12 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. We combined these data

      Here, the authors have brought together several batches of data, where each batch represents the relative abundances of isotopes present in fluid inclusions inside diamonds, like helium, Pb-Sr, trace-elements, and carbon isotopes. After collecting this data, they have plotted them in multiple graphs to highlight comparisons between them. This is very common in scientific research and requires training in data analysis and graph plotting. This is also recommended in the Science Practice 5 of AP Physics 2 Course and Exam Description.

    2. After establishing the sublithospheric origin for our diamonds, we measured helium isotopes of the fluid inclusions.

      The helium isotopes were measured from the fluid inclusions using mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry is a specialized technique, which is used to determine relative abundances of isotopes from a sample. See Essential Knowledge 1.D.2 in the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description.

  2. Jun 2018
    1. Abstract

      Hydrology is the main reason for the carbon balance of wetlands by controlling the uptake of CO₂ and CH4. Determining the effect of droughts on CO2, fluxes and CH4 emission was stimulated by hydroperiod with three scenarios. These three scenarios affect the rate of drought from being gradual, intermediate, and rapid transition into drought. It resulted in higher net CO2 losses net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over a 22-week manipulation. Due to drought vegetation dieback, it increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), and it also reduced carbon uptake gross ecosystem exchange (GEE). The NEE did not offset methane production during periods of flooding. Changes in precipitation patterns and drought occurrence altered the carbon storage of freshwater marshes. We can determine that with the change in the climate will modify the storage capacity of freshwater marshes by influencing the water availability.

  3. Dec 2017
    1. climate protection

      https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-7-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics

      HS-LS2-7 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

      This paper investigates a means to optimize carbon storage potential through knowledge of biodiversity mechanics and the idea of sinking carbon into plant life in order to lower atmospheric CO2.

      https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/ms-ls1-7-molecules-organisms-structures-and-processes

      MS-LS1-7 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

      It is important to understand the nature of the carbon cycle, and how carbon is utilized within organisms as biomass.

      Teacher's Resource:

      The removal of atmospheric CO2 reduces pollution, but it comes at the cost of creating plant conservation sites to store the carbon from CO2.

      This paper focuses upon the utilization of biodiversity in order to to increase carbon storage for economic purposes. By increasing the amount of carbon that can be stored in a hectacre of grassland, it will become much cheaper to reduce pollution via carbon sinks.

      Hungate et. al performed their investigations through past experiments that compared the carbon uptakes of grasslands of varying biodiversity over a period of 50 years.

      Findings support a positive correlation between biodiversity and carbon uptake levels. Therefore, increasing biodiversity in carbon sinks will increase efficiency and will make carbon sequestration more affordable as a result.

      While this paper shows a 'soft cap' (decreasing marginal effects) on these carbon uptake gains from biodiversity, this effect might be proven to have synergy with other efforts to improve carbon sequestration in the future.

      Discussion Questions:

      1. Why does adding to the biodiversity not linearly add to the carbon uptake rates?

      2. Is the resource competition (resulting from biodiversity) limiting or benefiting the flora in carbon sequestration?

      3. What is the 'sweet spot' of biodiversity that optimizes highest carbon storage per dollar spent?

      4. Do the results of this study have qualities that could be generalized to a other grasslands or possibly even other types of habitat? SC

  4. Nov 2015
  5. Aug 2015
    1. We found that dispersions of the triblock co-micelles in a decane:toluene (3:5 by volume) solution resulted in the selective dissolution of the central M(PFS60-b-PDMS660) micelle block, leaving short XLM(PI1424-b-PFS63) daughter micelles

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

      Found on page 71 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:

      http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-chemistry-course-and-exam-description.pdf

    2. BCPs assemble into a variety of different morphologies that are influenced by polymer molecular weights and block ratios, with further control possible through the manipulation of environmental conditions such as temperature, solvent, and concentration

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard:2.B

      Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature

      Found on page 27 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:

      http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-chemistry-course-and-exam-description.pdf

    3. solution

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard:2.A.3: Solutions are homogeneous mixtures in which the physical properties are dependent on the concentration of the solute and the strengths of all interactions among the particles of the solutes and solvent:

      Found on page 25 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:

      http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-chemistry-course-and-exam-description.pdf

  6. Jul 2015
    1. Because dynein inhibition alone did not inhibit IAV uncoating completely, we investigated a possible additional role for the actomyosin system

      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.8

      http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/11-12/

      Whenever an observation is not fully understood, scientists try to analyze the issue from different angles. Here, the authors observed that the inhibition of dynein wasn't sufficient for inhibiting the viral uncoating completely. Therefore, they deduced that other factors were implicated with uncoating and decided to explore this possibility.

    2. we noticed that another histone deacetylase, HDAC6, was also required for infection

      Connect to Learning Standards: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=69

      Progression for explanation. In a previous study, the authors observed that HDAC6 was required for viral infection. As a consequence, they continued to study the function of HDAC6 in deep detail.

    3. With the risk of an influenza pandemic growing, it is increasingly important to understand virus-host interactions in detail and to develop new antiviral strategies (1).

      http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=43

      Science can contribute to meeting many of the major challenges that confront society today, such as preventing and treating disease.

    1. The motion of probe particles trackedinside cells has been classified as subdiffusive,diffusive, or superdiffusive. Such classifications,however, obscure the distinction between ther-mally driven and nonequilibrium fluctuationsand are inadequate to identify intracellular ma-terial properties

    Tags

    Annotators