather be bystanders with their phones out to record something to post on social media for clout is unacceptable, especially if it's something that puts people in danger. Yet most of us only care about having content to become "famous" for.

    2. This is the Faustian alchemy of social media: we are all given the opportunity to become celebrities in an instant, sometimes for nonsensical reasons, with or without our input.

      This is what I know as going "viral" on social media. You could become known in an instant, depending on the situation you're put in. It's incredible to me that people can become infamous so quickly because of a single situation, but it's not always a good thing to become known on social media, especially if the situation wasn't given consent to be posted.

    3. Seemingly innocent cases, like that of “Plane Bae,” are small warning signs on the road to our even more networked future. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free to large corporations who then monetize it.

      If everyone is watching everyone else, can there be any real privacy while in public?

    4. Respondents to the original thread, in thrall to the “love story” and eager to thwart Blair’s half-hearted attempts at anonymizing the pair, soon found and shared the woman’s Instagram. Holden embraced the choice that had been made for him; his companion clearly hasn’t.

      And that's the danger. People are willing to trample on your privacy rights because they believe they have a right to continue this "story."

    5. But we gain virtually none of the benefits of that fame, none of the glamor or the institutional support to help deal with the invasiveness of celebrity and how it can eat away at every boundary you ever took for granted.

      We simply just see what is happening right in front of our very lives. In the end, we are not famous, we are not friends with famous people, we are simply normal. Living a normal life and there are no changes in our life.

    6. Instead, all you have is that same vulnerability before a vast crowd that feels entitled to the most intimate parts of your life. How difficult would it be to conduct that relationship on your own terms?

      Having your intimate moments being shown for the whole world to see can be very nerve wracking and stressful because people you don't even know are watching your every move and that includes your most vulnerable moments.

    7. ABC News implied that Holden said “there’s still hope” for the relationship, though this framing is at odds with what Holden actually said, which seemed to be a more generic statement about hopefulness. That narrative frame is a reminder of the story everyone here is being coerced into. They must get together.

      This is reminiscent of rumors spinning out of control. How people make statements which can be misleading and someone else takes it a step further, but this is on a national level. Narrative and framing matters far more than we expect.

    8. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free to large corporations who then monetize it.

      This is not just an example of people "replicating the coercive power of the state" but also acting as agents of it. Their fame came from "below" and "above".

    9. Yet the identities of both were inevitably pursued and eventually discovered. At a certain level of virality, you cannot stop motivated people on the internet from piercing your veils. In the case of that woman from Blair’s flight, her legions of “fans” are digging day and night to find more information, to meet the female lead of this summer’s hottest rom-com. They want to know what happens next. They want to make her finish the story. Go on a date; now kiss; now get engaged; tell us what it was like. We need to know more. More. More.

      We live in a day and age where your whole life can get turned upside down and put out for millions of people to judge and examine under a microscope with or without your consent. It is scary to think about when you look under the surface of this supposedly "rom-com" type story how people you don't even know are imposing what you should or shouldn't do until there is nothing left and they move on to the next shiny thing.

    10. Seemingly innocent cases, like that of “Plane Bae,” are small warning signs on the road to our even more networked future. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free to large corporations who then monetize it. “Plane Bae” didn’t just benefit Twitter, a company badly in need of good PR, but also T-Mobile, whose savvy CEO swooped in to offer Blair a reimbursement on the Wi-Fi she purchased to write her thread.

      This part of the passage resonated with me because it reminded me of a documentary I saw recently about social media and how these sites seem like they're free but they thrive off their "users." Another industry that refers to their clientele as "users" is the drug industry. People seek content constantly at the cost of other individuals but in the end it is the large corporations that benefit off this exploitation.

    1. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures.

      This is definitely a problem that I've seen from people who have been used as a "meme" format. While some people kind of take the profound fame with a grain of salt, I've seen some people who are unable to find jobs because of how viral they've become from a meme format. Most memes are seemingly harmless, but when done without permission, it could cost someone else a career or even discomfort throughout their lives.

    2. Memes are the units that transmit ideas, behaviors, styles and usage within a culture through a variety of media

      Memes are generally used as a way to combine both humor and knowledge or ideas through a single mean. They're usually straightforward, but there are some memes that need a little more inside knowledge to understand.

    3. There is no official definitive answer for whether a use can be considered fair, as every case must be judged on its own merits, but there are some types of use generally allowed under fair use, including criticism and commentary, parody, journalism, education, and research.

      I think it's good that there's no cut and dried definition of fair use. It allows the law to be flexible and adapt to the changing circumstances of media consumption.

    4. Stacey M. Lantagne expands on this in Famous on the Internet: The Spectrum of Internet Memes and the Legal Challenge of Evolving Methods of Communication (2017), in which she identifies use ranging from “static,” a relatively straightforward reproduction of an image, to “mutating,” in which the role of the internet is directly responsible for the meme’s alteration from the original to the point that “[m]utating memes, because of their unique characteristics, are more like ideas,” thus unprotected under copyright.

      Are memes the visual version of audio sampling?

    5. Merriam-Webster defines “meme” (pronounced “meem”) as “an idea, behavior, style, or usage that spreads from person to person within a culture,” originating in the same root as “imitation.”

      This provides a great introduction to what the article will be talking about. Some people may not know what memes are or the true proper definition of it.

    6. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame.

      I feel like this isn't an uncommon occurrence, but maybe not always to this extent. People can post things involving other people without thinking much of consequences, but when something is out there it tends to stay that way even if the original post is taken down.

    7. Similarly, the DMCA was used to quash parodies of the German World War II movie “Downfall.” In 2010, the movie’s production company, Constantin Films, started pulling these parodies from YouTube, to which meme creators had little recourse. However, Constantin Films did not sue anyone, so it is unknown whether the parodies might have been considered fair use.

      This is clearly fair use though. It's a parody, which is one of the usually protected fair uses.

    8. Says Dawkins, “[j]ust as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation.”

      This is an interesting way to put it. I definitely wouldn't have explained it that way but I guess it works. I like the prior nursery rhymes analogy a little better.

    9. Richard Dawkins is credited as having coined the term in The Selfish Gene (1976). Memes are the units that transmit ideas, behaviors, styles and usage within a culture through a variety of media, like nursery rhymes passed down from parent to child.

      Dawkins may have coined the term, but it's current iteration, as described by Godwin, has completely eclipsed and overtaken it's old definition in public consciousness, very fitting for a meme.

    10. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame.

      Even though the suit was settled that meme is still out there and the poor kid had to learn to deal with it. The internet is such a strange place and it's actually horrifying that someone can take something you did in one moment and it goes viral with masses of people making their own conjectures.

    11. Image-based memes are easy to create and easy to spread, though whether they will go viral is never a given. If you create or post one, remember to pay attention to the source of the image. Your best bet is to start with an image or clip that is already labeled for reuse or is in the public domain, meaning out of copyright protection altogether. Google Images search tools provides such a filter, or try the Creative Commons search for work licensed for reuse via Creative Commons licenses. When you see a meme going around, give a thought to the subject of that meme image, whose life may forever be changed.  

      This article made me think twice about memes and meme culture, how it has to do with consent, and that the subject within the meme is not always a willing participant. I am not a creator of memes but if I were I would think more about the source of the image I were using and whether or not it is labeled for reuse in the public domain.

    1. When Nikki Adams turned to yoga to heal the trauma she endured as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse, she found that the same spaces which often preached inclusivity were unwelcoming.
    1. he most challenging aspect of using yoga is that it is not a “one size fits all” solution.  Some survivors need a community or space where they can speak or write about their emotions. Other survivors feel like they need more of a physical workout. And sometimes it’s a combination of all of these. Each survivor is different, and I wouldn’t push yoga on someone as a guaranteed way to help someone heal. I just know that it has worked for me, and I encourage other survivors to find their “yoga,” whatever that might look like.
    1. Her life immediately changed. After the attack, she started experiencing flashbacks, nightmares and anxiety. She sought help from professionals but felt that talk therapy and medications weren’t providing the kind of recovery she needed.
    1. “Trauma,” Bessel van der Kolk explains, “is not just an event that took place sometime in the past; it is also the imprint left by that experience on mind, brain, and body.”
    1. Jenkins remembers the first time she met her. Elaine was very agitated, in a constant state of hyper-arousal, “alert to every movement in the room, every sound, even the rise of my eyebrow,” Jenkins says. But when it came to talking about her emotions, Elaine shut down.
    1. Bessell van der Kolk: Overcome Trauma With Yoga 103,308 views103K viewsSep 5, 20183K I like this 28 I dislike this Share Share Save
    1. Many women in this study described yoga as an empowering practice due to feeling more regulated and in touch with their bodies. Ms. S., a 42-year-old Latina married social worker, had been physically and sexually abused by her father from middle school through late high school. She entered the study after 5 years of trauma-focused talk therapy and had a CAPS score of 60 and a DES score of 10 at the baseline assessment. During the course of the study, she attended 16/20 yoga classes and practiced an average of 43 min per day at home, even practicing while away on vacation. She mentioned that her husband commented on her “Zen-like” ability to maintain focus during her yoga practice. Ms. S. was able to use this skill in other aspects of her life, as she indicated in a note on her homework sheet: “The yoga has helped me be able to pay attention to the rhythm of my breathing, which has helped me be able to run, which I have never been able to do before. I ran for 2¼ miles for the first time in my life.” At the post-treatment assessment, her CAPS score was 25, and at the 1-month follow-up assessment, her CAPS score was 14, indicating that she was asymptomatic and experienced >50% reduction in reported symptoms
    1. Another important aspect of the Yoga classes at the Trauma Center is the development of community. As the author and trauma clinician Judith Herman has noted, trauma survivors typically feel deeply alienated from society.
    2. As students develop the ability to make choices for them-selves based on their own internal feedback, they are learn-ing that their feelings matter and that they can take effective action to make themselves feel better.
    3. Identifying how the body feels is very difficult for trauma survivors who have, in many cases, been avoiding noticing their bodies or neglecting to care for their bodies for a prolonged period of time. Making choices to lessen pain, strain, or discomfort may be more challenging still.
    4. Along with the principals discussed above, Trauma Center Yoga teachers keep in mind the healing benefits of two key elements of a group Yoga practice: making choices and community. The process of being traumatized involves a fundamen-tal lack of choice—you were in the wrong place at the wrong time. Your choices as an individual did not matter. What happened happened, despite your complete insistence that it not happen. This can result in a deeply damaged sense of agency in the world and a complete lack of faith that you can do anything to improve your situation or change things to better suit yourself
    5. e decided that trauma-sensitive Yoga was not so much about getting students to do something but more about invitingthem to try something. As a result of this decision, we came up with what we call Invitatory Language
    6. For many trauma survivors, physical assists are a clinical issue and should be treated with great care and attention. We do not offer physical assists for the first several months of an open Yoga class and would suggest not doing physical assists at all if your class is limited to several weeks in dura-tion. Verbal assists, however, can be very valuable and will show that you are attending to your students in a nurturing way, while respecting their physical space and the integrity of those boundaries. For example, rather than physically ad-just a student’s posture, you might suggest that the student try a block or blanket to make a posture more accessible.
    7. An essential aspect of recovering from trauma is learn-ing ways to calm down, or self-regulate. For thousands of years, Yoga has been offered as a practice that helps one calm the mind and body. More recently, research has shown that Yoga practices, including meditation, relaxation, and physical postures, can reduce autonomic sympathetic ac-tivation, muscle tension, and blood pressure, improve neuroendocrine and hormonal activity, decrease physical symptoms and emotional distress, and increase quality of life.10-21 For these reasons, Yoga is a promising treatment or adjunctive therapy for addressing the cognitive, emotional, and physiological symptoms associated with trauma, and PTSD specifically
    8. Given the prevalence of trauma exposure in our society, effective treatment interventions for individuals who develop PTSD are essential. Unfortunately, trauma has long-lasting effects on mental health and is extremely treatment-resis
    1. And despite the insistence of the president, Steve King and every guest on Fox News that there are bad people on “both sides,” including Black Lives Matter terrorists

      There are always going to be two sides to a point, but I'm just surprised by the ignorance some people display on a public news network. These news outlets should definitely be neutral, but sadly, it will never work out that way.

    1. Scan the stories. If you want to be hypervigilant, scan for sources you recognize, and consider sharing one of the stories featuring original reporting instead of the tweet.

      Whenever I saw tweets from people who had the "verified" symbol next to their name on Twitter, I never really thought twice to question the information given to me on that platform, but reading Caulfield's suggestion to be "hypervigilant", it just tells me that it's better to do my own research instead of believing a single source, despite how legitimate the source may seem.

    2. But I end up coming back to this simple stuff because I can’t shake the feeling that digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      Wow my mind is blown on these research tips. I am definitely going try and be more vigilent and apply these techniques to get even deeper on a subject. The author is so right in how we need to change the way we do things and enhance our digital literacy.

    1. This review is unique in being the first systematic review and quantitative synthesis of yoga interventions for psychological symptoms following trauma and is a first attempt to summarize the existing literature in this growing field.
    2. This review is unique in being the first systematic review and quantitative synthesis of yoga interventions for psychological symptoms following trauma and is a first attempt to summarize the existing literature in this growing field.
    3. Yoga may be a promising treatment for trauma sequelae, given research that supports yoga for general distress, specifically in decreasing physical symptoms and emotional distress and increasing quality of life (for a review, see, e.g., Emerson et al., 2009). Because the experience of trauma is physically impactful both during (e.g., in the midst of domestic violence, sexual abuse, combat, natural disasters) and after (e.g., alterations in physiological stress responses) the trauma, mind and body connections may be particularly healing. A systematic review demonstrated that those who have experienced a trauma were 2.7 times more likely to have a functional somatic syndrome (e.g., chronic pain, temporomandiular disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome) than those who did not report experiencing a trauma (Afari et al., 2014); these results are similar in studies examining specific types of trauma, for example, sexual abuse (Finestone et al., 2000). Thus, as Afari et al. (2014) express, effects of the experience of trauma that alter one’s cognitive and behavioral responses may also result in the expression of somatic changes. From evidence suggesting how traumatic stress has lasting impacts on the body, van der Kolk (2006) suggests that the most effective treatments involve (a) increasing one’s tolerance of the physical sensations in one’s body, (b) regulating arousal, and (c) learning effective actions in the body, which are particularly important after the experience of peritraumatic physical helplessness. Interoceptive, body-oriented therapies, which allow for more physical and mental self-awareness and mindfulness, may be promising interventions for trauma survivors. Yet, the current state of evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress lack these components. For instance, due to high noncompleter rates and residual symptoms, the National Academies Health and Medicine Division (formerly the Institute of Medicine [IOM]) deems that PTSD treatment outcomes do not have sufficient certainty in their effectiveness (Institute of Medicine Committee on Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 2008
    1. As a way to address physiological dysregulation and somatic symptoms, scholars have begun to explore the use of mind-body practices (Minton et al., 2006; Salmon, Lush, Jablonski & Septon, 2009). Techniques that increase mindfulness of internal states and physiological responses to internal and external stimuli have especially demonstrated promise in addressing the way trauma is held in the body (Follette, Palm, & Pearson, 2006; Ware, 2007). Recent studies have also shown that mindfulness-based interventions reduce PTSD symptoms and improve functioning by increasing the capacity to recognize, tolerate, and utilize internal states and ease the physical co-morbidities often associated with PTSD (Boden et al., 2012; Thompson, Arnkoff, & Glass, 2011; Vujanovic, Youngwirth, Johnson, & Zvolensky, 2009).
  9. Jun 2021
    1. ut I end up coming back to this simple stuff because I can’t shake the feeling that digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      With the implementation of more digital media resources, we need to develop the habits of checking our sources before we spread misinformation.

  10. Dec 2020
    1. Investigation admitted that prejudiced assumptions against the Black Lives Matter movement, Muslim Americans and black identity extremists was all a lie. Intelligence officials sat in front of lawmakers and openly admitted that white supremacists and right-wing violence are the biggest domestic terror threat but also admitted that federal agencies aren’t really doing anything about it.

      I don't believe this is true because I was out their during the protest and we were out their fighting for what we believe in. There were certain people that demanded for justice in violence but not everybody.

    1. One of the things I’ve been trying to convince people for the past year and a half is that the only viable literacy solution to web misinformation involves always checking any information in your stream that you find interesting, emotion-producing, or shareable. It’s not enough to check the stuff that is suspicious: if you apply your investigations selectively, you’ve already lost the battle.

      I have seen many platforms that carry information like that. People copy the information and post it themselves.

  11. Nov 2020
    1. I can’t get these processes down to a two second mirror-and-head-check, but I can get them close.

      Interesting never heard of thing!

  12. Jul 2020
    1. Container and Packaging Recycling Law

      Japan has more laws that have to do with recycling different materials.

    1. The newest hotspots for handling US plastic recycling are some of the world’s poorest countries, including Bangladesh, Laos, Ethiopia and Senegal, offering cheap labor and limited environmental regulation.

      As the United States sends our recyclables to other countries to handle our overflow, Cheap labor is used.

    1. The value of plastic, glass and aluminum has decreased, forcing many redemption centers to shut their doors, despite a state subsidy program designed to help them weather market downturns.

      Here are some of the challenges the Bay Area are facing due to lack of funding.

    1. I'm so glad you shared this and I'm so, so, so glad that you're doing okay. I'm sure it's strange to read it - but I was worried about you. I'm sure a lot of us nameless, faceless people out here were.I cried reading this. I've been there. I'll probably be there again. Thank you for being brave enough to share more of your journey with us.

      I noticed a connection between this blog and the Jonny Sun piece. Both people created something and then put it out there on the internet. They both developed a virtual participatory culture communities from the art that was created.

    1. And in these dangerous and unsure times, in the midst of it all, I think the thing that we have to hold on to is other people. And I know that is a small thing made up of small moments, but I think it is one tiny, tiny sliver of light in all the darkness. 

      Sometimes a little acknowledgement is all that is needed to be able to ground yourself and to step back from the end to a new beginning.

    2. t can feel like you are writing in this personal, intimate diary that's completely private, yet at the same time you want everyone in the world to read it. And I think part of that, the joy of that is that we get to experience things from perspectives from people who are completely different from ourselves, and sometimes that's a nice thing. 

      I have had this feeling before

    1. “For us, it slows things down. We try to integrate people back to humanity,” Mr. McAleer said. “If isolation and shame is the driver for people joining these types of groups, doxxing certainly isn’t the answer.”

      There's probably a commentary here about incel groups too but I just cant think of it.

    2. Now the online hunt to reveal extremists has raised concerns about unintended consequences, or even collateral damage. A few individuals have been misidentified in recent weeks, including a professor from Arkansas who was wrongly accused of participating in the neo-Nazi march.

      This in particular reminds me of the Boston Bombing, and how reddit users took it among themselves to find out who did it and instead doxxed the wrong person, who eventually ended up killing himself I believe since the false accusation. Everyone think in these scenarios they're doing it for the cause, and that they're in the right, until someone uninvolved gets accused and ruins their lives. I do think it's tricky though because I do think for like, the people going to Nazi rallies and promoting hateful and toxic content need to recognize there are probably consequences for creating hostility, but where is that line drawn?

    3. But doxxing has emerged from subculture websites like 4Chan and Reddit to become something of a mainstream phenomenon since a white supremacist march on Charlottesville,

      I know it says that it's been happening for a while, but doxxing has been a huge part of toxic internet culture for the last 12+ years. Definitely longer than the march in Charlottesville, anyways.

    4. The next year, doxxing became a tool by in the “GamerGate” controversy, an online dispute purportedly about ethics in video game journalism that became a foundational moment for some of today’s fringe far right. Mostly male video-game players began to publish personal information — including home address and phone numbers — for women in their community, typically journalists and game designers who they said were unfairly politicizing gaming culture.

      Posting someone's information is unbelievable. It's unbelievable someone would do that. Those people should be held liable for their actions. Just because someone had an opinion about gaming culture, doesn't mean someone should attack them and exploit the person's information online. Everyone has a right to their opinion, and doxing is not a good way to get your point across.

    5. This article looks at the consequences of doxxing and how it's become a mainstream answer to exposing white supremacists. It supports both pros and cons of "outing" by using quotes from counter-protestors to a Nazi march in San Francisco and a Nazi reformer. There are references to a Charlottesville, VA march, mistaken identity with doxxing, the death of Cecil the lion, and the mob mentality behind doxxing.

    6. It is not as though they are hiding their identities.

      Does this mean when I am out supporting a Black Lives Matter event, that someone who doesn't agree with me, can doxx me? It is not I appreciate your transparent.

    7. Now the online hunt to reveal extremists has raised concerns about unintended consequences, or even collateral damage. A few individuals have been misidentified in recent weeks, including a professor from Arkansas who was wrongly accused of participating in the neo-Nazi march.

      People who are doxxed could be good or bad people, but it doesn't justify its the right thing to do.

    8. The next year, doxxing became a tool by in the “GamerGate” controversy, an online dispute purportedly about ethics in video game journalism that became a foundational moment for some of today’s fringe far right. Mostly male video-game players began to publish personal information — including home address and phone numbers — for women in their community, typically journalists and game designers who they said were unfairly politicizing gaming culture.

      I saw a play about game gate, really well done and really illustrated the personal impacts of being "doxx"'d. Reflecting back on that story, doxx'ing seems like it might be a poor way to actually influence someone's thinking or behavior.

    9. But the two young men pictured were not the bombers. At one point, Reddit sleuths even set their sights on a student from Brown University, about 60 miles away in Providence, R.I., who was missing. He had nothing to do with the bombing; he had committed suicide.

      I think it's really important to note that people can really interfere with police investigations and cause chaos in the lives of the people they point the finger at.

    10. “People went berserk,” Ms. Coleman said. “That, to me, was this interesting turning point where it showed the general public would be willing to jump into the fray.”

      I think when people are angry, that makes them willing to commit more extreme acts than they might otherwise not do.

    11. White supremacists marched with torches during a rally in Charlottesville, Va.Credit...Edu Bayer for The New York Times

      Fire has historically been used in battle, and as a fear tactic. Take the Great Fire of London in 1666, which destroyed thousands upon thousands of homes, churches, and businesses. While that fire may have been an accident, it's a testament to the destructive power of fire.

      There are many things, passive and active, that white supremacists could accomplish with such tiki torches, including burning people of color in direct combat. Considering the nature of white supremacy, I'm surprised I have not seen such accounts of violence on the news.

    12. SAN FRANCISCO — Riding a motorized pony and strumming a cigar box ukulele, Dana Cory led a singalong to the tune of “If you’re happy and you know it clap your hands.”“You’re a Nazi and you’re fired, it’s your fault,” she sang. “You were spotted in a mob, now you lost your freaking job. You’re a Nazi and you’re fired, it’s your fault.”“All together now!” Ms. Cory, 48, shouted to a cheering crowd in San Francisco’s Castro neighborhood on Saturday. They were protesting a rally planned by far-right organizers about a mile away.“Dox a Nazi all day, every day,” she said.

      Well, that's a heck of a way to start off an article.

      Honestly, there's a certain sort of camaraderie within protests. Not all of them are jovial, as what seems to be going on here, but by their nature, they're very passionate. At the BLM protest in Walnut Creek I attended, we were blowing out our lungs chanting in support of the fallen, and I ended up getting swept away on a wave of justified anger by the time we flooded onto the freeway. A large source of anger amongst the protestors is that the cops overseeing the protests, for the most part, covered their badge numbers and other identifying teachers, meaning that by the time tear gas and rubber bullets were on the table, there was no enemy more specific than the Walnut Creek Police Department. You can't exactly doxx a whole police department and expect it to have as severe of a consequence as if the individual police officers were prosecuted individually.

      P.S.: I note the bias in my annotation, but the difficulty in diffuse consequences stands.

    1. he problem, of course, was that she was telling a story about two people who had no idea they’d been cast as leads in a riveting story for thousands of strangers.

      This kind of reminds me about the movie Jim Carey did called "The Truman Show" and it's disturbing to know that it's still happening, years later, as if we didn't learn anything from it

    2. In the case of that woman from Blair’s flight, her legions of “fans” are digging day and night to find more information, to meet the female lead of this summer’s hottest rom-com. They want to know what happens next. They want to make her finish the story. Go on a date; now kiss; now get engaged; tell us what it was like. We need to know more. More. More.

      In many ways that is one of the most unfortunate things about the "commercialization of the internet", social media, reality television, etc. it's the whole idea of pleasure versus enjoyment. When we aren't working for anything and just passively letting it come to us, we discard it as soon as it's "used up"

    3. Seemingly innocent cases, like that of “Plane Bae,” are small warning signs on the road to our even more networked future. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free to large corporations who then monetize it. “Plane Bae” didn’t just benefit Twitter, a company badly in need of good PR, but also T-Mobile, whose savvy CEO swooped in to offer Blair a reimbursement on the Wi-Fi she purchased to write her thread.

      That's the really tragic part is that people are selling other people's lives so they can get "internet famous" for just a moment. Not for doing anything meaningful with their lives, simply by harvesting private moments of other people.

    4. The problem, of course, was that she was telling a story about two people who had no idea they’d been cast as leads in a riveting story for thousands of strangers.

      If you don't take precautions in protecting people's identity, then you can inadvertently turn them into celebrities. This is not fair to the people involved.

    5. It was, after all, the digital equivalent of must-see TV. “Have not been this riveted since the final episode of Lost, and this *didn’t* piss me off! Amazing!” wrote one Twitter user in reply to Blair’s thread. “Please @TheEllenShow have a look on it! We need to know more about this happy end,” wrote another. Blair should be credited, if nothing else, with spinning the relatively unremarkable behavior of two strangers into such a simple but compelling story.

      This is a remarkable insight. While I can definitely empathize with the entertainment value of such a livestream type of entertainment, having watched people make fools of themselves online or play video games, the involuntary aspect of it is unsettling. Saying that these happenings didn't piss them off means that the Twitter user came in with an expectation that this unfolding story should be consumable and intriguing while not breaking off or taking a drastic turn for the worse, as many "first-date" type scenarios do. And I wouldn't even consider this a real first date! Then again, I'm not one to speak for the duo involved.

    6. This is the Faustian alchemy of social media: we are all given the opportunity to become celebrities in an instant, sometimes for nonsensical reasons, with or without our input. But we gain virtually none of the benefits of that fame, none of the glamor or the institutional support to help deal with the invasiveness of celebrity and how it can eat away at every boundary you ever took for granted.

      We don't get to control our own coverage online. Sure, with lawyers and copyright strikes, you can control the spread to the extent, but without an overruling power, such as in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (AKA: North Korea), people are free to access, interpret, and share information mostly at their own discretion. This is a great thing in the context of freedom, but this also can lead the the spread of misinformation, confusion, and untoward feelings.

    1. Experts say that we would need to implement changes across the board. Legislators may need to pass laws requiring manufacturers to use more recyclable materials, companies would need to build much-needed recycling infrastructure and people would need to recycle properly.

      More changes need to be made to help ensure recycling is done properly. More funding is needed to assist in this process.

    1. Given the immense harm inflicted on individuals and groups of color via prejudice and discrimination, it becomes imperative for our nation to begin the process of disarming, disrupting, and dismantling the constant onslaught of micro- and macroaggressions.

      A

    2. n the United States, the omnipresence of racial bias and bigotry has led many to question the reasons for their persistence in light of widespread public condemnation. Social scientists have proposed a number of reasons for people’s failure to act: (a) the invisibility of modern forms of bias, (b) trivializing an incident as innocuous, (c) diffusion of responsibility, (d) fear of repercussions or retaliation, and (e) the paralysis of not knowing what to do (Goodman, 2011; Kawakami, Dunn, Karmali, & Dovidio, 2009; Latané & Darley, 1968; Scully & Rowe, 2009; Shelton, Richeson, Salvtore, & Hill, 2006; Sue, 2003).

      Supports my question

    1. I have received numerous texts and emails from white friends recently — checking in, asking whether I’m okay. I appreciate the concern, and I want everyone to know I’m fine. Well, I’m as fine as I’ve been since 1982. That’s when, after my family moved to a new neighborhood in Chicago, a group of white kids tried to blow up our car by sticking a rag in the gas tank and lighting it on fire.

      This reminds me of the ending of Invisible Man and I Am Not Your Negro.

    2. Of course, white people, like everyone else, face genuine hardships, but these hardships do not negate white privilege. Consider the difference in responses to the suffering of black people during the crack cocaine epidemic and that of rural whites during the opioid epidemic. O

      Good example of similar stories with vastly different consequences

    3. This will not be easy. The price of justice — the loss of privilege — will be a painful shock.

      Straight forward and true.

    4. As Frederick Douglass said, without struggle, there is no progress. Let’s struggle together for our collective soul.

      Welcoming conclusion.

    1. Meanwhile, I hope college students will go forth, outside the campus bubble, and help people. The relationships they form will generate orders of magnitude more wisdom and understanding about people unlike themselves than any social-justice dogma.

      It seems that the guide offered a one size fits all way to be an ally only by looking inward without being specific as to how to do this.

    2. The high school volunteers mentioned above and the special-needs community with whom they allied are both better off for the fact that service to others through outward action was emphasized, rather than inward reflection on privilege.

      Is being an ally offering a service, creating a bond, and then that leads to increased advocacy? Our connection to other people changes our ability to see the world.

    1. This is this really kind of a generational upheaval. We can either make some serious structural changes, redistribute power and wealth in a way that we haven't been willing to consider in the past.

      It's well past time to reconsider the changes and reparations we need to make.

    2. I think at the time of the Rodney King beating it was easier to view it as an isolated incident or as a few bad apples. But now, over time, we see a persistent and pervasive pattern. Over years and years.

      I think the pervasiveness of the incidents being recored make a difference. It is difficult to unsee a murder. It makes me wonder about all of the incidents that occurred and were not able to be documented.

    3. I think a lot of people, when they saw that video of George Floyd, who weren't in the black community, felt agony.

      It was murder.

    4. The protests and marches today you see are multiethnic, multicultural, even multigenerational. And the allyship is something that is more pronounced now than it perhaps once was.

      That's what I have seen at protests here.

    1. In a 2014 report by the Sentencing Project, a national nonprofit, 68% of Black respondents said the U.S. justice system is biased against Black people compared with 25% of whites. The report went on to say that white perceptions of overall fairness led to greater levels of punitive sentencing for people of color.

      whites have a high perception of overall fairness in sentencing

    1. n the early 2010s, as grassroots Black demonstrations emerged after the killings of Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Florida, Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, and Eric Garner in New York City, both state and federal government were again there to watch. Protest and advocacy organizations such as Black Lives Matter and government-labeled “Black Identity Extremists” are being monitored and infiltrated.[15]

      infiltration by city, state, and federal govts. monitored movements such as Black Lives Matter as "Black Identity Extremists."

    2. ervasive government surveillance in America is not a new phenomenon. Government monitoring and suppression of Black speech and conduct has been an essential feature of American society far before the public at large realized the potential dangers of widespread surveillance. Although privacy is a national value, it has been an elusive concept for Black people in America.

      Privacy is an elusive concept for Black people in America

    1. Many people know that during World War II, innocent Americans of Japanese descent were surveilled and detained in internment camps. Fewer people know that in the wake of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson openly feared that black servicemen returning from Europe would become “the greatest medium in conveying Bolshevism to America.” Around the same time, the Military Intelligence Division created a special “Negro Subversion” section devoted to spying on black Americans. Near the top of its list was W.E.B. DuBois, a “rank Socialist” whom they tracked in Paris for fear he would “attempt to introduce socialist tendencies at the Peace Conference.”

      Woodrow Wilson's Military Intelligence Division created a "Negro Subversion" section..WEB DuBois at top of list.

    2. We now find ourselves in a new surveillance debate—and the lessons of the King scandal should weigh heavy on our minds. A few months after the first Edward Snowden revelation, the National Security Agency disclosed that it had itself wiretapped King in the late 1960s. Yet what happened to King is almost entirely absent from our current conversation. In NSA reform debates in the House of Representatives, King was mentioned only a handful of times, usually in passing. And notwithstanding a few brave speeches by senators such as Patrick Leahy and Rand Paul outside of the Senate, the available Senate record suggests that in two years of actual hearings and floor debates, no one ever spoke his name.  

      NSA had wiretapped Dr. MLK

    1. However, within copyright law exists the doctrine of fair use, which allows for use of a copyrighted work in the creation of new work without permission, as long as the use fits within certain parameters.

      Fair use is nice that we have that, it gives people leeway to express themselves.

    2. Image-based memes are easy to create and easy to spread, though whether they will go viral is never a given. If you create or post one, remember to pay attention to the source of the image. Your best bet is to start with an image or clip that is already labeled for reuse or is in the public domain, meaning out of copyright protection altogether.

      If your a librarian and want to make a Meme, this would be good information to know about.

    1. Algorithms are taking over – and woe betide anyone they class as a 'deadbeat' This article is more than 1 year old Zoe Williams

      title of article in The Guardian July 12, 2018

    1. The more difficult question concerns whether scoring systems’ source code, algorithmic predictions, and modeling should be transparent to affected individuals and ultimately the public at large. Neil Richards and Jonathan King astutely explain that “there are legitimate arguments for some level of big data secrecy,” including concerns “connected to highly sensitive intellectual property and national security assets.”146 But these concerns are more than outweighed by the threats to human dignity posed by pervasive, secret, and automated scoring systems

      while this article treats credit scores predicted by algorithms, the effect of the secret scoring systems on jobs, housing, and opportunities are widespread and often unable to be challenged...reminds me of what happens with too much faith in ai surveillance without due process for those affected

    2. 05 - Citron & Pasquale Article.docx (Do Not Delete)3/26/2014 2:47 PM14 WASHINGTON LAW REVIEW[Vol. 89:1 and data behind them.73 Software engineers construct the datasets mined by scoring systems; they define the parameters of data-mining analyses; they create the clusters, links, and decision trees applied;74 they generate the predictive models applied.75 The biases and values of system developers and software programmers are embedded into each and every step of development

      Biases of system developers and software programmers

    3. 05 - Citron & Pasquale Article.docx (Do Not Delete)3/26/2014 2:47 PMTHE SCORED SOCIETY: DUE PROCESS FOR AUTOMATED PREDICTIONSDanielle Keats Citron* & Frank Pasquale**Abstract: Big Data is increasingly mined to rank and rate individuals. Predictive algorithms assess whether we are good credit risks, desirable employees, reliable tenants, valuable customers—or deadbeats, shirkers, menaces, and “wastes of time.
  13. Jun 2020
    1. One of the most shocking things that many of us learned when the Covid-19 pandemic was first landing on our shores, and we were weighing the pros and cons of closing the schools, was that for tens of millions of American kids, going to school represents the only guarantee of a decent meal on any given day. I’m pretty confident that most of the kids we’re talking about here aren’t white. And whatever you think about the opportunities in this country and whatever individual success stories you can call to mind, there is no question that some of us start on third base, or second base. Everyone has a lot to deal with, of course. Life is hard. But not everyone is a single mom, or single grandparent, struggling to raise kids in the inner city, all the while trying to keep them from getting murdered. The disparities in our society are absolutely heartbreaking and unacceptable. And we need to have a rational discussion about their actual causes and solutions. We have to pull back from the brink here. And all we have with which to do that is conversation. And the only thing that makes conversation possible is an openness to evidence and arguments—a willingness to update one’s view of the world when better reasons are given.

      The bulk of this podcast questions many recent assumptions...about policing, about anti-racism too, though I'm not sure he sees this as I do..and I am not on board with some of his perspective...but he got me thinking

    2. How much of this is inequality due to the legacy of slavery? And how much of it is due to an ensuing century of racist policies? I’m prepared to believe quite a lot. And it strikes me as totally legitimate to think about paying reparations as a possible remedy here.

      The NYTimes magazine of Sunday, June 28 has an extraordinary essay about reparations “What is owed”

    3. with social media, we’ve all been enrolled in a psychological experiment for which no one gave consent, and it’s not at all clear how it will turn out. And it’s still not clear how it will turn out, but it’s not looking good. It’s fairly disorienting out there. All information is becoming weaponized. All communication is becoming performative. And on the most important topics, it now seems to be fury and sanctimony and bad faith almost all the time.

      I learned about Sam Harris from Marina, and I listened to his recent podcast

    1. There are parents who will not have their children's faces appear anywhere on the internet, including sending emails of photos...I cannot imagine how the parents of that small child peering over her seat reacted if they were made aware of this inadvertent web appearance

    2. In some cases, our use of cellphone cameras has the potential to liberate us when directed at the state, subjecting the powerful and privileged to forms of accountability that they’re not used to. That’s been made plain by the significant role of cellphone video in the movement against police brutality.

      The cell phone has come to be seen as doing more for civil rights than anything in many years--especially in the recent killing of George Floyd and the awareness (finally) of many Americans about the blatant injustices that have gone unchecked.

    3. The story’s charm disguises the invasion of privacy at its heart: the way technology is both eroding our personal boundaries and coercing us in deleterious ways.

      A story that serves as momentary entertainment for many can wreak havoc on those it is about. In this case, a young woman who values her privacy has to hire an attorney and remove herself from the internet...while others enjoy their fifteen minutes of fame.

    1. unintended consequences

      This is exactly the situation in the Plane Bae situation

    2. Online vigilantism has been around since the early days of the internet. So has “doxxing” — originally a slang term among hackers for obtaining and posting private documents about an individual, usually a rival or enemy.

      Origin of term doxxing

    1. This article introduces a new strategic framework developed for addressing micro-aggressions that moves beyond coping and survival to concrete action steps and dialogues that targets, allies, and bystanders can perform (micro-interventions).

    2. APA Reference

    1. ’m talking with professor Ibram X. Kendi, New York Times bestselling author of How to Be an Antiracist and the Director of the Antiracist Research and Policy Center at American University. We talk about racial disparities, policy, and equality, but we really focus on How to Be an Antiracist, which is a groundbreaking approach to understanding uprooting racism and inequality in our society and in
    1. Why are so many unarmed black people being killed by police while armed white people are simply arrested? Why are officials addressing violent crime in poorer neighborhoods by adding more police instead of more jobs?
    1. Ms. Williams, a real estate marketing director and food blogger, also tweeted at the American Civil Liberties Union of Michigan, which took an immediate interest.

      smart wife

    2. The Friday that Mr. Williams sat in a Detroit police interrogation room was the day before his 42nd birthday. That morning, his wife emailed his boss to say he would miss work because of a family emergency; it broke his four-year record of perfect attendance.In Mr. Williams’s recollection, after he held the surveillance video still next to his face, the two detectives leaned back in their chairs and looked at one another. One detective, seeming chagrined, said to his partner: “I guess the computer got it wrong.”

      Apologies??

    1. The stakes are too high in criminal investigations to rely on unreliable—or wrong—inputs. It is one thing for a company to build a face recognition system designed to help individuals find their celebrity doppelgänger6 or painting lookalike7 for entertainment purposes. It's quite another to use these techniques to identify criminal suspects, who may be deprived of their liberty and ultimately prosecuted based on the match. Unfortunately, police departments' reliance on questionable probe photos appears all too common.

      linked to the article on Mr. Williams's wrongful arrest

    1. Some of the students are at BHS. One who spoke at the protest on 6/20/20, was very moving.

    1. This List Of Books, Films And Podcasts About Racism Is A Start, Not A Panacea

      Code Switch is a podcast I already subscribe to and it's a good source of information.

    2. And it will be a multipart process.

      This is something that will be revisited again and again.

    1. The designation no longer exists?” Pressley asked.“It hasn’t existed since I’ve been here for 17 months,” McGarrity replied. “We are not using ‘black identity extremists’ as a term or for a group.”Advertisement

      Why didn't they have someone who could answer Pressley questions.

    2. there’s no domestic terrorism charge.”To be clear, there is a law that defines domestic terrorism but not one that charges people who commit acts of terrorism in America. People who conspire with international terrorists—even if they aren’t materially involved in an act of violence—are charged with “

      I was shocked by this. As a nation we've been burdened with domestic terrorism for far too long to not have laws in place that address this problem directly.

    3. The subcommittee noted that there was a 17 percent increase in reported hate crimes in 2017 from the previous year and a 31 percent increase since 2014. And in spite of the ADL’s report that white supremacists were responsible for 78 percent of extremist murders in 2018, the FBI still dedicates most of its time, money and manpower to investigating and stopping international terrorism. According to the Daily Beast, the Trump administration even disbanded a unit in the Department of Homeland Security dedicated to domestic terrorism and right-wing extremists, upsetting many intelligence and law enforcement officials. cnxps.cmd.push(function () { cnxps({ playerId: '4e065883-27be-43c1-b568-898f10d3390b' }).render('f10c6314028348d6baed500a30d59066'); }); G/O Media may get a commissionSave Your Floors From Dirt and Grime With $130 off a Dyson V10 Cordless Vacuum From NeweggDyson V10 Cordless Vacuum (Refurbished)Buy for $270 from Newegg“The FBI has testified the bureau allocates its resources almost exactly backwards than the problem would suggest,” Rep. Jamie Raskin (D-Md.) said. “Devoting 80 percent of field agents to stopping international terrorism including Islamic extremism and only 20 percent to stopping domestic terrorism including far right and white supremacist extremism.”

      This is sad and shocking, but not really.

    4. Pressley: How many extremist murders has the FBI linked to Black Lives Matter or similar black activist groups? McGarrity: We don’t work Black Lives Matter it’s a movement. It’s an ideology. We don’t work that. Pressley: So the answer is none. Can you just say that for the record? There has been no killing that the FBI can link to black Lives Matter or similar black activist groups, to your knowledge.McGarrity: To my knowledge—I’d have to go back—but to my knowledge, right now, no.

      This is a surprisingly clear look into the motives & actions of the FBI. If we take was McGarrity is saying to be truthful, then although black extremist-adjacent topics may have been linked to murders, Black Lives Matter is not a focus for the FBI. This is positive, as there is no evidence linking Black Lives Matter to the types of hate crimes historically committed by white supremacist groups.

    5. McGarrity explained that right-wing extremists like the Tree of Life Synagogue shooter in Pittsburgh were charged with hate crimes instead of domestic terrorism simply because “there’s no domestic terrorism charge.”To be clear, there is a law that defines domestic terrorism but not one that charges people who commit acts of terrorism in America. People who conspire with international terrorists—even if they aren’t materially involved in an act of violence—are charged with “acts of terrorism transcending international boundaries.” But someone who sends pipe bombs to Democrats; plows through a crowd of anti-racism protesters in Charlottesville, Va.; or shoots up a church in Charleston, S.C., will not face domestic terrorism charges.

      I believe that there should be a "domestic terrorism" charge, to more accurately represent the crimes that are being committed. While hate crimes are also a good representation of the crimes being committed, these are not purely crimes of hate. They are crimes associated with mass destruction of property or life.

    1. Gregory McMichael “stated he was in his front yard and saw the suspect from the break-ins ‘hauling ass’” down the road, according to the police report. McMichael “stated there have been several Break-ins in the neighborhood and further the suspect was caught on surveillance video,” the report said. But where is the surveillance video linking Arbery to a recent burglary? And McMichael’s neighborhood had gone seven weeks without a reported burglary, a local police lieutenant recently told CNN. The last reported burglary was on January 1, when a 9-mm pistol was stolen from an unlocked truck outside the McMichaels’ home.

      Claiming a robbery caught on a non-existent surveillance video

    1. Go up to the “omnibar” Strip off everything after the domain name, type wikipedia and press enter This generates a Google search for that URL with the Wikipedia page at the top Click that link, then check in the sidebar that the URL matches. Forty-nine out of fifty times it will. The fiftieth time you may have some work to do.

      This is a useful tip. Wikipedia is a very trustworthy website. I use alexa.com to check out websites.

    2. There are some hard problems with misinformation on the web. But for the average user, a lot of what goes wrong comes down to failure to follow simple and quick processes of verification and contextualization. Not after you start thinking, but before you do.

      This is a good reminder to always check because of misinformation.

    3. Your methods of checking have to be really quick. They have to be habitual, automatic. They can’t be cognitively expensive.

      I agree

    4. This is an easy to technique to check the information source.

    5. I appreciated his idea of a quick and habitual check.

    6. If you’re a human being reading this on the internet and if you’re not a time traveler from some future, better world, there is less than a one in a hundred chance you do the sort of checks we’re showing regularly. And if you do do this regularly — and not just for the stuff that feels fishy — then my guesstimate is you’re about two to three standard devs out from the mean. Now imagine a world where checking your mirrors before switching lanes was rare, three standard-deviations-out behavior. What would the roads look like? Well, it’d probably look like the Mad Max-like smoking heap of collisions, car fires, and carnage that is our modern web.

      I find this to be a very striking visual of what happens when we, as sharers of content, do not independently verify our sources, and blindly share them along. There's a stereotype about grandparents sharing along links to less-than-reputable news articles. By participating in this behaviour, grandparents end up digging themselves into filter bubbles and pockets of misinformation, no matter their good intentions.

      I admit, that although I try to be web-literate, I'm certainly not the perfect example of web/information/digital literacy. Sometimes, I forget to check sources, or I end up using a source I thought was a different source. (Darn you, fake websites that switch out .edu/.net with .com) By implementing Mike Caulfield's steps to check one's sources, I can make sure that I am disseminating useful and reliable information sources in the future.

    7. digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      I love his analogy and can understand his mission-like zeal. He provides such a clear explanation on how to make his suggestions into habits.

    1. This story is true. The violence white supremacist bring to our country is a terrorist threat. This was admitted in a Congressional hearing.

    1. ut never before have the cries carried this kind of muscle. Among American voters, support for the Black Lives Matter movement grew in the first two weeks of protests almost as much as it did in the preceding two years.

      This is an entire section of today's news...in the morning of Memorial Day Chris Cooper is in the Ramble birdwatching...and then threatened...and that night George Floyd is killed...both incidents recorded on cell phones. Black Lives Matter--begun six years ago--has taken flight...four articles in the WSJ in one day...it seems as if we finally have reached a turning point, at least in awareness

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