558 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2021
    1. A legal finding of fair use takes into account the following factors: The purpose of the use, The amount of the work to be used, The effect of the use on the market for or value of the original work, and The nature of the copyrighted work. There is no official definitive answer for whether a use can be considered fair, as every case must be judged on its own merits, but there are some types of use generally allowed under fair use, including criticism and commentary, parody, journalism, education, and research.

      Intent has such a huge impact on legality. If it's something you found funny and you just want to share it with your friends, that's fine (as long as you aren't causing harm to the subject of the meme if they are a real person). If you're a big company and using the meme to advertise your product, be prepared for a lawsuit.

    2. When you see a meme going around, give a thought to the subject of that meme image, whose life may forever be changed.

      Sometimes the context and use of the meme can be humiliating for the subject of the meme who never asked for this type of attention in the first place, like the Star Wars kid mentioned earlier who had to learn to "deal with his fame". Also like the anonymous woman in the "plane Bae" story though she wasn't in a meme necessarily, she still gained unwanted attention through the sharing of her story.

    3. generally allowed under fair use, including criticism and commentary, parody, journalism, education, and research.

      Would memes be protected under fair use because they could be considered parody, commentary, or criticism? It's unclear to me whether or not profit determines if work can be copied, or if it's the amount of attention it receives.

    4. . Lantagne notes that if memes are considered a form of communication, they are also subject to the limits placed on speech including the rights of others to privacy.

      I thought this was interesting because I didn't know that memes could be acknowledged as a form of communication and that would then put them under the limits placed on speech. It also raises the question of, if memes can be considered communication, then do things like live streaming and twitter threads count as communication, and are they subject to privacy and the limits of speech?

    1. I scrolled through the tweets with a smile, letting myself get caught up in what felt like a made-for-TV drama. Then I realized that was precisely how I was treating these very real people.

      You know when social media has gone too far when people start to blur the lines between fiction and reality, like explained here. We forget that these are real people with real emotions, not actors in a movie following a script.

    2. Blair’s speculation about what happened when the pair simultaneously got up to use the restroom (and Holden’s cheeky comment that “a gentleman never tells” when asked about it). Of course, the sexual implication is something he’d be praised for, while the woman is attacked.

      This is really frustrating and disgusting. Though it may not be appropriate, it's one thing to make an innuendo to your boyfriend or group of friends, it's another to make assumptions about strangers and put them on blast. Just another reminder to think before you speak.

    3. As with so much else that is mediated by the internet, the medium’s dissociative effects prevent us from centering the humanity of the people involved.

      In today's digital world, I agree with what the author said " what had been private is now uncontrollably crowdsourced." people who view and talk about this incident would make it even more prevalent. Thus, without knowing it, we all became accomplices in this matter.

    4. the sexual implication is something he’d be praised for, while the woman is attacked

      I was kind of mad about this comment. And I sadly realized that it was true. When sexual implication comes to the public, people tend to give men more tolerance than women. Whatever they did, it's a responsibility that both of them should face together. It's hilarious that the public blames women and praises men's charms.

    5. The story’s charm disguises the invasion of privacy at its heart: the way technology is both eroding our personal boundaries and coercing us in deleterious ways.

      I thought this was interesting because it's a really good summary of a lot of the issues with social media today. Even beyond how companies track people's usage and sell data, people are very comfortable on the internet because it's not a face to face interaction and that leads to oversteps like this that would never happen in real life. People become performers almost on social media, so instead of thinking of social media as a thing that affects real people, they see it as a stage and so they act accordingly and leads to situations like these.

    6. Of course, the sexual implication is something he’d be praised for, while the woman is attacked.

      I thought this was another key part of the issue with social media: how the same situation affects people differently. People think that because others benefitted with it from interviews and attention, it was a good situation, but the women on the plane was subjected to a lot of the double standards that affect women in American society and so this unasked for attention has actually become harmful to her. Even if they had asked for consent to share the story, this situation could have happened and it's interesting how posting online is a gamble depending on who you are.

    7. In some cases, our use of cellphone cameras has the potential to liberate us when directed at the state, subjecting the powerful and privileged to forms of accountability that they’re not used to. That’s been made plain by the significant role of cellphone video in the movement against police brutality

      This topic of cellphone cameras relates perfectly to my social justice topic. Before, cellphones the only way to record police brutality was by word of mouth.

    8. But as we surveil each other in profoundly coercive ways, we also risk — as is often the case with informal forms of power — replicating the coercive power of the state itself. Surveillance disciplines our behavior, as any minority who’s passed through a security checkpoint in America can tell you in detail. It creates certain behaviors by design, most notably compliance, the willingness to do anything to avoid being hurt.

      In reference to social justice, we surveil each other in ways, such as police brutality. Before there was cell phones to record violent behavior, it was their word against the public and no one believed them..

    1. Online vigilantism has been around since the early days of the internet. So has “doxxing” — originally a slang term among hackers for obtaining and posting private documents about an individual, usually a rival or enemy. To hackers, who prized their anonymity, it was considered a cruel attack.

      Interesting ! I never knew where the term doxxing came from neverthelessi found this very interesting.

    2. The next year, doxxing became a tool by in the “GamerGate” controversy, an online dispute purportedly about ethics in video game journalism that became a foundational moment for some of today’s fringe far right. Mostly male video-game players began to publish personal information — including home address and phone numbers — for women in their community, typically journalists and game designers who they said were unfairly politicizing gaming culture.

      I can't believe people who would do that without others' permission. We all have the right to chose not to expose our confidential, private information to the public. I think "doxxing" behavior should be considered illegal, and people who are doing "doxxing" should get a penalty for that.

    3. So has “doxxing” — originally a slang term among hackers for obtaining and posting private documents about an individual, usually a rival or enemy. To hackers, who prized their anonymity, it was considered a cruel attack.

      it's interesting to found that hackers create their own slang term. I never heard of this slang before, but I think it sounds really cool

    4. And some worry that the stigma of being outed as a political extremist can only reinforce that behavior in people who could still be talked out of it.

      I agree with this idea. If you expose them to the stigma as political extremists. They would think have nothing to lose which reinforces their extremist behavior.

    5. So has “doxxing” — originally a slang term among hackers for obtaining and posting private documents about an individual, usually a rival or enemy. To hackers, who prized their anonymity, it was considered a cruel attack.

      It's interesting to learn a new slang term in the hacker's world.

    1. We’re talking about moderate effect size, on par with other treatments, not better.

      It should be noted that in a separate study it was shown that mediation had higher effects on decreasing depression than things like exercise or aroma therapy, but did not rank higher than antidepressants.

    1. With aging, the brain cortical thickness (gray matter, which contains neurons) decreases, whereas meditation experience is associated with an increase in gray matter in the brain.

      damaged or reduced gray matter is linked to Alzheimer's, so could mediation prevent that?

  2. Sep 2021
    1. McGarrity: We don’t work Black Lives Matter it’s a movement. It’s an ideology. We don’t work that. Pressley: So the answer is none. Can you just say that for the record? There has been no killing that the FBI can link to black Lives Matter or similar black activist groups, to your knowledge.McGarrity: To my knowledge—I’d have to go back—but to my knowledge, right now, no.

      I thought this was interesting because even though McGarrity says that they don't work Black Lives Matter because it's an ideology, the amount of police resistance and government pushback that happened during the protests doesn't fall into line with what he's saying.

    2. “The FBI has testified the bureau allocates its resources almost exactly backwards than the problem would suggest,” Rep. Jamie Raskin (D-Md.) said. “Devoting 80 percent of field agents to stopping international terrorism including Islamic extremism and only 20 percent to stopping domestic terrorism including far right and white supremacist extremism.”

      I was very surprised by this statement , I feel the FBI should provide the same amount of funding for internal extremism as for international problems.

    3. The subcommittee noted that there was a 17 percent increase in reported hate crimes in 2017 from the previous year and a 31 percent increase since 2014. And in spite of the ADL’s report that white supremacists were responsible for 78 percent of extremist murders in 2018, the FBI still dedicates most of its time, money and manpower to investigating and stopping international terrorism. According to the Daily Beast, the Trump administration even disbanded a unit in the Department of Homeland Security dedicated to domestic terrorism and right-wing extremists, upsetting many intelligence and law enforcement officials.

      After the day that Trump won the presidential election, the hate crime was increased a lot. As is said in this article, "white supremacists were responsible for 78 percent of extremist murders." The FBI has to pay attention to this. It's getting more severe because of the carelessness from the police department.

    1. always checking any information in your stream that you find interesting, emotion-producing, or shareable. It’s not enough to check the stuff that is suspicious:

      I thought this was interesting because it mentioned "Emotion-producing," which made me consider how if a story does produce an emption, was it trying to do that? Was that the specific emotion they wanted? And if it was, for what purpose? I thought it was interesting because it made me realize how a website could be manipulative or influencing without me consciously thinking about it, and always checking if the site is the right site, credible, and backed up can reveal if that emotion was manipulative for poor intentions, or just good writing trying to get you to engage with the article.

    2. What do I mean by that? Let’s use an analogy: which technique do you think would prevent more car accidents? A three-second check every time you switch lanes A twenty-second check executed every time you think a car might be there

      I like how the author compares checking sources to checking things in your car.

    3. me steps. In this case Bloomberg News is not the top result, but you scroll down and click the Bloomberg News link, and check the URL and find it is different. If you’re lazy (which I am) you might click that link to get to the rea

      I'm impressed by how to check if you are real site. I've never noticed how to do it before reading this article. I found this very useful, and I think it will help me in the future.

    4. Once you accept that, certain things become clear. Your methods of checking have to be really quick. They have to be habitual, automatic. They can’t be cognitively expensive. And those who teach media literacy have to be conscious of this trade-off between depth and efficacy and act accordingly.

      I can understand checking web misinformation that you stream for accuracy; however, what I don't understand is why you have to be "really quick" with checking this information?

  3. Jul 2021
    1. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free

      The fact that people would rather be bystanders with their phones out to record something to post on social media for clout is unacceptable, especially if it's something that puts people in danger. Yet most of us only care about having content to become "famous" for.

    2. This is the Faustian alchemy of social media: we are all given the opportunity to become celebrities in an instant, sometimes for nonsensical reasons, with or without our input.

      This is what I know as going "viral" on social media. You could become known in an instant, depending on the situation you're put in. It's incredible to me that people can become infamous so quickly because of a single situation, but it's not always a good thing to become known on social media, especially if the situation wasn't given consent to be posted.

    3. Seemingly innocent cases, like that of “Plane Bae,” are small warning signs on the road to our even more networked future. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free to large corporations who then monetize it.

      If everyone is watching everyone else, can there be any real privacy while in public?

    4. Respondents to the original thread, in thrall to the “love story” and eager to thwart Blair’s half-hearted attempts at anonymizing the pair, soon found and shared the woman’s Instagram. Holden embraced the choice that had been made for him; his companion clearly hasn’t.

      And that's the danger. People are willing to trample on your privacy rights because they believe they have a right to continue this "story."

    5. But we gain virtually none of the benefits of that fame, none of the glamor or the institutional support to help deal with the invasiveness of celebrity and how it can eat away at every boundary you ever took for granted.

      We simply just see what is happening right in front of our very lives. In the end, we are not famous, we are not friends with famous people, we are simply normal. Living a normal life and there are no changes in our life.

    6. Instead, all you have is that same vulnerability before a vast crowd that feels entitled to the most intimate parts of your life. How difficult would it be to conduct that relationship on your own terms?

      Having your intimate moments being shown for the whole world to see can be very nerve wracking and stressful because people you don't even know are watching your every move and that includes your most vulnerable moments.

    7. ABC News implied that Holden said “there’s still hope” for the relationship, though this framing is at odds with what Holden actually said, which seemed to be a more generic statement about hopefulness. That narrative frame is a reminder of the story everyone here is being coerced into. They must get together.

      This is reminiscent of rumors spinning out of control. How people make statements which can be misleading and someone else takes it a step further, but this is on a national level. Narrative and framing matters far more than we expect.

    8. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free to large corporations who then monetize it.

      This is not just an example of people "replicating the coercive power of the state" but also acting as agents of it. Their fame came from "below" and "above".

    9. Now imagine doing it in front of millions of people and the international media. And imagine doing it without the benefit of a true celebrity’s phalanx of staff and bodyguards or the lucre such a status normally confers. Instead, all you have is that same vulnerability before a vast crowd that feels entitled to the most intimate parts of your life.

      This is one of the negative things about social media. There are some people who start to feel entitled to aspects of people's lives that they are following. I can't imagine living like that.

    10. Yet the identities of both were inevitably pursued and eventually discovered. At a certain level of virality, you cannot stop motivated people on the internet from piercing your veils. In the case of that woman from Blair’s flight, her legions of “fans” are digging day and night to find more information, to meet the female lead of this summer’s hottest rom-com. They want to know what happens next. They want to make her finish the story. Go on a date; now kiss; now get engaged; tell us what it was like. We need to know more. More. More.

      We live in a day and age where your whole life can get turned upside down and put out for millions of people to judge and examine under a microscope with or without your consent. It is scary to think about when you look under the surface of this supposedly "rom-com" type story how people you don't even know are imposing what you should or shouldn't do until there is nothing left and they move on to the next shiny thing.

    11. Seemingly innocent cases, like that of “Plane Bae,” are small warning signs on the road to our even more networked future. We are all watching each other, mining each other’s lives for “content” that we give for free to large corporations who then monetize it. “Plane Bae” didn’t just benefit Twitter, a company badly in need of good PR, but also T-Mobile, whose savvy CEO swooped in to offer Blair a reimbursement on the Wi-Fi she purchased to write her thread.

      This part of the passage resonated with me because it reminded me of a documentary I saw recently about social media and how these sites seem like they're free but they thrive off their "users." Another industry that refers to their clientele as "users" is the drug industry. People seek content constantly at the cost of other individuals but in the end it is the large corporations that benefit off this exploitation.

    12. There’s another unfortunate dimension to this whole saga that mimics the coercive effect of public marriage proposals: everyone innocently cheers on the romance because it tells a good story, but it places the woman in the invidious position of being the “bad guy” if she says no. Holden has since made romantic overtures in the press, telling Today, “She’s a very, very, very lovely girl.

      I've never liked the idea of public proposals for this reason specifically. I, like many others, don't like to be put on the spot and if the person says no it makes the whole situation so much worse. Holden also seems horrible to me. He seems like he is enjoying the spotlight way to much at the expense of the woman.

    13. The story’s charm disguises the invasion of privacy at its heart: the way technology is both eroding our personal boundaries and coercing us in deleterious ways.

      This is an important idea because technology has truly changed the way we see the world and interact and there is a lot of cons going into that.

    14. I considered how I’d feel if every twitch of my arm, half of my conversation, and even my bathroom usage were all narrated, without my knowledge, for a swelling audience of several hundred thousand people online.

      This is a very real look at the realities of having your information being shared online without your consent.

    15. Your consent becomes a trifling detail in a story about you that suddenly belongs to everyone else

      It seems that legislation is needed allowing civil suits from the people that have been harmed in this way.

    16. The story’s charm disguises the invasion of privacy at its heart: the way technology is both eroding our personal boundaries and coercing us in deleterious ways.

      This statement terrifies me. Technology will only continue to evolve, I suspect in 20 years we'll look back at how 'quaint' this story is...

    17. Yet the identities of both were inevitably pursued and eventually discovered. At a certain level of virality, you cannot stop motivated people on the internet from piercing your veils.

      This goes to show that you cannot stop people from finding information about you online. The internet has no privacy.

    18. Creating threads of content based on the lives of average people, particularly with photos, has the potential to summon panoptic interest in the form of millions of eyes whose gaze weighs terribly on a person who is unused to a life of celebrity, as the vast majority of social media users are

      With today's media it is possible to take photos of someone or a video out of context which makes them look bad.

    19. We should be thinking more seriously about the ethics of live-tweeting: when is it appropriate? When it is, what should and shouldn’t you do?

      Perhaps we need to take social media and what we post more seriously. When we put any information into the internet world, we never really have the power to control what happens to it from there.

    20. As with so much else that is mediated by the internet, the medium’s dissociative effects prevent us from centering the humanity of the people involved.

      The effects of social media are that we can almost perceive people as objects rather than human beings with feelings and real lives. Unfortunately, this can result in a lot of hurt for those victims of social media abuses.

    21. Multiple news outlets, including ones as far away as Australia, picked up the tale of Holden and his seatmate as their “human interest” story of the day.

      Something I find interesting here is that while the media outlets themselves should take some blame for sensationalizing a story without the woman's consent, this type of story is extremely popular with readers. We as media consumers need to be more aware of the ethical implications of the content we click on/consume.

    22. We should be thinking more seriously about the ethics of live-tweeting: when is it appropriate? When it is, what should and shouldn’t you do?

      This is exactly the point. We should be thinking more about our behaviors on the web and social media before we take action. Something that may seem benign can be exactly the opposite.

    1. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures.

      This is definitely a problem that I've seen from people who have been used as a "meme" format. While some people kind of take the profound fame with a grain of salt, I've seen some people who are unable to find jobs because of how viral they've become from a meme format. Most memes are seemingly harmless, but when done without permission, it could cost someone else a career or even discomfort throughout their lives.

    2. Memes are the units that transmit ideas, behaviors, styles and usage within a culture through a variety of media

      Memes are generally used as a way to combine both humor and knowledge or ideas through a single mean. They're usually straightforward, but there are some memes that need a little more inside knowledge to understand.

    3. There is no official definitive answer for whether a use can be considered fair, as every case must be judged on its own merits, but there are some types of use generally allowed under fair use, including criticism and commentary, parody, journalism, education, and research.

      I think it's good that there's no cut and dried definition of fair use. It allows the law to be flexible and adapt to the changing circumstances of media consumption.

    4. Stacey M. Lantagne expands on this in Famous on the Internet: The Spectrum of Internet Memes and the Legal Challenge of Evolving Methods of Communication (2017), in which she identifies use ranging from “static,” a relatively straightforward reproduction of an image, to “mutating,” in which the role of the internet is directly responsible for the meme’s alteration from the original to the point that “[m]utating memes, because of their unique characteristics, are more like ideas,” thus unprotected under copyright.

      Are memes the visual version of audio sampling?

    5. Merriam-Webster defines “meme” (pronounced “meem”) as “an idea, behavior, style, or usage that spreads from person to person within a culture,” originating in the same root as “imitation.”

      This provides a great introduction to what the article will be talking about. Some people may not know what memes are or the true proper definition of it.

    6. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame.

      I feel like this isn't an uncommon occurrence, but maybe not always to this extent. People can post things involving other people without thinking much of consequences, but when something is out there it tends to stay that way even if the original post is taken down.

    7. Similarly, the DMCA was used to quash parodies of the German World War II movie “Downfall.” In 2010, the movie’s production company, Constantin Films, started pulling these parodies from YouTube, to which meme creators had little recourse. However, Constantin Films did not sue anyone, so it is unknown whether the parodies might have been considered fair use.

      This is clearly fair use though. It's a parody, which is one of the usually protected fair uses.

    8. Says Dawkins, “[j]ust as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation.”

      This is an interesting way to put it. I definitely wouldn't have explained it that way but I guess it works. I like the prior nursery rhymes analogy a little better.

    9. Richard Dawkins is credited as having coined the term in The Selfish Gene (1976). Memes are the units that transmit ideas, behaviors, styles and usage within a culture through a variety of media, like nursery rhymes passed down from parent to child.

      Dawkins may have coined the term, but it's current iteration, as described by Godwin, has completely eclipsed and overtaken it's old definition in public consciousness, very fitting for a meme.

    10. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame.

      Even though the suit was settled that meme is still out there and the poor kid had to learn to deal with it. The internet is such a strange place and it's actually horrifying that someone can take something you did in one moment and it goes viral with masses of people making their own conjectures.

    11. Image-based memes are easy to create and easy to spread, though whether they will go viral is never a given. If you create or post one, remember to pay attention to the source of the image. Your best bet is to start with an image or clip that is already labeled for reuse or is in the public domain, meaning out of copyright protection altogether. Google Images search tools provides such a filter, or try the Creative Commons search for work licensed for reuse via Creative Commons licenses. When you see a meme going around, give a thought to the subject of that meme image, whose life may forever be changed.  

      This article made me think twice about memes and meme culture, how it has to do with consent, and that the subject within the meme is not always a willing participant. I am not a creator of memes but if I were I would think more about the source of the image I were using and whether or not it is labeled for reuse in the public domain.

    12. The growth of the internet led to a new usage of the word (the meme of “meme”!) by Mike Godwin in Wired (1994), as an image or video that spreads via social media and other means “virally,” a term Dawkins also used to describe how memes replicate. Know Your Meme is a crowdsourced database of popular memes, owned by a company that created many early memes. Meme histories are tracked from first appearance, providing a reference of viral memes.

      A meme is a very broad meaning for a phenomenon in social media

    13. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame

      If your content is online for anyone to see, do the meme creators really deserved to be sued?

    14. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame.

      I think memes are also a potential breach of privacy. If a video is taken of you without consent and it goes viral, there is no going back. You will see that video like no tomorrow. It's life changing.

    15. When memes or the subjects of a meme are used for commercial purposes without permission, the meme creator may sue, as the effect of the commercial use on the market value of the original meme usually prevents a finding of fair use. In 2013, the owners of the cats featured in the “Nyan Cat” and “Keyboard Cat” memes won a lawsuit against Warner Bros. and 5th Cell Media for respectively distributing and producing a video game using images of their cats.

      I think people always forget that memes are still someone's work and sadly people end up getting sued because they just throw around the image like it's nothing.

    16. When you see a meme going around, give a thought to the subject of that meme image, whose life may forever be changed.

      Giving thought to the subject of the meme can possibly help us to pause instead of immediately reposting. The lives of those involved can be forever changed by a small act of reposting.

    17. In 2016, the parents of another unwilling subject sued the image’s creator, a news organization for publishing the image in a story about it, and a dancer on the show “Dancing With the Stars,” who the suit contended contributed to the image’s spread and the subject’s emotional distress by reposting the image with negative comments on social media.

      Negative comments can certainly contribute to feelings of emotional distress. This can be an unfortunate result of posting anything on social media platforms.

    18. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame.

      This is so sad, especially when it comes to a child. It's virtually impossible to keep your child's image off the web these days, even if you don't have social media yourself.

    19. there are some types of use generally allowed under fair use, including criticism and commentary, parody, journalism, education, and research.

      I have to say I love that parody is included in this list as it's probably the least noble usage, but the right to parody of those in power so important for our freedoms and democracy.

    1. When Nikki Adams turned to yoga to heal the trauma she endured as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse, she found that the same spaces which often preached inclusivity were unwelcoming.
    1. he most challenging aspect of using yoga is that it is not a “one size fits all” solution.  Some survivors need a community or space where they can speak or write about their emotions. Other survivors feel like they need more of a physical workout. And sometimes it’s a combination of all of these. Each survivor is different, and I wouldn’t push yoga on someone as a guaranteed way to help someone heal. I just know that it has worked for me, and I encourage other survivors to find their “yoga,” whatever that might look like.
    1. Her life immediately changed. After the attack, she started experiencing flashbacks, nightmares and anxiety. She sought help from professionals but felt that talk therapy and medications weren’t providing the kind of recovery she needed.
    1. “Trauma,” Bessel van der Kolk explains, “is not just an event that took place sometime in the past; it is also the imprint left by that experience on mind, brain, and body.”
    1. Jenkins remembers the first time she met her. Elaine was very agitated, in a constant state of hyper-arousal, “alert to every movement in the room, every sound, even the rise of my eyebrow,” Jenkins says. But when it came to talking about her emotions, Elaine shut down.
    1. Bessell van der Kolk: Overcome Trauma With Yoga 103,308 views103K viewsSep 5, 20183K I like this 28 I dislike this Share Share Save
    1. Many women in this study described yoga as an empowering practice due to feeling more regulated and in touch with their bodies. Ms. S., a 42-year-old Latina married social worker, had been physically and sexually abused by her father from middle school through late high school. She entered the study after 5 years of trauma-focused talk therapy and had a CAPS score of 60 and a DES score of 10 at the baseline assessment. During the course of the study, she attended 16/20 yoga classes and practiced an average of 43 min per day at home, even practicing while away on vacation. She mentioned that her husband commented on her “Zen-like” ability to maintain focus during her yoga practice. Ms. S. was able to use this skill in other aspects of her life, as she indicated in a note on her homework sheet: “The yoga has helped me be able to pay attention to the rhythm of my breathing, which has helped me be able to run, which I have never been able to do before. I ran for 2¼ miles for the first time in my life.” At the post-treatment assessment, her CAPS score was 25, and at the 1-month follow-up assessment, her CAPS score was 14, indicating that she was asymptomatic and experienced >50% reduction in reported symptoms
    1. Another important aspect of the Yoga classes at the Trauma Center is the development of community. As the author and trauma clinician Judith Herman has noted, trauma survivors typically feel deeply alienated from society.
    2. As students develop the ability to make choices for them-selves based on their own internal feedback, they are learn-ing that their feelings matter and that they can take effective action to make themselves feel better.
    3. Identifying how the body feels is very difficult for trauma survivors who have, in many cases, been avoiding noticing their bodies or neglecting to care for their bodies for a prolonged period of time. Making choices to lessen pain, strain, or discomfort may be more challenging still.
    4. Along with the principals discussed above, Trauma Center Yoga teachers keep in mind the healing benefits of two key elements of a group Yoga practice: making choices and community. The process of being traumatized involves a fundamen-tal lack of choice—you were in the wrong place at the wrong time. Your choices as an individual did not matter. What happened happened, despite your complete insistence that it not happen. This can result in a deeply damaged sense of agency in the world and a complete lack of faith that you can do anything to improve your situation or change things to better suit yourself
    5. e decided that trauma-sensitive Yoga was not so much about getting students to do something but more about invitingthem to try something. As a result of this decision, we came up with what we call Invitatory Language
    6. For many trauma survivors, physical assists are a clinical issue and should be treated with great care and attention. We do not offer physical assists for the first several months of an open Yoga class and would suggest not doing physical assists at all if your class is limited to several weeks in dura-tion. Verbal assists, however, can be very valuable and will show that you are attending to your students in a nurturing way, while respecting their physical space and the integrity of those boundaries. For example, rather than physically ad-just a student’s posture, you might suggest that the student try a block or blanket to make a posture more accessible.
    7. An essential aspect of recovering from trauma is learn-ing ways to calm down, or self-regulate. For thousands of years, Yoga has been offered as a practice that helps one calm the mind and body. More recently, research has shown that Yoga practices, including meditation, relaxation, and physical postures, can reduce autonomic sympathetic ac-tivation, muscle tension, and blood pressure, improve neuroendocrine and hormonal activity, decrease physical symptoms and emotional distress, and increase quality of life.10-21 For these reasons, Yoga is a promising treatment or adjunctive therapy for addressing the cognitive, emotional, and physiological symptoms associated with trauma, and PTSD specifically
    8. Given the prevalence of trauma exposure in our society, effective treatment interventions for individuals who develop PTSD are essential. Unfortunately, trauma has long-lasting effects on mental health and is extremely treatment-resis
    1. And despite the insistence of the president, Steve King and every guest on Fox News that there are bad people on “both sides,” including Black Lives Matter terrorists

      There are always going to be two sides to a point, but I'm just surprised by the ignorance some people display on a public news network. These news outlets should definitely be neutral, but sadly, it will never work out that way.

    1. Scan the stories. If you want to be hypervigilant, scan for sources you recognize, and consider sharing one of the stories featuring original reporting instead of the tweet.

      Whenever I saw tweets from people who had the "verified" symbol next to their name on Twitter, I never really thought twice to question the information given to me on that platform, but reading Caulfield's suggestion to be "hypervigilant", it just tells me that it's better to do my own research instead of believing a single source, despite how legitimate the source may seem.

    2. But I end up coming back to this simple stuff because I can’t shake the feeling that digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      Wow my mind is blown on these research tips. I am definitely going try and be more vigilent and apply these techniques to get even deeper on a subject. The author is so right in how we need to change the way we do things and enhance our digital literacy.

    1. This review is unique in being the first systematic review and quantitative synthesis of yoga interventions for psychological symptoms following trauma and is a first attempt to summarize the existing literature in this growing field.
    2. This review is unique in being the first systematic review and quantitative synthesis of yoga interventions for psychological symptoms following trauma and is a first attempt to summarize the existing literature in this growing field.
    3. Yoga may be a promising treatment for trauma sequelae, given research that supports yoga for general distress, specifically in decreasing physical symptoms and emotional distress and increasing quality of life (for a review, see, e.g., Emerson et al., 2009). Because the experience of trauma is physically impactful both during (e.g., in the midst of domestic violence, sexual abuse, combat, natural disasters) and after (e.g., alterations in physiological stress responses) the trauma, mind and body connections may be particularly healing. A systematic review demonstrated that those who have experienced a trauma were 2.7 times more likely to have a functional somatic syndrome (e.g., chronic pain, temporomandiular disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome) than those who did not report experiencing a trauma (Afari et al., 2014); these results are similar in studies examining specific types of trauma, for example, sexual abuse (Finestone et al., 2000). Thus, as Afari et al. (2014) express, effects of the experience of trauma that alter one’s cognitive and behavioral responses may also result in the expression of somatic changes. From evidence suggesting how traumatic stress has lasting impacts on the body, van der Kolk (2006) suggests that the most effective treatments involve (a) increasing one’s tolerance of the physical sensations in one’s body, (b) regulating arousal, and (c) learning effective actions in the body, which are particularly important after the experience of peritraumatic physical helplessness. Interoceptive, body-oriented therapies, which allow for more physical and mental self-awareness and mindfulness, may be promising interventions for trauma survivors. Yet, the current state of evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress lack these components. For instance, due to high noncompleter rates and residual symptoms, the National Academies Health and Medicine Division (formerly the Institute of Medicine [IOM]) deems that PTSD treatment outcomes do not have sufficient certainty in their effectiveness (Institute of Medicine Committee on Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 2008
    1. As a way to address physiological dysregulation and somatic symptoms, scholars have begun to explore the use of mind-body practices (Minton et al., 2006; Salmon, Lush, Jablonski & Septon, 2009). Techniques that increase mindfulness of internal states and physiological responses to internal and external stimuli have especially demonstrated promise in addressing the way trauma is held in the body (Follette, Palm, & Pearson, 2006; Ware, 2007). Recent studies have also shown that mindfulness-based interventions reduce PTSD symptoms and improve functioning by increasing the capacity to recognize, tolerate, and utilize internal states and ease the physical co-morbidities often associated with PTSD (Boden et al., 2012; Thompson, Arnkoff, & Glass, 2011; Vujanovic, Youngwirth, Johnson, & Zvolensky, 2009).
  4. Jun 2021
    1. ut I end up coming back to this simple stuff because I can’t shake the feeling that digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      With the implementation of more digital media resources, we need to develop the habits of checking our sources before we spread misinformation.

  5. May 2021
    1. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures.

      this is interesting to know

    2. Image-based memes involve, primarily, an image created by somebody. Sometimes the meme creator is also the image creator, but often, when involving movie stills or images of celebrities, the image’s copyright is owned by someone else

      sometimes it is important to be creative with actual situations that are happening around the world and give a message for the better understanding of the people.

    3. They catch on and spread via social media because they’re funny or they hit a nerve.

      It is impressive how quickly something can get viral and shared with so many people around the world.

  6. Apr 2021
    1. The FBI said it has stopped using the "Black Identity Extremist" tag and acknowledged that white supremacist violence is the biggest terrorist threat this country faces.

      The way she looks at the audience to give the information is so powerful. The FBI took a big step to recognize what has been denied for years

    1. In this case, the URL does match. What does this look like if the site is fake? Here’s an example. A while back a site at bloomberg.ma impersonated the Bloomberg News site. Let’s see what that would look like:

      Its interesting to know that by putting wikipedia at the end, information can be verified

  7. Dec 2020
    1. Investigation admitted that prejudiced assumptions against the Black Lives Matter movement, Muslim Americans and black identity extremists was all a lie. Intelligence officials sat in front of lawmakers and openly admitted that white supremacists and right-wing violence are the biggest domestic terror threat but also admitted that federal agencies aren’t really doing anything about it.

      I don't believe this is true because I was out their during the protest and we were out their fighting for what we believe in. There were certain people that demanded for justice in violence but not everybody.

    1. One of the things I’ve been trying to convince people for the past year and a half is that the only viable literacy solution to web misinformation involves always checking any information in your stream that you find interesting, emotion-producing, or shareable. It’s not enough to check the stuff that is suspicious: if you apply your investigations selectively, you’ve already lost the battle.

      I have seen many platforms that carry information like that. People copy the information and post it themselves.

  8. Nov 2020
    1. Online vigilantism has been around since the early days of the internet. So has “doxxing” — originally a slang term among hackers for obtaining and posting private documents about an individual, usually a rival or enemy. To hackers, who prized their anonymity, it was considered a cruel attack.

      This statement was interesting to me as although I knew what the word doxxing was I never knew what the word actually meant.

    2. In short, once someone is labeled a Nazi on the internet, that person stays a Nazi on the internet.

      this is a really good point on anonymity of the internet. Someone may be very racist, but they live in the bay area and that could really close doors to say something like that, but on the internet they can always find a new identity to create and talk about their racist beliefs. You aren't really changing their ways.

    3. “You’re a Nazi and you’re fired, it’s your fault,” she sang. “You were spotted in a mob, now you lost your freaking job. You’re a Nazi and you’re fired, it’s your fault.”

      Yo this song slaps for real. Nazi's are a great example of a group so wholly dispised in America. Demonized to the point that it's difficult to recognize it in real life. You know it's the point of "Would you kill Hitler?" Which is a logical fallacy and the world has gotten more complicated in terms of doxxing with the rise of the internet.

    1. Ronak Patel says the amount of the work used in the meme probably supports the meme creators if the image was a still of another work, usually making up a small percentage of the original, but not if the original work was a photograph in which the whole of the work was being used

      I found this statement to be interesting because I do agree with what was said and feel as if this is overlooked by many

    2. Lantagne and Patel agree on the inability of copyright law to fully address the subject of memes, given their cultural importance as what Lantagne calls “pure engines of expression with their own symbolic vocabulary” while also relying, in Patel’s words, on “massive unauthorized copying” to attain such importance.

      Memes are a part of culture and cannot be copyrighted as a result.

    3. Image-based memes are easy to create and easy to spread, though whether they will go viral is never a given. If you create or post one, remember to pay attention to the source of the image. Your best bet is to start with an image or clip that is already labeled for reuse or is in the public domain,

      What you should do when trying to create a meme

    4. There is no official definitive answer for whether a use can be considered fair, as every case must be judged on its own merits, but there are some types of use generally allowed under fair use, including criticism and commentary, parody, journalism, education, and research.

      Copyright law is not clear on how it uses a fair consideration. It could be difficult to indicate whether someone violates it or not. People second-guess their selves every day on whether they violate it.

    5. Meme histories are tracked from first appearance, providing a reference of viral memes.

      People do this to make short funny cracked up jokes about something that is referenced from something they have did or they are going to do. Making it a meme, that someone else that can relate to it.

    6. In using images taken from creative works or private life, memes show how copyright law intersects with issues of internet use and privacy.

      I get people using other sources to make memes but half of the memes on the internet are copyright, I mean it is law to not copyright but that what most of these memes are.

    1. imagine doing it without the benefit of a true celebrity’s phalanx of staff and bodyguards or the lucre such a status normally confers. Instead, all you have is that same vulnerability before a vast crowd that feels entitled to the most intimate parts of your life. How difficult would it be to conduct that relationship on your own terms?

      Celebrities should have a relationship on their own terms. It should not come from fans or from coworkers that want to people together. Celebrities should have their intimate life in close doors.

    1. The FBI said it has stopped using the "Black Identity Extremist" tag and acknowledged that white supremacist violence is the biggest terrorist threat this country faces.

      Look at her face, its kinda the face like oh you guys are finally noticing this. I think it's really good that they are noticing these things and working to stop it. It's really good that people are still talking about this because if they dont I feel that some may start to forget.

    1. I can’t get these processes down to a two second mirror-and-head-check, but I can get them close.

      Interesting never heard of thing!

    2. If you’re a human being reading this on the internet and if you’re not a time traveler from some future, better world, there is less than a one in a hundred chance you do the sort of checks we’re showing regularly. And if you do do this regularly — and not just for the stuff that feels fishy — then my guesstimate is you’re about two to three standard devs out from the mean.

      This is interesting because it gives a good analysis of how checking sources is important

    3. More people than you would think believe that the blue checkmark = trustworthy. But all the blue checkmark really does is say that the person is who they say they are, that they are the person of that name and not an imposter.

      This is interesting to me as I would always tend to think that just cause someone had a blue check mark there information would be more trust worthy.

    4. Maybe you agree with this article. I don’t, but maybe you do. And that’s okay. But do you want to share from this particular site to your friends and family and co-workers? Let’s take a look!

      It's very important to no that people don't always agree with you. But it is your opinion if you like something or not. If you like an article and want to share it and see if your family and your friends like it it's important to know how to share the article.

    5. But all the blue checkmark really does is say that the person is who they say they are, that they are the person of that name and not an imposter.

      Sources can still be biased and say false things regardless of their credibility as that person on twitter. People can still just have opinions or read things wrong

    1. The FBI has testified the bureau allocates its resources almost exactly backwards than the problem would suggest,” Rep. Jamie Raskin (D-Md.) said. “Devoting 80 percent of field agents to stopping international terrorism including Islamic extremism and only 20 percent to stopping domestic terrorism including far right and white supremacist extremism

      This seems to be accurate, after using the Google search method from Mike Caulfield’s blogpost, many sources say the same thing.

    2. The subcommittee noted that there was a 17 percent increase in reported hate crimes in 2017 from the previous year and a 31 percent increase since 2014. And in spite of the ADL’s report that white supremacists were responsible for 78 percent of extremist murders in 2018

      This is interesting to me as it makes it more clear to me about how much involvement the white supremacist actual had and the impact that they made on the situation.

  9. Oct 2020
    1. Complete recovery is possible for many people with depersonalization/derealization disorder, especially if the symptoms result from stresses that can be dealt with during treatment. Other people do not respond well to treatment, and the disorder becomes chronic. In some people, depersonalization/derealization disorder disappears on its own. Symptoms, even those that persist or recur, may cause only minor problems if people can keep their mind busy and focus on other thoughts or activities, rather than think about their sense of self. However, some people become disabled because they feel so disconnected from their self and their surroundings or because they also have anxiety or depression.
    1. This defensive function of depersonalization is most evident in trauma, acute anxiety, and panic attacks. When the level of panic reaches a certain threshold, depersonalization comes as a savior; continuing the comparison, as if a threshold of mechanical shock triggers the explosion of an airbag. Depersonalization appears as a kind of “airbag” built-in the human psychological structure to be employed in the threatening situations of stress, panic or trauma. Depersonalization is a very complex defense system that requires a high level of mental organization.
    1. Depersonalization-derealization disorder occurs when you persistently or repeatedly have the feeling that you're observing yourself from outside your body or you have a sense that things around you aren't real, or both. Feelings of depersonalization and derealization can be very disturbing and may feel like you're living in a dream. Many people have a passing experience of depersonalization or derealization at some point. But when these feelings keep occurring or never completely go away and interfere with your ability to function, it's considered depersonalization-derealization disorder. This disorder is more common in people who've had traumatic experiences.
    1. The problem, of course, was that she was telling a story about two people who had no idea they’d been cast as leads in a riveting story for thousands of strangers.

      This is a problem, because they most likely did not give consent and they want to keep their lives to themselves.

    2. Multiple news outlets, including ones as far away as Australia, picked up the tale of Holden and his seatmate as their “human interest” story of the day. But if that consent had been withheld, social media denizens would have extended the drama anyway, invading the lives of two people who were singled out for celebrity on a whim. As with so much else that is mediated by the internet, the medium’s dissociative effects prevent us from centering the humanity of the people involved.

      The story has reached global fame yet no clear consent was presented and many misconceptions surfaced due to lack of communication and research. This could all have been resolved and avoided easily if people just thought about the whole situation more.

    3. I scrolled through the tweets with a smile, letting myself get caught up in what felt like a made-for-TV drama. Then I realized that was precisely how I was treating these very real people. My stomach turned as I considered how I’d feel if every twitch of my arm, half of my conversation, and even my bathroom usage were all narrated, without my knowledge, for a swelling audience of several hundred thousand people online.

      The reaction is interesting in how similar it might've been for me as a first reader for the twitter thread.

    4. Surveillance disciplines our behavior, as any minority who’s passed through a security checkpoint in America can tell you in detail. It creates certain behaviors by design, most notably compliance, the willingness to do anything to avoid being hurt.

      I find this quote to be really interesting. The power of small hand held cameras and the feeling of surveillance. The fact that you know you are being watched changes your behavior and hw]ow you react to things. Best example is TSA.

    5. My stomach turned as I considered how I’d feel if every twitch of my arm, half of my conversation, and even my bathroom usage were all narrated, without my knowledge, for a swelling audience of several hundred thousand people online.

      This really put into perspective what just a couple steps back from the story can do. Taking into consideration others and their privacy and thinking about how you would feel if you were in that situation is huge.

    6. At a certain level of virality, you cannot stop motivated people on the internet from piercing your veils. In the case of that woman from Blair’s flight, her legions of “fans” are digging day and night to find more information, to meet the female lead of this summer’s hottest rom-com. They want to know what happens next. They want to make her finish the story. Go on a date; now kiss; now get engaged; tell us what it was like. We need to know more. More. More. Until she has nothing left to give, and the next thread about some other person plucked from obscurity comes along.

      I wonder what causes people to behave this way. I understand they're fans of a certain somebody but the extent they bring themselves to at times is absurd.

    7. Yet the identities of both were inevitably pursued and eventually discovered. At a certain level of virality, you cannot stop motivated people on the internet from piercing your veils. In the case of that woman from Blair’s flight, her legions of “fans” are digging day and night to find more information, to meet the female lead of this summer’s hottest rom-com. They want to know what happens next. They want to make her finish the story. Go on a date; now kiss; now get engaged; tell us what it was like. We need to know more. More. More.

      Online people are very curious and greedy for information about someone's personal life because they can judge and make fun of others without facing any punishment since their identity is anonymous

    8. There’s another unfortunate dimension to this whole saga that mimics the coercive effect of public marriage proposals: everyone innocently cheers on the romance because it tells a good story, but it places the woman in the invidious position of being the “bad guy” if she says no.

      The women is placed in a position as "bad guy" if later she rejects to continue the relationship with the guy because people on social media following her story have the hope that the couple will finally get married and if the result is not what they want, they will attack her.

    1. the role of the internet is directly responsible for the meme’s alteration from the original to the point that “[m]utating memes, because of their unique characteristics, are more like ideas,” thus unprotected under copyright

      When I look at memes, I would find many of the same photo but the texts have been altered to be directed towards a specific audience.

    2. The purpose of the use, The amount of the work to be used, The effect of the use on the market for or value of the original work, and The nature of the copyrighted work.

      important information concerning what exactly is covered under copyright law

    3. the amount of the work used in the meme probably supports the meme creators if the image was a still of another work, usually making up a small percentage of the original, but not if the original work was a photograph in which the whole of the work was being used.

      i think that this is an important consideration. if you take the art that someone made and captioned it, couldnt that be considered as infringing upon their copyright? if you draw a meme yourself do you hold the copyright to that image, especially if you use another image as your reference or base image.

    4. However, within copyright law exists the doctrine of fair use, which allows for use of a copyrighted work in the creation of new work without permission, as long as the use fits within certain parameters. A legal finding of fair use takes into account the following factors: The purpose of the use, The amount of the work to be used, The effect of the use on the market for or value of the original work, and The nature of the copyrighted work.

      It is helpful to keep in mind the four bulleted factors that are given.

    5. Meme creators and posters have been sued for using people’s images without permission, especially those who were not already public figures. In 2003, the parents of the unwilling star of the “Star Wars Kid” video sued their son’s classmates for posting the video online. Though the suit was settled, the video did not disappear, and the Star Wars Kid learned to deal with his fame.

      It is interesting to see examples of simple actions that can have dire consequences with the law.

    6. Your best bet is to start with an image or clip that is already labeled for reuse or is in the public domain, meaning out of copyright protection altogether. Google Images search tools provides such a filter, or try the Creative Commons search for work licensed for reuse via Creative Commons licenses. When you see a meme going around, give a thought to the subject of that meme image, whose life may forever be changed.

      It is super easy to forget that the images one uses are not theirs. And I'm glad they give an option that benefits everyone.

    7. Lantagne and Patel agree on the inability of copyright law to fully address the subject of memes, given their cultural importance as what Lantagne calls “pure engines of expression with their own symbolic vocabulary” while also relying, in Patel’s words, on “massive unauthorized copying” to attain such importance.

      I believe as long as they are using a meme for commentary , parody, or criticism then it is fine. But if someone is doing it to gain money then it becomes a copyright issue.

    8. However, within copyright law exists the doctrine of fair use, which allows for use of a copyrighted work in the creation of new work without permission, as long as the use fits within certain parameters. A legal finding of fair use takes into account the following factors: The purpose of the use, The amount of the work to be used, The effect of the use on the market for or value of the original work, and The nature of the copyrighted work.

      The fair use doctrine is a tricky one and interesting to look at how to take a copyrighted work create a new work can be done without permission but that also falls under certain guidelines and searched case by case. It's really hard to have a blanket rule that solves everything.

    9. Memes are the units that transmit ideas, behaviors, styles and usage within a culture through a variety of media, like nursery rhymes passed down from parent to child.

      I find this comparison interesting. The transmission of ideas from a person to person and the transition of stories from person to person. Both relaying information to one another in a multitude of ways.

    10. Image-based memes are easy to create and easy to spread, though whether they will go viral is never a given. If you create or post one, remember to pay attention to the source of the image. Your best bet is to start with an image or clip that is already labeled for reuse or is in the public domain, meaning out of copyright protection altogether. Google Images search tools provides such a filter, or try the Creative Commons search for work licensed for reuse via Creative Commons licenses. When you see a meme going around, give a thought to the subject of that meme image, whose life may forever be changed.

      Google is a website that I usually use to check for image copyright. First time knowing about Creative Commons and definitely will try this out

    11. There is no official definitive answer for whether a use can be considered fair, as every case must be judged on its own merits, but there are some types of use generally allowed under fair use, including criticism and commentary, parody, journalism, education, and research.

      The copyright law is not clear on how is a use is consider fair, it will be difficult to indicate whether someone violates it or not

    12. Image-based memes are easy to create and easy to spread, though whether they will go viral is never a given. If you create or post one, remember to pay attention to the source of the image. Your best bet is to start with an image or clip that is already labeled for reuse or is in the public domain, meaning out of copyright protection altogether. Google Images search tools provides such a filter, or try the Creative Commons search for work licensed for reuse via Creative Commons licenses. When you see a meme going around, give a thought to the subject of that meme image, whose life may forever be changed.

      They are so easy to create that I think people forget that the images they use are not their own and the result can really change someones life. For good or bad.

    13. When memes or the subjects of a meme are used for commercial purposes without permission, the meme creator may sue, as the effect of the commercial use on the market value of the original meme usually prevents a finding of fair use. In 2013, the owners of the cats featured in the “Nyan Cat” and “Keyboard Cat” memes won a lawsuit against Warner Bros. and 5th Cell Media for respectively distributing and producing a video game using images of their cats.

      I think companies who use meme's for advertising need to make sure they get permission to use others works before beong able to make a profit off of it.

    14. Similarly, the DMCA was used to quash parodies of the German World War II movie “Downfall.” In 2010, the movie’s production company, Constantin Films, started pulling these parodies from YouTube, to which meme creators had little recourse. However, Constantin Films did not sue anyone, so it is unknown whether the parodies might have been considered fair use.

      I've actually seen those Downfall memes. They're usually just that one scene where Hitler is yelling at his officers and they would replace the subtitles would something ridiculous like “Hitler is upset over the finale of Game of Thrones”. Those memes are really funny and I'm glad they haven't been taken down.

    15. Know Your Meme is a crowdsourced database of popular memes, owned by a company that created many early memes.

      Wow, I never knew a website called Know Your Meme actually exist. I may want to check that out once in a while.

    1. But Tony McAleer, a former white supremacist leader who now runs Life After Hate, a rehabilitation program for neo-Nazis, called doxxing a “ passive aggressive violence.” He said publicizing the names and workplaces of neo-Nazis may offer some level of solace to people outraged by them, but it makes his job more difficult.

      I think that it's a conflicting kind of interest. If you dox white supremacist and make them afraid to voice their opinions, wouldn't that protect the people they are targeting? I don't think that every white supremacist can be rehabilitated, even though we should try to do so. There are two conflicting needs: the need to keep those who would do violence to vulnerable members of our communities accountable and the need to rehabilitate those who hold harmful viewpoints. I think that is essential to balance the two of them before doxxing anyone.

    2. The ethics — and even the definition — of doxxing is murky. It is the dissemination of often publicly available information. And, some at the protest asked, are you really doxxing a person if he or she is marching on a public street, face revealed and apparently proud? It is not as though they are hiding their identities.

      I think that just because information is available online, that doesnt mean you have the right to use it to target someone. On one hand, sometimes that information can be to protect people. If you find out that someone you know online is planning to shoot up a school, doxxing that person to protect those they may harm at the school should be permissible. On the other hand, doxxing someone you don't know could lead to misidentification and negative consequences for the person who has been misidentified.

    3. “For us, it slows things down. We try to integrate people back to humanity,” Mr. McAleer said. “If isolation and shame is the driver for people joining these types of groups, doxxing certainly isn’t the answer.”

      The idea shouldn't be to push these people farther into these groups or the outskirts of society. It should be about righting wrongs and reintegration into society.

    4. The ethics — and even the definition — of doxxing is murky. It is the dissemination of often publicly available information. And, some at the protest asked, are you really doxxing a person if he or she is marching on a public street, face revealed and apparently proud? It is not as though they are hiding their identities.

      Even though they might reveal their face in public I feel employers, family members might overlook these type of events. It's in the best interest we're all aware of who is participating in hateful movements.

    5. “For a long time it was only a certain quarter of people on the internet who would be willing to do this,” Ms. Coleman said. “It was very much hinged on certain geek cultures, but there was an extraordinary quality to the Charlottesville protest. It was such a strong public display I think it just opened the gates.”

      It sounds like it has gotten more common place and natural to do this to people and when it becomes more normal to do things like this, many more people want to join and be a part of what is happening because it seems like a natural thing to do.

    6. professor from Arkansas who was wrongly accused of participating in the neo-Nazi march. And some worry that the stigma of being outed as a political extremist can only reinforce that behavior in people who could still be talked out of it.

      This sounds like a very harmful way for people to be wrongly accused. When it happens on the internet, it never really goes away.

    7. “For us, it slows things down. We try to integrate people back to humanity,” Mr. McAleer said. “If isolation and shame is the driver for people joining these types of groups, doxxing certainly isn’t the answer.”

      I personally agree with Mr. McAleer’s opinion on doxxing Nazis. I don't think doxxing Nazis actually makes them change their ways, instead, it isolates them from society and only makes their terrible opinion about the world stronger for themselves.

    8. Online vigilantism has been around since the early days of the internet. So has “doxxing” — originally a slang term among hackers for obtaining and posting private documents about an individual, usually a rival or enemy. To hackers, who prized their anonymity, it was considered a cruel attack.

      That's some very useful information. I've always wanted to know how the word Doxxing came to be and this article answered that question for me.

  10. Sep 2020
    1. The FBI said it has stopped using the "Black Identity Extremist" tag and acknowledged that white supremacist violence is the biggest terrorist threat this country faces.

      When using the "Always Check" Approach, this headline generated many relevant Google searches, with multiple other media outlets covering this. Hence, The Root appears to be credible. I'm very surprised that it took a long time for the FBI to make this decision.

    2. U.S. residents are 128 times more likely to be killed by everyday gun violence than by (international) terrorism; black people specifically are 500 times more likely to die this way (Xu, Murphy, Kochanek, & Bastian, 2016).

      This reply confounds me because of the difference in statistics in relation to the original "128 times more likely...". It leads me to believe that more investigation is needed to verify whether this reply is credible or not.

    1. More people than you would think believe that the blue checkmark = trustworthy. But all the blue checkmark really does is say that the person is who they say they are, that they are the person of that name and not an imposter.

      This is a great point. Unfortunately, the blue checkmark is misleading. Many people associate the blue checkmark as being a credible figure.

    2. Maybe you think you do this, or you can really “recognize” what’s fake by looking at it.

      I always struggle in believing in new information that comes from the internet because they can be untrustworthy.

    3. But I end up coming back to this simple stuff because I can’t shake the feeling that digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      I find this quite interesting because of the analogies that are given. Many people find it hard or make it seem hard to investigate what is presented on the internet when in all honesty, the process will get easier to the point that it is considered a mirror check, something we humans do constantly.

    4. all the blue checkmark really does is say that the person is who they say they are

      Inferring authority from twitter "blue check"

    5. When a story is truly breaking, this is what it looks like. Our technique here is simple. Select some relevant text. Right-click or Cmd-click to search Google When you get to Google don’t stop, click the “News” tab to get a more curated feed Read and scan. Investigate more as necessary.

      This is something everyone should do, especially in our climate

    6. In this case, the URL does match. What does this look like if the site is fake? Here’s an example. A while back a site at bloomberg.ma impersonated the Bloomberg News site. Let’s see what that would look like:

      This is something quick and simple to do to check if the website you are on is the correct one. I had no idea or even thought of something so useful like this. Simply checking to see if the URL matches can save you from a whole lot of trouble down the road.

    7. Đó không phải là anh ta. Hoặc nếu có, cơ hội là rất nhỏ, không đáng để dành thêm thời gian cho nó. Tìm nguồn khác.

      It is surprised that Billie Joe did not write that article even though his name is claimed as the article's author name. Without checking with Wikipedia, people will believe in this misinformation

    8. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      Habits are difficult to change unless people are aware of how fake news can be harmful and learn how to detect the misinformation

    9. Strip off everything after the domain name, type wikipedia and press enter

      Always check wikipedia for the domain name to see if it is the real site

    10. Because no matter what you think of the article, funneling friends and family to a site that has published such sentences as “When blacks are left entirely to their own devices, Western civilization — any kind of civilization — disappears” is not ethical — or likely to put you in the best light.

      Better to confirm your information before sharing it on social media which can affect other people

    11. Your two-second “mirror and head-check” here is going to be to always, always hover, and see what they are verified for.

      Need to check the blue checkmark carefully before using the information

    12. Now imagine a world where checking your mirrors before switching lanes was rare, three standard-deviations-out behavior. What would the roads look like?

      Well, with the world we live in today it seems quite rare already. I've never felt more at risk. I should consider walking more.

    13. But I end up coming back to this simple stuff because I can’t shake the feeling that digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      I think it is a good idea to fact check sources before they are shared to see if they are real sites. I like this quote because it only takes a short time to check then to share something fake.

    14. When a story is truly breaking, this is what it looks like. Our technique here is simple. Select some relevant text. Right-click or Cmd-click to search Google When you get to Google don’t stop, click the “News” tab to get a more curated feed Read and scan. Investigate more as necessary.

      This is very useful information for me. I have never used Twitter before, so this example will be really helpful for finding correct information on Twitter for this class.

    1. People who conspire with international terrorists—even if they aren’t materially involved in an act of violence—are charged with “acts of terrorism transcending international boundaries.”

      I feel like this is similar for all crimes.

    2. Not only did McGarrity concede that people labeled as “black identity extremists” had nothing in common except their skin color, but Rep. Ayanna Pressley’s (D-Mass.) question about the FBI’s “black Identity extremist” designation prompted a startling revelation from McGarrity.

      It's interesting to see the inclusion of Pressley's inquiry interest in response to the FBI designation.

    3. Among those testifying before the subcommittee was Michael C. McGarrity, the director of the FBI’s Counterterrorism Division.

      I can't find this person's name on the page linked in the list of witnesses, it takes a deeper dive to confirm this quote. The linked page goes to the wrong portion of the hearing and should be https://oversight.house.gov/legislation/hearings/confronting-white-supremacy-part-ii-adequacy-of-the-federal-response

    4. To be clear, there is a law that defines domestic terrorism but not one that charges people who commit acts of terrorism in America. People who conspire with international terrorists—even if they aren’t materially involved in an act of violence—are charged with “acts of terrorism transcending international boundaries.” But someone who sends pipe bombs to Democrats; plows through a crowd of anti-racism protesters in Charlottesville, Va.; or shoots up a church in Charleston, S.C., will not face domestic terrorism charges.

      I find this very surprising. The idea that they know what is happening and have a definition but no repercussions or disciplinary actions to follow the act is weird in it own right. It is something that needs change and a solution, and we have to take the steps necessary to address things like domestic terrorism.

    5. “Devoting 80 percent of field agents to stopping international terrorism including Islamic extremism and only 20 percent to stopping domestic terrorism including far right and white supremacist extremism.”

      This is extremely striking bc one would think that the US government would be more concerned with threats from within its borders instead of outside of them.

    6. But someone who sends pipe bombs to Democrats; plows through a crowd of anti-racism protesters in Charlottesville, Va.; or shoots up a church in Charleston, S.C., will not face domestic terrorism charges.

      It is interesting that these crimes are very serious offenses in domestic terrorism, but the law does not charges the people who commit acts of terrorisms in America.

    7. And in spite of the ADL’s report that white supremacists were responsible for 78 percent of extremist murders in 2018, the FBI still dedicates most of its time, money and manpower to investigating and stopping international terrorism.

      This is surprising to me that most of the extremist murders are white supremacists. However, the statistics come from ADL's report which is an international Jewish non-governmental organization site so the information could be biased.

    8. The subcommittee noted that there was a 17 percent increase in reported hate crimes in 2017 from the previous year and a 31 percent increase since 2014. And in spite of the ADL’s report that white supremacists were responsible for 78 percent of extremist murders in 2018

      I'm not very political but to me it's almost as if the day trump became president people who support this behavior became more open about their hate.

    9. “The FBI has testified the bureau allocates its resources almost exactly backwards than the problem would suggest,” Rep. Jamie Raskin (D-Md.) said. “Devoting 80 percent of field agents to stopping international terrorism including Islamic extremism and only 20 percent to stopping domestic terrorism including far right and white supremacist extremism.”

      I find these a little surprising. I think these two issues should be either equal or reversed than where they are now.

    10. To be clear, there is a law that defines domestic terrorism but not one that charges people who commit acts of terrorism in America. People who conspire with international terrorists—even if they aren’t materially involved in an act of violence—are charged with “acts of terrorism transcending international boundaries.” But someone who sends pipe bombs to Democrats; plows through a crowd of anti-racism protesters in Charlottesville, Va.; or shoots up a church in Charleston, S.C., will not face domestic terrorism charges.

      Wow, I never knew that. I really do think that America needs to have a clear definition of committed acts of terrorism in America from regular Americans. Because a lot of those terrible acts that are mentioned at the end of the paragraph don't really sound like Hate Crimes, rather they sound more like international terrorism to me

  11. Jul 2020
    1. Container and Packaging Recycling Law

      Japan has more laws that have to do with recycling different materials.

    1. The newest hotspots for handling US plastic recycling are some of the world’s poorest countries, including Bangladesh, Laos, Ethiopia and Senegal, offering cheap labor and limited environmental regulation.

      As the United States sends our recyclables to other countries to handle our overflow, Cheap labor is used.

    1. The value of plastic, glass and aluminum has decreased, forcing many redemption centers to shut their doors, despite a state subsidy program designed to help them weather market downturns.

      Here are some of the challenges the Bay Area are facing due to lack of funding.

    1. I'm so glad you shared this and I'm so, so, so glad that you're doing okay. I'm sure it's strange to read it - but I was worried about you. I'm sure a lot of us nameless, faceless people out here were.I cried reading this. I've been there. I'll probably be there again. Thank you for being brave enough to share more of your journey with us.

      I noticed a connection between this blog and the Jonny Sun piece. Both people created something and then put it out there on the internet. They both developed a virtual participatory culture communities from the art that was created.

    1. And in these dangerous and unsure times, in the midst of it all, I think the thing that we have to hold on to is other people. And I know that is a small thing made up of small moments, but I think it is one tiny, tiny sliver of light in all the darkness. 

      Sometimes a little acknowledgement is all that is needed to be able to ground yourself and to step back from the end to a new beginning.

    2. t can feel like you are writing in this personal, intimate diary that's completely private, yet at the same time you want everyone in the world to read it. And I think part of that, the joy of that is that we get to experience things from perspectives from people who are completely different from ourselves, and sometimes that's a nice thing. 

      I have had this feeling before

    1. “For us, it slows things down. We try to integrate people back to humanity,” Mr. McAleer said. “If isolation and shame is the driver for people joining these types of groups, doxxing certainly isn’t the answer.”

      There's probably a commentary here about incel groups too but I just cant think of it.

    2. Now the online hunt to reveal extremists has raised concerns about unintended consequences, or even collateral damage. A few individuals have been misidentified in recent weeks, including a professor from Arkansas who was wrongly accused of participating in the neo-Nazi march.

      This in particular reminds me of the Boston Bombing, and how reddit users took it among themselves to find out who did it and instead doxxed the wrong person, who eventually ended up killing himself I believe since the false accusation. Everyone think in these scenarios they're doing it for the cause, and that they're in the right, until someone uninvolved gets accused and ruins their lives. I do think it's tricky though because I do think for like, the people going to Nazi rallies and promoting hateful and toxic content need to recognize there are probably consequences for creating hostility, but where is that line drawn?

    3. But doxxing has emerged from subculture websites like 4Chan and Reddit to become something of a mainstream phenomenon since a white supremacist march on Charlottesville,

      I know it says that it's been happening for a while, but doxxing has been a huge part of toxic internet culture for the last 12+ years. Definitely longer than the march in Charlottesville, anyways.

    4. The next year, doxxing became a tool by in the “GamerGate” controversy, an online dispute purportedly about ethics in video game journalism that became a foundational moment for some of today’s fringe far right. Mostly male video-game players began to publish personal information — including home address and phone numbers — for women in their community, typically journalists and game designers who they said were unfairly politicizing gaming culture.

      Posting someone's information is unbelievable. It's unbelievable someone would do that. Those people should be held liable for their actions. Just because someone had an opinion about gaming culture, doesn't mean someone should attack them and exploit the person's information online. Everyone has a right to their opinion, and doxing is not a good way to get your point across.

    1. he problem, of course, was that she was telling a story about two people who had no idea they’d been cast as leads in a riveting story for thousands of strangers.

      This kind of reminds me about the movie Jim Carey did called "The Truman Show" and it's disturbing to know that it's still happening, years later, as if we didn't learn anything from it

    2. Then I realized that was precisely how I was treating these very real people. My stomach turned as I considered how I’d feel if every twitch of my arm, half of my conversation, and even my bathroom usage were all narrated, without my knowledge, for a swelling audience of several hundred thousand people online.

      I think that's the horrifyingly interesting thing about using the internet like this, is that it makes it really easy to forget that these are real people that are being documents without permission for the sake of "the feels", as if them living their lives in a way that is appealing to others is permissible to record them.

    1. Experts say that we would need to implement changes across the board. Legislators may need to pass laws requiring manufacturers to use more recyclable materials, companies would need to build much-needed recycling infrastructure and people would need to recycle properly.

      More changes need to be made to help ensure recycling is done properly. More funding is needed to assist in this process.

    1. Given the immense harm inflicted on individuals and groups of color via prejudice and discrimination, it becomes imperative for our nation to begin the process of disarming, disrupting, and dismantling the constant onslaught of micro- and macroaggressions.

      A

    2. n the United States, the omnipresence of racial bias and bigotry has led many to question the reasons for their persistence in light of widespread public condemnation. Social scientists have proposed a number of reasons for people’s failure to act: (a) the invisibility of modern forms of bias, (b) trivializing an incident as innocuous, (c) diffusion of responsibility, (d) fear of repercussions or retaliation, and (e) the paralysis of not knowing what to do (Goodman, 2011; Kawakami, Dunn, Karmali, & Dovidio, 2009; Latané & Darley, 1968; Scully & Rowe, 2009; Shelton, Richeson, Salvtore, & Hill, 2006; Sue, 2003).

      Supports my question

    1. I have received numerous texts and emails from white friends recently — checking in, asking whether I’m okay. I appreciate the concern, and I want everyone to know I’m fine. Well, I’m as fine as I’ve been since 1982. That’s when, after my family moved to a new neighborhood in Chicago, a group of white kids tried to blow up our car by sticking a rag in the gas tank and lighting it on fire.

      This reminds me of the ending of Invisible Man and I Am Not Your Negro.

    2. Of course, white people, like everyone else, face genuine hardships, but these hardships do not negate white privilege. Consider the difference in responses to the suffering of black people during the crack cocaine epidemic and that of rural whites during the opioid epidemic. O

      Good example of similar stories with vastly different consequences

    3. This will not be easy. The price of justice — the loss of privilege — will be a painful shock.

      Straight forward and true.

    4. As Frederick Douglass said, without struggle, there is no progress. Let’s struggle together for our collective soul.

      Welcoming conclusion.

    1. Meanwhile, I hope college students will go forth, outside the campus bubble, and help people. The relationships they form will generate orders of magnitude more wisdom and understanding about people unlike themselves than any social-justice dogma.

      It seems that the guide offered a one size fits all way to be an ally only by looking inward without being specific as to how to do this.

    2. The high school volunteers mentioned above and the special-needs community with whom they allied are both better off for the fact that service to others through outward action was emphasized, rather than inward reflection on privilege.

      Is being an ally offering a service, creating a bond, and then that leads to increased advocacy? Our connection to other people changes our ability to see the world.

    1. This is this really kind of a generational upheaval. We can either make some serious structural changes, redistribute power and wealth in a way that we haven't been willing to consider in the past.

      It's well past time to reconsider the changes and reparations we need to make.

    2. I think at the time of the Rodney King beating it was easier to view it as an isolated incident or as a few bad apples. But now, over time, we see a persistent and pervasive pattern. Over years and years.

      I think the pervasiveness of the incidents being recored make a difference. It is difficult to unsee a murder. It makes me wonder about all of the incidents that occurred and were not able to be documented.

    3. I think a lot of people, when they saw that video of George Floyd, who weren't in the black community, felt agony.

      It was murder.