17 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. counts of TH-IR neurons in A13 after 6-OHDA treatment were not affected, demonstrating that dopaminergic nuclei located as close as 200 μm were spared by focal toxin delivery

      These findings validate the specificity of 6-OHDA's delivery. In the dopaminergic cell group A13 just 200 μm away from the treatment site, the effects of 6-OHDA are not observed.

    2. Are presynaptic changes in transmitter identity matched by changes in postsynaptic receptor populations

      Following action potential firing, transmitters will be sent from the presynaptic, or sending, neuron to the postsynaptic, or receiving, neuron; the received transmitter will thereby alter the likelihood of that postsynaptic neuron firing its own action potential. The experimenters had observed that at certain clusters of neurons in the CNS, short photoperiod exposure increased production of the transmitter dopamine, and long photoperiod exposure led to an increased production of somatostatin. Consequently, the experimenters are questioning whether expression of those cognate postsynaptic receptors, i.e., dopamine receptors or somatostatin receptors, follow suit.

    3. Long-day exposure produced the opposite effects

      For rats, nocturnal mammals, increased photoperiod exposure is a stressor. Consequently, in both the EPM and FST, rats exhibit more depressive/anxious behaviors following long photoperiod exposure. In the EPM test, these rats spend less time in the open arm, and in the FST, they give up swimming and become almost immobile much sooner than the control group. For the short-day exposure group, the rats have more open arm activity, and in the FST persevere for longer, indicating reduced anxiety relative to the control group.

    4. if receptor activation is more substantial than the level of presynaptic SST.

      When expression of a receptor is greater than that of its transmitter, the likelihood of those transmitters binding to the receptor will be high. Thus, if levels of SST2/4R are high compared to the presynaptic SST, then presynaptic SST will likely be able to bind to the cognate receptor, and induce its inhibitory effects.

    5. The number of TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons decreased with long-day exposure and increased with short-day exposure in relation to control

      A decreased amount of TH-IR neurons means that less dopamine is being produced; this was observed when the rats were given long-day exposure (19 hours of light, 5 hours of darkness). Short-day exposure (5 hours of light, 19 hours of darkness) resulted in the number of TH-IR neurons increasing, a sign of greater dopamine production. These results were all relative to the control group, rats that experienced a balanced-day with 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.

    6. Genetic programs establish initial expression patterns of neurotransmitters in different classes of neurons (1–3), and activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification modifies them during development, either adding or switching transmitters (4–9). It is unknown, however, whether sensory stimuli promote transmitter switching in addition to other neuroplastic changes (10) in the adult brain.

      It is known that the young developing brain is able to add or switch the transmitters that their neurons express. The question guiding this research is whether sensory stimuli can cause the already mature (adult) brain to experience changes in the types of transmitters that are produced by their neurons.

  2. Oct 2020
    1. Preservice Teacher Experience with Technology Integration: How the Preservice Teacher’s Effica-cy in Technology Integration is Impactedby the Context of the Preservice Teacher Education Pro-gram

      This article discusses the need for teacher education to focus just as much on technology knowledge (regardless of grade level taught) as on educational theory and methods. It argues that teachers cannot be effective if they are not trained in not only current technologies, but also taught to be familiar with navigating new technologies as the emerge. 5/10 Very specific to K-12 teacher education.

  3. Jun 2018
    1. Abstract

      Hydrology is the main reason for the carbon balance of wetlands by controlling the uptake of CO₂ and CH4. Determining the effect of droughts on CO2, fluxes and CH4 emission was stimulated by hydroperiod with three scenarios. These three scenarios affect the rate of drought from being gradual, intermediate, and rapid transition into drought. It resulted in higher net CO2 losses net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over a 22-week manipulation. Due to drought vegetation dieback, it increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), and it also reduced carbon uptake gross ecosystem exchange (GEE). The NEE did not offset methane production during periods of flooding. Changes in precipitation patterns and drought occurrence altered the carbon storage of freshwater marshes. We can determine that with the change in the climate will modify the storage capacity of freshwater marshes by influencing the water availability.

  4. Dec 2017
    1. climate protection

      https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-7-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics

      HS-LS2-7 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

      This paper investigates a means to optimize carbon storage potential through knowledge of biodiversity mechanics and the idea of sinking carbon into plant life in order to lower atmospheric CO2.

      https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/ms-ls1-7-molecules-organisms-structures-and-processes

      MS-LS1-7 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

      It is important to understand the nature of the carbon cycle, and how carbon is utilized within organisms as biomass.

      Teacher's Resource:

      The removal of atmospheric CO2 reduces pollution, but it comes at the cost of creating plant conservation sites to store the carbon from CO2.

      This paper focuses upon the utilization of biodiversity in order to to increase carbon storage for economic purposes. By increasing the amount of carbon that can be stored in a hectacre of grassland, it will become much cheaper to reduce pollution via carbon sinks.

      Hungate et. al performed their investigations through past experiments that compared the carbon uptakes of grasslands of varying biodiversity over a period of 50 years.

      Findings support a positive correlation between biodiversity and carbon uptake levels. Therefore, increasing biodiversity in carbon sinks will increase efficiency and will make carbon sequestration more affordable as a result.

      While this paper shows a 'soft cap' (decreasing marginal effects) on these carbon uptake gains from biodiversity, this effect might be proven to have synergy with other efforts to improve carbon sequestration in the future.

      Discussion Questions:

      1. Why does adding to the biodiversity not linearly add to the carbon uptake rates?

      2. Is the resource competition (resulting from biodiversity) limiting or benefiting the flora in carbon sequestration?

      3. What is the 'sweet spot' of biodiversity that optimizes highest carbon storage per dollar spent?

      4. Do the results of this study have qualities that could be generalized to a other grasslands or possibly even other types of habitat? SC

  5. Nov 2015
  6. Aug 2015
    1. We found that dispersions of the triblock co-micelles in a decane:toluene (3:5 by volume) solution resulted in the selective dissolution of the central M(PFS60-b-PDMS660) micelle block, leaving short XLM(PI1424-b-PFS63) daughter micelles

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

      Found on page 71 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:

      http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-chemistry-course-and-exam-description.pdf

    2. BCPs assemble into a variety of different morphologies that are influenced by polymer molecular weights and block ratios, with further control possible through the manipulation of environmental conditions such as temperature, solvent, and concentration

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard:2.B

      Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature

      Found on page 27 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:

      http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-chemistry-course-and-exam-description.pdf

    3. solution

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard:2.A.3: Solutions are homogeneous mixtures in which the physical properties are dependent on the concentration of the solute and the strengths of all interactions among the particles of the solutes and solvent:

      Found on page 25 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:

      http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-chemistry-course-and-exam-description.pdf

  7. Jul 2015
    1. Because dynein inhibition alone did not inhibit IAV uncoating completely, we investigated a possible additional role for the actomyosin system

      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.8

      http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/11-12/

      Whenever an observation is not fully understood, scientists try to analyze the issue from different angles. Here, the authors observed that the inhibition of dynein wasn't sufficient for inhibiting the viral uncoating completely. Therefore, they deduced that other factors were implicated with uncoating and decided to explore this possibility.

    2. we noticed that another histone deacetylase, HDAC6, was also required for infection

      Connect to Learning Standards: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=69

      Progression for explanation. In a previous study, the authors observed that HDAC6 was required for viral infection. As a consequence, they continued to study the function of HDAC6 in deep detail.

    3. With the risk of an influenza pandemic growing, it is increasingly important to understand virus-host interactions in detail and to develop new antiviral strategies (1).

      http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=43

      Science can contribute to meeting many of the major challenges that confront society today, such as preventing and treating disease.

    1. The motion of probe particles trackedinside cells has been classified as subdiffusive,diffusive, or superdiffusive. Such classifications,however, obscure the distinction between ther-mally driven and nonequilibrium fluctuationsand are inadequate to identify intracellular ma-terial properties

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